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Business Education."
W. H. Leffingwell, President.
W. H. Leffingwell, Inc., Manage-
ment Specialists, New York City.
Vddress — "An analysis of the present
day status of business education."
Professor Frederick G. Nichols,
Harvard Graduate School of Busi-
ness Education.



Topic: "How Shall We Enrich The
Course of Instruction In Business
Education ?"


9:30 A. M. Sharp

Address — "Social Responsibilities of
Business Educators in the Class-
H. G. Shields, Assistant Dean,
School of Business, University of


10:15-12:00 A. M.— 2:00-4:00 P. M.
Topic: "How To Develop Social And
Economic Understandings, Atti-
tudes and Ideals in the Classroom."

Secretarial Section

Arranged by Vice President
Frances Doub North, Western High
School, Baltimore, Maryland.


Chairman, Orton E. Beach, Morse
Business College, Hartford, Connecti-

Shorthand — John V. Walsh, Morris
High School, New York City.

Typewriting — Helen Reynolds, School
o f Commerce, Ohio University,
Athens, Ohio.

Business English — Dr. Robert R. Aur-
ner. University of Wisconsin, Madi-
son, Wisconsin.

Secretarial Practice — Chas. W. Hamil-
ton, Prin. Alex Hamilton Jr. H. S.,
Elizabeth, N. J.


Chairman — John Fiedler, Bushwick
High School, New York City.

Shorthand — Meyer E. Zinman, Abra-
ham Lincoln High School, Brooklyn,
New York.

Typewriting — K. Olive Bracher, Gregg
College, Chicago, Illinois.

Business English — Katherine W. Ross,
Boston Clerical School, Boston.

Secretarial Practice — Peter L. Agnew,
New York University, New York.


In charge of Past President Alex-
ander S. Massell, Principal, Central
Commercial Continuation School, New
York City.
Chairman — Alexander Kaylin, Central

School of Business and Arts, New

York City.


Salesmanship — Gladys MacDonald,
Commercial High School, New Ha-
ven, Connecticut.

Clarence A. Wesp, Northeast High
School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Helen E. Parker, High School of
Commerce, Springfield, Massachu-

AdvETtising — Charles M. Edwards, Jr.,
New York University School of Re-
tailing, New York City.

Marketing — Margaret E. Jacobson,
West High School, Rochester, New

Retail Store Mathematics — E. O.

Schaller, New York University
School of Retailing, New York City.


ublished monthly (except Julv and August)


612 N. Park St.. Columbus. O.

, LUPFER Editor


PRICE, $1.25 A
c more; foreign, 30c



(To Canada, 15

Single copy. 15c.

Change of address should be requested promptly
in advance, if possible, giving the old as well as
the new address.

Advertiiing ratea furnished upon request.

THE EDUCATOR is the best medium
through which to reach business college pro-
prietors and managers, commercial teachers and
students, and lovers of penmanship. 0)py must
reach our office by the 10th of the month for the
issue of the following month.

The Educator

Timely and Practical Handwriting

For Teachers and Pupils


In our present day rush many people have almost forgotten courtesy. It is a delight to meet a courteous
person who says and does the proper thing at the proper place. However, many of these people who are anxioui
to be courteous are unintentionally discourteous when they write illegibly.

Let it never be said of you that you are discourteous in your handwriting. You want to cause your friendi
and those who read your letters as little trouble as possible. It certainly is discourteous to compel your friends
to spend unnecessary time trying to decipher scrawly, careless, illegible writing. Illegible handwriting cause;
many inconveniences, misunderstandings and loss of time and money.

In practicing the lessons in The Educator we want you to study the forms of the letters and to take suf
ficient time in your writing to enable you to make each letter unmistakably legible. Be sure that the i's arc
dotted and that your e's are open; then the e's and i's will not become confusing. Finish your a's and o's care
fully so that they are distinguishable. Make the turns and angles distinct in the u's and n's. See that your fin-
ishes on V, w and b are high.

It is a pleasure to receive a letter which is well written,
in selecting employees.

