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manship book of inspiration for reference.

No. 147. This copy develops a long reach necessary in making the J and f. The teacher should explain the crossings
and how they affect the appearance of the letters. Each f should contain a small letter i. Study the proportion of
the loops. The top loop in the J is slightly larger than the lower loop, while in the i the loops should be equal in
length and size. Be careful not to curve the end strokes of these letters too much.


s^y ^ex \s<f

No. 148. Here are other important letters selected for practive. It is important to make the v legible. See that the
little retrace is made carefully. The motion should be checked on the retrace. The v contains two turns and finishes
up at the headline. If the finish is made too low it disfigures the letter.

The x is not a difficult letter, but is often poorly made because of carelessness. If you are careful you can
make a good x. Cross it upward and study the length of the crossing. Start on the base line and end on the head-
line. To be a good writer one must be careful. Carelessness produces failures.

The top of the z is the same as the n. Come down straight to the base line, then get a graceful loop. Be sure
that you dot the j. The j is dotted the same as the i. A rule for dotting the i is, "Dot the i twice as high as the
i is high in a line with the i". This does not mean that the dot is to be stabbed on, nor can appear any place to the
right or left of the Jetter. Anyone should have skill enough to dot an i. It is only a matter of care and knowing
where to place the dot.

No. 149. Copy this sentence and see if you can make a new record. See if you can raise your standard or if you can
increase your speed wjthout sacrificing quality. Let us see who in the class can write this sentence getting the highest
grade considering form and speed.

No. 150. Discuss with the class the shape of the Y, and show that the first part is the same as the U. The beginning
loop on the Y is the same as on the H, and the loop below the base line is the same as in the J. Make a Y on the
board, erase the top and draw in the top part of the J. This will show the similarity of the two letters.

No. 151. The y is a tricky letter, though not so very difficult. Watch the height and width. Draw a headline to see
if your y is the same height as other small letters, and see that it is no wider between the two down strokes than the u.
Be careful with the end stroke. It should come up to the headline.

In writing all of these copies check the qualities which make for sightliness. Be careful and interested in what
j i hi are doing.

The Educator


No. 152. Write these sentences, watching- the general appearance. It would be interesting to compare these sen-
tences with the first sentences written in your Progress Record Book. I wish that I could see the progress you have
made. The teacher should encourage the students when they have made progress. A word of encouragement does
much to make a pupil work and to take the right attitude towards his work.

No. 153. Have the students point out the similarities between the Q and other letters we have studied. Notice the
beginning loop and the compound curve. Where should it end? How big should the bottom loop be compared with
the top loop? Draw slant lines through the copy and your work.


/" ' rrrr

No. 154. The q is a combination of the a and f. The joining of the loop should be on the base line. The a part
should be kept small — no taller than the small i.

Give special attention to shoulder of the r. Notice the width of the letter and that the down stroke should be
straight like in i. Retrace the down stroke as an exercise. Be sure to check the motion slightly at the shoulder.
The movement is about the same as driving an auto around a corner. You would not come to a complete stop but
would slow up in order to make the turn. Curve the begi inning stroke of the r. The rere combination is a good
exercise to assist in curving the upward stroke and also prepares you to write the word record.


No. 155. To make a record in any skillful occupation one must practice systematically and untiringly. The boys and
girls on our winning basket ball teams enjoy practicing. You realize how important it is for them to practice in
preparation for a strenuous game. So in writing — if you wish to make a record you must practice and train. Without
training you will never make the first team. Penmanship, unlike basket ball, offers a chance for all. There can only
be one first team in each school in basket ball, but in penmanship all have a chance to make the first team.

Loop letters require special attention. The above exercises should be practiced to strengthen the upper loops. The
teacher should give special help to the pupils, watching position and movement. Some make the loops with the full
arm movement while others use a combination of movements.