Business men also appreciate it and are influenced

You have possibly not practiced for several days, or even if you have your movement may be sluggish. There-
fore, let us make some oval exercises until the muscles of the arm are loosened up and you are able to make the;
pen go in a uniform direction. These exercises are especially good in starting lessons or for the beginner. You.'
should make about 200 down strokes to the minute and about 400 down strokes to the line. This, however, is not j
as important as getting a graceful, free swing. Do not press more on the down strokes than you do on the up-
strokes. Let the arm roll on the muscle below the elbow. Do not use finger movement in this exercise nor in ,
most of the capital letters. In the second exercise the hand should be pulled towards the center of the body. ;
Therefore, turn your paper in such a position that the down strokes are at right angles with the edge of the desk. '

The oval exercise has been used for many years as a foundation exercise to develop movement. When used j
sensibly it is a great aid to free handwriting. As soon a s you can make it well spend your time on actual j
writing and letters.

Write the sentence and preserve it for comparison. From it select the letters with which you have the most
trouble. The W will give many considerable trouble even though it has been presented before. It, therefore, is
well to spend some time on it and to get it good. How many letters begin like the W? We suggest that you write
all of them and see. Try to get the beginning loops the same size, slant and shape. You should get from 12 to
14 W's on the line if you make the letters about three-fourths of a space high. If you spread your letters too
much, endeavor to get another letter on the line and you will come nearer getting the right proportion. See that
the three sections of the W are the same in wddth. Watch the finishing stroke. It should end at least half as
high as the letter.

The Educator

7 ^/9977

Practice different combinations found in the sentence. If you have trouble with the k write the combi-
Qations ke, kee, ck and ok; then write the words keep, pocket, book.

-eef /Vo.....^.!i^^..A^7^^i^<i^^2.,^yL^ _

'y .../..Lri::?^AJr2^^^^^rC<C^c^ Oi:'y....L - ,:t2:^<<<c?r?:r^ - z^ti-^?^ _

ephoriB A/(3. ...L-,.,&r^^rz>2<4ci2,^..44^<^^. Te/ephone t^o ^..Z.Z.LrJ^ii.,ff^i-?^. . J.2A/.

It is necessary to write many things in a notebook, especially names, addresses and telephone numbers. We
are presenting several as suggestions for practice. The M appears three times. Practice and study the drill on the
M and N.


%. :%. ^ :%. ^ %. ^ %. ^ ^ ^ ^

The first exercise for the M will develop fluency of movement. Use a rolling, continuous motion. Do not
let the fingers move excessively. If necessary in the exercise and in the M you may pause on the first down
stroke at the base line, though that is not necessary if you can make it without a pause. A pause is suggested
especially if you have trouble in getting a loop instead of a retrace. Write words and combinations using M
and N.

The H also appears several times in the two copies on addresses. Study the H. Curve the first down stroke
in the loop. The beginning of the second part of the H should start with a curve, not a straight line. Notice how
the finishing stroke could be connected to a small letter.


The Educator



The C has also been used a number of times and needs special drill. It is based on the oval and, therefore,
you can advantageously practice on an oval exercise. In the second copy the idea is to establish an oval motion
in order to curve the beginning stroke of the letter.

Get the top and the bottom of the C nearly equal in roundness. C ends the same as small i. Glide in and
glide out of the letter freely. The body of the letter is made with a rolling, free motion.

wi/i/?/m^ WMMm/- ^m/^/i/VM/ T 1/-

W Ir 1r 1/ T "W T 'V T T 'yy "Y T

The V is a letter which needs some careful attention. It starts the same as the M and ends the same as
the W. Be sure that you get a turn at the base line. Study the height of the ending stroke. The sentence sug-
gests that you make accurate figures.

■■/■■■^■■■■/-■■Y-j - 2:-3 - ^y-n-

i^ (r, ay 2.?^/^^

Figures must be unmistakably legible. In copying telephone and street numbers it is necessary to make
them quickly and legibly. Give real study and practice to the above copy. Notice the size of each figure. A
little more finger movement is permissable on the figures than on letters.

The following sentence was written several times to show you how you should repeat a sentence or copy.
Make a page of this sentence. See if you can get the words lined up the same in slant and spacing. Observe
if the last one you write is an improvement over the first one.

On all of your writing, endeavor to work freely.
aggravating. Slow writing will not get you a position.

Slow labored writing is out of date, undesirable and
Speed up, getting easy and graceful writing.

This copy shows how you should practice your name,
in your name, first separately and finally together.