The Educator

No. 156. This is a very fitting paragraph to copy at this time of the year. Of course we all know about Lincoln
and the hardships he endured and the perseverance he had. It is doing each day the best we can the task before
us that wins in the long run. Do not try to "get by" with poor work. Your teacher may accept a paper which she
should not accept, but remember that the business world demands the best there is in you and that eventually you will
be rewarded according to your ability and the service you give.

These drills are presented for practice to improve the lower loops. See that they are the same size as the upper

157 d^

No. 157. This shows how you should measure the slant. Write each line of the paragraph separately, working for
some particular objective.

Don't forget to read the instructions. See that your pupils read them. See that they understand thoroughly what
they are supposed to do. Do your pupils write carefully or scratch? Remember that oyu are held responsible as a
teacher for results.

An alphabet from the pen of W. C

The Educator


/L^z-~e^-d - -Z^^> - ?^i~^z^^&tt-^ / ^^

"2^^^!_-« - ^^t^^-c^^C<^-«-<_<2 - - — : £^L~e^ - ~^b^£i^-c£~-&^e^

A very appropriate page to study and practice. Nearly every student has studied the history of John Greenleaf
Whittier, the author. The penman who wrote the above is G. C. Greene, Goldey College, Wilmington, Del.


By C. C. Canan.


The Educator

Practical Handwriting

By the late C. P. ZANER

Practice a line or two o£ these exercises each day until you can execute them well and with perfect ease and pure
arm movement. Occasionally double the size of the exercises by making them two full spaces high, as in the copy.
Make each exercise halfway across the page without lifting the pen, unless it is to dip ink. This will insure a free
lateral action of the arm, which is necessary for ease and grace in writing. Practice ovals both ways around, direct
and indirect.

Be sure to secure and maintain uniform slant in oval and straight-line forms, from one end of the exercise to the
other, and from one side of the page to the other. Do not let the fingers act, and avoid gripping the pen tightly. Also
keep the hand from resting on the side. Endeavor to keep the ovals two-thirds as wide as long, and see that the up
strokes curve as much as the down strokes; also that the tops are as rounding as the bottoms. All ovals should be

These exercises are excellent for freedom and form combined. Curve the up strokes and make the down strokes
straight. Make a decided distinction between turns and angles. Practice the u and n between the lines after the
others have been written. In all of these exercises strive for a uniform, free movement across the page.

The first and second exercises should be practiced at the rate of about 200 down strokes a minute. The third should
be executed at the rate of about 175 down strokes a minute. The wide-space u and n cannot be written so rapidly,
but they should be practiced quite freely. Keep spacing uniform, the size regular, and the quality of line fine.

Use a free motion, noticing turns, angles, retraces, loops, slant, spacing, height, and initial and final strokes.

This is one of the nicest exercises we have thus far had. And it contains the gospel truth as concerns the correct
method of writing. See how freely and easily it appears to have been executed, and it was executed with the same
freedom and ease that it displays. See to it that the little finger jogs gently toward the right from letter to letter
in writing these rather widely-spaced words. Indeed, it is not a bad plan to push a little on the up strokes, seeing
that the motion comes direct from the elbow and not from the fingers or wrist. Read the line of Italics slowly and
thoughtfully before beginning to practice the sentence. Strive for fine, smooth lines, and easy movements.

Keep last down stroke of "A" nearly straight. Pause at finish of "B" and beginning of"C" Sit erect. Improve each effort.

Have you formed the habit of sitting healthfully? If not it is high time that you do so. Position is essential to
good health as well as to good penmanship. Learn to join capitals with the same facility and confidence with which
you are in the habit of joining small letters.

Note carefully the spacing between capitals, which is about the same whether they are joined or made singly. Use
an easy arm movement in order to secure graceful forms and see that the little finger slips freely in little letters.
Watch carefully the spacing between the capital and the small letter.