Naturally you should work on the capital letters

The Educator


9^..., - ^.j/^..j/::^-.^^ - ^^^^^^__


Since this lesson suggests the writing of names in books we present some signatures which, from time
to time, have been clipped from letters and specimens received in the office of The Educator. They were written
by penmen and teachers from various sections of the United States. You will do well to study each signature.
See if you can make good imitations. Remember these signatures have a lot of dash to them because they were
written freely. Have your teacher assist you in writing your signature. See if you can combine it in some
pleasing manner. If you write your signature and send it to The Educator we shall be glad to make suggestions
how to improve it.

Remember a plain, well written signature is more difficult to forge than one which is all twisted up with
meaningless lines.


The Educator

u^J^i-'T -vji^y

This copy will help you in making the letter J. Start with a free upward swing, naaking the back fairly
straight. The top of the J should be slightly larger than the bottom, but be sure not to allow the bottom loop
to extend down so far that it will interfere wih the line of writing below. It should come down half way be-
tween the two blue lines. Work on different names beginning with J. July, June and January all should be


The U begins the same as the V, but ends the same as the M and N. The second part should come up not
quite as high as the first part.

^^y^ ,^5:>-z;z^<^'-z— ^-'i-^

Practice on the exercises for the X and Z. Study each one and compare your work with the copy. We
would suggest that in the penmanship class students exchange papers and mark the outstanding errors. It is
a good thing for us to see how others look at our work. If this is honestly done by the students much good
can be derived by both parties.

This copy presents a review of letters and combinations.

\zJ<^ ^.^t^f^ £^!^

The I begins the same as the J, and like the J the back should be straight. Make a complete stop before
making the final stroke. The I finishes the same as the G. This copy contains some excellent combinations of
letters for practice.

Practice these sentences over and over again keeping in mind position, movement and legibility.

Rewrite the first sentence given in this lesson and see if you have made any improvement and also to see
which letters need additional practice.

The Educator


N. A. P. T. S. Program

AprU 18, 19, 20, 1934


9:30 o'clock

Address of Welcome — Paul C. Stet-
son, Superintendent of Schools, In-
dianapolis, Indiana.

Response to Address of Welcome-
Irving R. Garbutt, Director of Com-
mercial Education, Cincinnati, Ohio.

President's Address — Linda S. Weber,
Supervisor of Handwriting, Gary,
"Research in HandwTiting in Busi-
ness" — John G. Kirk, Director of
Commercial Education, Philadel-
phia, Pa.


Informal Luncheon, Claypool Hotel,
12:15 P. M.



'Z!k-^^^ ^:?^-<^t^-t^ .::i^^^^^^.

This 7A wriring was done by Ruth Patterson of Elyria, Ohio. Il
Washington. The teacher is Viola Hargrave. The work was sent
the Supervisor of Handwriting.

good material for a
us by Mabel Vc^ai


2:00 o'clock
Demonstration Lessons and Auditor-
ium Program — Grade 6A — Ethel
Conkling, Plymouth, Indiana.
Grade 7B — Mrs. Alice La Deaux,
Gary, Indiana.
Auditorium Program — Mrs. Alice La

Deaux, Gary, Indiana.
"Teachers All" — Faye Read, Presi-
dent, Department of Classroom
Teachers of N. E. A. Pueblo,


8:00 o'clock
Round Table Conference — Bertha A.
Connor, Leader, Director of Hand-
writing, Boston, Mass.


9:30 o'clock
Visiting Public Schools — Indianapolis,


2:00 o'clock


Demonstration Lesson — Junior High

Penmanship, Contract Plan.
Teacher Training — Julia Myers, Iowa
State Teachers College, Cedar Falls,
Address — Bertha A. Connor, Director
of Handwriting, Boston, Mass.
Sight Seeing Tour of City


Annual Banquet, Claypool Hotel, 6:30
P. M.


9:30 o'clock
Demonstration — "Correlation of the
Writing Lesson with Spelling, Read-
ing, Art and Music."
"Some Observations on Handwriting"
— D. T. Weir, Director of Elemen-
tary Education and Handwriting, In-
dianapolis Public Schools.
"Handwriting in the Activity Pro-
gram," — Ellen C. Nystrom, Director
of Handwriting, Minneapolis, Minn.
"Scandinavian Schools" — Floyd I. Mc-
Murray, Indianapolis State Super-
intendent of Public Instruction.