Secureafine. smooth, graceful line by usingafree. careful, forceful arm movement. Quality is guile as desirable as quantity Gel both. Watch spacing


The Educator


Keep the feet uncrossed, back straight at the waist, both elbows on the desk or near the edge, the penholder pointing
toward the shoulder and the paper turned as shown in the book. After having written the sentence once, reverse your
paper and see whether or not your writing looks as well up-side-down as right-side-up. The chances are you will
discover that you have been making your lower turns too rounding, and many of your upper turns too angular. Notice
particularly the spacing between words. It should be neither too wide nor too narrow, just a trifle wider than that
between letters. Try to make the minimum letters the same in height, and the loop letters the same in slant. The
general effect will then be pleasing.

See that toe and heel of " D" rest on base line much the same as yours should rest on the floor. Pause at start of ' : E ." Watch spacing between letters.


Observe the copy critically before beginning practice upon it. We must write well mentally before we can hope
to do so physically. That is, we must have good writing in mind before the hand can execute it. The hand uncon-
sciously reproduces the suggestions of the brain. Therefore think better writing.

After clearly perceiving the copy, it is then purely a matter of physical training to acquire the ability to produce
good writing on paper. Intelligent practice and perseverance following observation and mental assimilation are the
means. Try to make the signatures look businesslike in strength and boldness.

Note beginning and ending stroke. Watch spacing and slant. Curve initial and final strokes. Plainness is the chief essential. Persevere.

The sentence for practice in this lesson, as well as the line above it, contains the essence for excellence. Consider
them carefully. Watch critically the little things from day to day and after a while people will consider your work
almost perfection. Indeed, they will consider it wonderful, and yet to you it will be but an accumulation of rightly di-
rected efforts day after day. Great men are the result of careful deeds. But if you would become great in any line
you must master the little things that confront you from day to day. Correct, therefore, the seemingly trifling mis-
takes in your writing, and before you are aware your penmanship will attract attention because of its excellence.
Arm movement is no trifle, but when under control makes for perfection in the art of penmanship. Therefore give
it conscientious attention.

This copy is teeming with truth. Perfect the details of your writing and the rest, if there is any. will be easy. Watch, criticise, correct, practice.

Gracefulness is the chief charm of writing. It is the product of clear percepts and control of the arm movement.
Accurate writing is too slow for business, but graceful writing is free and yet attractive in form. Join capitals with
a strong, lateral movement, swinging confidently from one capital to another.

Have you read carefully the line of Italics above the copy? It contains the very things you should have in mind
while practicing. Always read the line of Italics before attempting practice upon the copy. Pause at an angle joining
in such letters as G and I.

Study form, practice faithfully, read good books, think cheerful thoughts, and you will be in demand. Sit healthfully.

Be sure to read the line of Italics before proceeding to practice. The sentence is a good one because it calls our
attention to the fact that not knowledge alone and not skill alone, but the two combined, are in demand. It is the man
who knows and does that succeeds nowadays. You can lay the foundation of success by studying carefully the forms
used in writing in order to know what to do, and then by diligently practicing these forms until you can do them.
Before you know it your services will be in demand. "Skill' means facility — something more than mere plodding; it
means efficiency and not mere cleverness, because skill backed by knowledge is more than cleverness.



The Educator





c^JC^c^Js^yny. C^c^L^ a^i^€& ZnUiA^ ^z^t>j>c^ ^tl^^c^L/

- ^tr- ^tM> ^^zrVcJ^. CCc^c^y ^C^^d^ -^C ^^ul£
yy^Ly^L£y C^CLA^&^c-csO- .


All children are interested in "Our Gang." A recent advertisement of "Our Gang*' appeared in a magazine.
Roberta Jane Huron wrote about these interesting moving picture characters. The above shows the excellent
way in which Roberta wrote her description. She is a twelve year old daughter of one of the employes of The
Zaner-BIoser Company, and attends the Crestview Junior High School, Columbus, Ohio. Her English

Miss KrPtt<5 and fhf» S'iinf»ruicnr nf tT^nrlnn-itinrY .'o A n


Bretts and the Supervisor of Handwriting
most interesting

your pupils write these sentences and discuss the undeiscored

A. G. Skeeles. This lesson correlates Handwriting and English

Read every page of The Educator,
for in it you will find a message —
some practical idea which will help


This specimen was written by Alice C. Ryan,
College, Wilmington. Del. It is especially strong
in letter forms and movement. We compliment
skill. She is a student of G. C. Greene.

pupil in Goldey

quality of line,

ss Ryan on her



A list of 110 words was pronounced
in the Spelling Contest held by the
Emporia Business College and Capper's
Weekly. Out in Kansas they have
some very good spellers.

The young lady, Miss Eleanor Han-
son, whose photograph appears here-
with, won the High School Division oi
the contest. She missed only one
word, "sergeant" out of 110.

Miss Lestie Sparks of Independence,
Kansas, was a close second by missing
only two words.

Miss Georgia Pierce of the Emporia

Business College, representing Business
Colleges, spelled 110 words correctly.

Miss Helen Way of Americus, Kan-
sas, won first place in the Grade
School Division, missing five words.

Spelling contests are not only inter-
esting, but very essential. We believe
in keeping up interest in this impor-
tant subject, a subject which is so
abused today.

Another contest will be held May 7.
Persons interested in the contest
should write to C. C. Hawkins, Em-
poria Business College. Emporia,

The Educator


^e^-^^-^^l^<^ZiX^^^^^l^(^C^ ^2>^ [ -5»^^_^^^^^<J J 2^i^?2^ t 2^^r



The above lines were selected from a package of specimens from Washington Junior High School
pupils, Parkersburg, West Ya. They were sent to us by the Supervisor of Handwriting, R. W. Carr.
Parkersburg gets uniformly good results from the junior high school pupils and grade pupils.

The writing above was done by Joyce Marks, a five-year-old pupil in the IB grade of Omaha, Nebraska, Public Schools.
Mr. J. A. Savage is the Supervisor of Handwriting.

This writing is typical of the large free handwriting done by first grade pupils who are permitted to practice large free
writing. This type of primary writing is just the opposite of the vicious small adult writing which is taught in some schools
and which not only produces cramped writing, but is also injurious to the children.


The Educator


By ALICE E. BENBOW, Supr. of Handwriting, Trenton, N. J.


In any kind of endeavor which in-
volves human relationships, it is very
easy to attempt the interpretation of
those ideals necessary to the success-
ful culmination of the work, in terms
of sentiment rather than in terms of
effective cooperation.

Supervision, whether in industry,
business, personal service, profession,
or government, implies human relation-
ships limited in variety by the exigen-
cies of the situation. Because this is
true its critics are legion.

As a legitimate branch of educational
service, Supervision will be assured of
rightful perpetuity, recognition, and
permanence, when its intelligent critics
come from within its own ranks and
clamor for improvement and an en-
larged opportunity for service.

The inspectional type of supervision
with its censoriousness and sterile re-
sults has passed into history, and the
sentimental type which magnified per-
sonal relationships and personal inter-
course, with their resultant disasters is
fast being relegated to the discard.

The type of supervision which is
based upon sound educational philoso-
phy and principles holds the objective
view of human relationships — that of
the mutual benefit emphasis in con-
trast to the personal element stress.
Supervision with these bases and with
adequate educational preparation, and
experience, as well as with an impell-
ing desire to advance educational
progress, is the supervision which is
welcomed, because it is effective.

Can these basic beliefs be applied to
supervision in the specialized field of

The historic description of the visits
of early writing masters who were
later called supervisors is familiar to
those who are not of tender years. The
genial, skillful penman who arrived to
put the children through their writing
paces, who perhaps stayed to see the
teacher reveal her weaknesses in his
chosen field, but who in reality came
to show off his own ability as a copper
plate artist without thought of the
child as a writer, has given place to
his successors.

These successors may not be quite
as genial nor as skilled in the ways ot
birds, flourishes, and curlicues. But,
they know some things about the child
and education, and are endeavoring to
learn more — things of which the his-
toric writing master never dreamed.

They know that children must learn
how to write, not only because the art
of writing is a beautiful art, but also
because writing is a useful and required
tool, and they know that the latter is
the real reason for learning to write.