"Manuscript Writing" — Jennie Wal-

hert. Primary Supervisor, St Louis,

"Handwriting and its Relation to Vo-
cations" — G. C. Greene, Director of

Penmanship and Expert on Dis-
puted Documents, Goldey College,
Wilmington, Delaware.

Business Meeting, Report of Com-
mittees, Election of Officers.


The Educator

The New Trend in Education and its Effect

on Handwriting

The new trend in education is pre-
cisely a return to the three R's. The
objective of the new trend in educa-
tion is to adequately prepare a stu-
dent in reading, writing and arithme-
tic to meet the demands of higher
education, of business, or of any situ-
ation in which he may find himself.
Consequently, the three R's position
in the new curriculum is a prominent

Handwriting, as one of the basic
subjects, rightly has a place of im-
portance in this new program. Col-
leges recognize its value, and hand-
writing courses are being given col-
lege credit. Teachers' certificates in
handwriting are required in a large
number of cities.

Handwriting is no longer relegated
to the shelf, a lost art. It is recog-
nized as a vital necessity to all writ-
ten expressions and what handwriting
is done in high school and college
must be better.

How does this demand for a better
quality of handwriting effect the
teacher? It means that she must
have the ability to keep abreast of
the times; must realize the import-
ance of good handwriting as a neces-
sary part of the new educational pro-
gram, and must give it the proper
emphasis in her daily schedule.

Her presentation of the handwriting
lesson must be up-to-date, motivated,
and alive with interest and why
shouldn't it be? She can no longer
teach reading as of 1934 and hand-
writing as of 1900.

At one time it was good reading
pedagogy, or the best we knew, to
teach a child his letters then to com-
bine them into meaningless syllables
to be followed by small words, short
phrases, and then a sentence. One
child read aloud his sentence while
the remainder of the children watched
and awaited their turn to read the
same sentence. A skilled teacher
completed the "Primer" the first year,
and was satisfied that she had ful-
filled the requirements for her grade.
Reading was a hard, laborious task.
We did not hear about "interest and
effort," motivation — the approach —
the project method — silent reading —
creating the desire for reading — reme-
dial measures — checking devices, and
so on.

Granted that the 1900 method had
some merit, we know that psycholo-
gists' experiments in pedagogy have
given us far more adequate methods
which have been accepted as the most
efficient means of teaching reading. I
refer to the grouping of a class ac-
cording to individual differences, the
use of the project method where read-

By Stella Holland Bloser

ing is taught out of the necessity of
securing information about a certain
topic. Difficult words are presented
in meaningful phrases where they are
often learned from the implied mean-
ing. Under this procedure, children
read silently, they read for informa-
tion, they read much, they read be-
cause they are interested, and natur-
ally they read well.

This rapid stride in reading peda-
gogy must be counterbalanced by the
same up-to-date methods in handwrit-
ing technique. Unfortunate and as
unbelievable as it seems, the hand-
writing lesson sometimes takes on
the 1900 flavor. This may be due to
the use of an antiquated textbook, or
because the teacher fails to see hand-
writing in its fundamental correla-
tion with the project at hand. It is
not infrequent when we observe the
handwriting lesson as a few lines of
ovals and push-pull exercises, followed
by a line or two of remedial drills on
a certain letter form, then a few lines
of the letter to be taught. With the
writing of a few isolated and mean-
ingless words often irrelevant to any
part of theday's program, the lesson is
completed. Perhaps the instructor
gave a good rhythmical count and
gave attention to his blackboard dem-
onstration — yet no one could deny
that with this method he overlooked
the child. What about his interest
and the subsequent attitude to the
handwriting period?

Is it any wonder that educators
rise in protest to such a method as
above described? That procedure
has about as much practical value as
the oral reading lesson earlier spoken
of. The progressive teacher sees the
necessity of casting aside the old
method in favor of the new approach
using sentences, paragraphs and the
unit plan motivated and correlated as
suggested by Dr. Freeman in "Cor-
related Handwriting." This is an ex-
cellent text to follow. As a result of
scientific experiment it lends itself to
any project. Handwriting taught in
correlation with other subjects is not
fifteen minutes of drill, but rather a
necessary lesson alive with interest
and motivation. The material pre-
sented is vital to some written part of
the project at hand. Any difficulties
in letter forms are corrected by reme-
dial drill when necessary. In antici-
pation of the correction of a difficult
letter form, we do not teach all the
known drills connected with it any
more than we review the multiplica-
tion tables and number combinations
each time before we begin work on an
arithmetic problem.