They have studied learning processes
and are finding out how desirable
learnings take place, as well as how
to stimulate them through the use of
proper and timely procedures.

It is true that the steps in this suc-
cession have been taken very slowly.
More time has been devoted to the
exhaustive study of the subject mat-
ter of handwriting than has been spent
in the study of its effective teaching
and supervision. In fact, actual prac-
tices in the teaching and supervision
of handwriting have, until recently,
jogged along at a traditional pace in
time deepened ruts instead of travel-
ing in company with the forward mov-
ing column which is attempting to
adapt modern educational practices to
modern life.

Happily, this is a situation which
bids fair to become obsolete, because
the last few years have witnessed erup-
tive changes in the thinking of super-
visors of handwriting.

The process of basing practices upon
the conclusions of current research is
resulting in an inquiring body of
trained, alert, self critical men and
women who are aiming for benefit to
individual children through the me-
dium of handwriting.

Education borrows the term "Job
Analysis" from industry and with it has
borrowed some of the implications of
the term. "Job analysis" as applied to
an educational situation can never be
complete and exhaustive, because edu-
cation deals with human material in-
stead of with machines and tangible

It does not harm those engaged in
educational work to consider an analy-
sis of the job in hand, however, for it
is through such helps that standards
are evolved. As a result of this
analytic technique there are already
many well defined criteria for evalua-
tion of supervisory procedures and
handwriting supervision must accept
these criteria.

One of the foundation principles of
modern education is that of differen-
tiation according to revealed individual
need. In accepting this principle we
must accept its applicability to all
phases of educational endeavor.

The inquiring supervisor of hand-
writing will find in the following sug-
gestive list many types of supervisory
activities which engage his attention,
but the emphasis upon or the import-
ance of any separate activity will vary
according to the implications of his
peculiar situation.

Analysis of the Work of the Supervisor
of Handwriting

The acknowledged work of the sup-
ervisor of handwriting is to improve
instruction in handwriting and thus to

raise the standard of children's writing
throughout any school system.

In endeavoring to accomplish this
supervisory aim, in accordance with
accepted educational principles, the
following are some desirable and nec-
essary activities :

I. Advising with the superintendent of
schools to clearly define general policies.

A. Desirable and required procedures.

B. Testing program.

1. Department of research.

a. Types of tests.

b. Securing results.

c. Evaluation of results

2. Interpreting results in the

3. Remedial instruction.

C. Curriculum activities.

D. Reports of supervisory activities.

1. General work.

2. Individual building or teacher

E- Textbooks and supplies.

Examining "I In cooperation witb

Testing — 1 committees and

Recommending f d e p a rtments of

Selecting J supply.

for proficiency (if used).

o t h




th specifi


II. Conferring with directo:
supervisors regarding

III. Consulting with principal
reconcile genera] and
with building policies
classroom, teacher, and pupil need

IV. Working with teachers.

A. Conferences with teachers and pri

1. Grade.

2. Group.

3. Building.

4. Individual teacher and princit
after classroom visits, discussl
of such points as:

a. Individual approach.

b. Principles of planning.

c. Course of study.

d. Subject matter adaptation.

e. Flexibility of grouping.

f. Flexibility of schedules.

g. Methods and procedures,
h. Informal testing.

i. Individual and class record
j. Assignments.

B. Observation of types of classroo
procedures in handwriting.

1. Instruction periods (technique).

2. Supervised writing activities.

3. Assigned written lessons.

4. Independent writing —

Practice for improvement.
Chosen work.

C. Demonstration teaching.

1. Teachers new to system.

2. Weak teachers.

3. Inquiring teachers — six-

D. Professional helps.

1. References, books, magazines.

2. Evaluating procedures.

3. Comparing results of teachers'

4. Bulletins and circulars.

E. Teachers' subject matter equipment

1. Individual help.

2. Class or group instruction.
V. Visiting in other school systems.

Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Business Educator (Volume 37) → online text (page 25 of 49)