We work along on a problem until

we strike a snag — then, there come;
a place for drill, and so it works ir
the teaching of handwriting. We worl
on legibility, slant, spacing, align' i
ment and speed as the need arises. |

When, as teachers, we come to re^ '
cognize the important functions ol
legible handwriting, we shall teach it
with renewed inspiration. We shal \
come to regard our handwriting as s
matter of personal pride. Handwrit i
ing expresses each of us individually
While it is impossible for any twc
people to write exactly alike, it is
both possible and essential that we
all write well. Many people know us
only by our handwriting just as manj
know us only by our photograph. A
person generally endeavors to senti
the best photograph possible of him-
self — he takes pride in looking his
best. Now, how about the "writtei
expression of you?" Is it not worthy
of the same consideration?

Handwriting is more than a drill
of ovals, push-pull, and letter forms —
it is a thing of beauty for when we
see handwriting well executed in
form, balance and symmetry, it is
truly beautiful.

A teacher who stands back and gets
a perspective of the whole, enlarges
her vision. She sees the necessity of
handwriting well done every day in
school and every day out of school.
She sees the inevitable correlation of
handwriting with all other subjects.
She recognizes the value of keeping
that subject alive and interesting, of
keeping up-to-date in her pedagogy.
She realizes that only a text by na-
tionally recognized educators can help
her in her teaching technique. The
McGuffey Readers were good in their
day, but do we find them in use now?
Just as essentially necessary as it has
been to present new material in read-
ers, the same is true of the handwrit-
ing textbook. And, what more pro-
gressive text have we than Dr. Free-
man's Correlated Handwriting andb
Brother Eugene's Graded Handwrit- »
ing for Catholic Schools?

With the up-to-date textbook In use ''
and the proper attitude toward the JJ
teaching of handwriting, poor hand-
writing will vanish.

If a teacher grasps the enlarged
vision of education and the proper set-
ting of handwriting in the picture and
if we are to believe that the pupil re-
flects the teacher, we shall no longer
be depressed about the quality of
children's handwriting. For, from
this new deal in education, which I
understand to be the broadened out-
look and the relative position of hand-
writing in it, good handwriting will
come inevitably.


The Educator


By H. L. Darner
Santa Ana, Calif.

by Dr. E. G. Miller, Pittsburgh, Pa.

"Just look at these hands. They're
teadler than they were fifty years
,go. Each year they get better and
letter." Such was the comment made
o me by that seventy-eight-year-old
>rince of penmen, H. B. Blanchard,
is he held out a pair of strong, cap-
ible, steady hands, a short time after

had introduced myself to him in his
tudio at 233 South Broadway, Los
Angeles, California.

I had looked forward with a great
leal of pleasure to the time when I
ould find an opportunity to become
jersonally acquainted with this man
vhom I had known by reputation for
.wenty-five years as one of the world's
inest penmen. Naturally I expected
.0 see a display of extraordinary skill,
DUt frankly I did not expect to see
ilmost a truck load of some of the

finest specimens that a human hand
ever executed.

My eye was caught by a mammoth
framed specimen containing a spread
eagle. When Blanchard saw me look-
ing at it he said, "Oh yes, that's one
I prepared for the Chicago World's
Fair in 1892." Just think of it! 1892
— back so far that we old-time pen-
men had not yet learned our multi-
plication tables, and then to think
that he has improved every year since
that time. To look at Blan-
chard's present work makes me feel
like a young boy just starting out.
If I had not seen this display with my
own eyes I would never have believed
it possible that one mere human man
could do such an enormous amount
of fine work.

Mr. Blanchard is not a commercial

man but an artist from top to toe.
Every stroke of his work indicates
that he uses his pen and brush simply
for the fun he gets out of it, and not
because it pays him in dollars and
cents. If this were not so he could
not still be as enthusiastic as a boy,
still experimenting and working at
his down-town studio all day and at
his home a part of the night.

I thought Blanchard's penmanship
and art work was excelled only by
Blanchard the man. Conversation
and physical appearance produced

Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Educator (Volume 38) → online text (page 26 of 41)