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made possible a comparison between
the status of supervision of handwrit-
ing at the present time with that
which existed in 1926.

In 1926 Taylor had found that in
thirty-five representative city school
systems in the United States eighty-
six per cent had supervision of hand-
writing. However, in 1937 only fifty-
four per cent of the same cities had a
supervisor of handwriting.

The effect of the impact of the new
educational theories was also reflected
in the courses of study now being
used in the cities which replied to the
circular. Only nineteen of the forty-
four cities reporting were using the
older courses of study. An examina-
tion of these newer courses of study
showed that handwriting is rapidly
losing its identity as a separate sub-
ject and is being combined with Eng-
lish, spelling, arithmetic, history, and
the other school subjects. It is com-
ing to be classified as one of the
language arts. It is quite evident
that the supervisors who are still
carrying on are striving to cope with
the new education and at the same
time keep the old standard of legibil-
ity.

From a study of the results of the
survey conducted by the author it is
evident that there have been profound
changes in the thinking of educators
since 1925 in regard to the methods of
teaching th^" subject. After a study
of the literat;re in the field and the
returns from the survey, the author
concluded that the fundamental cause
of the change was in all probability
due to the spread of progressive edu-
cation, with its emphasis on other
phases of the teaching-learning situa-
tion than the curriculum. An imme-
diate or contributing cause was prob-
ably the recent period of economic
stress which made curtailment of all
special teachers a necessity in many
public school systems throughout the
country.

It was the purpose of this research
to study the effect of supervision on
the quality and rate of handwriting
of pupils in the seventh grade of sev-



eral representative junior high schools
in the Los Angeles City School Dis-
trict.

A survey begun by the Division of
Educational Research and Guidance
of the Los Angeles City Schools in
1931 and continued in 1932 was taken
over by the writer in the fall of 1936.
In order to study the effect of the ab-
sence of regular class work and super-
vision on the handwriting of junior
high school pupils, samples of the
handwriting of 1809 A6 pupils who
had been subjected to adequately su-
pervised courses of handwriting dur-
ing their six years of elementary
school life were collected in May, 1931.
These were filed in the offices of the
Division of Educational Research and
Guidance. One year later, as many
of these same pupils as could be lo-
cated in the A7 grade of the junior
high schools of the city were again
asked to write the same material for
the Division of Educational Research
and Guidance. The second paper of
each pupil who had been located was
placed with his first paper. When
these samples were assembled it was
found that there were 982 sets of pa-
pers. Four hundred of these 982 pairs
of papers selected at random were
used in the study.

Due to the many changes which oc-
curred in the various departments of
the Los Angeles City Schools about
this time, the work of making a com-
parison of these two sets of papers
was never undertaken.

In the fall of 1936, the writer, who
had for many years been interested in
the methods of teaching handwriting,
asked permission to do the grading
and evaluating of these two sets of
papers. After a conference with the
staff of the Division of Educational
Research and Guidance, it was decided
to collect another set of samples of
handwriting from the A7 classes of a
representative number of junior high
schools in the city in order that the
present status of handwriting might
be compared with that of 1931 and
1932. The supervision of handwriting
had been discontinued in the Los
Angeles City system in 1932 and the
children of the A7 grade had come up
through the elementary grades where
there had been no supervision for the
past five years.

When the three sets of papers were
scored and the results tabulated and
analyzed statistically, it was found



The Educator



that the difference between the scores
in both quality and rate of the 1931
group and the 1932 group were slight
and insignificant. These two groups
did not vary from the seventh grade
norms as given in the Ayres Measur-
ing Scale for Handwriting to any ap-
preciable extent. The group which
showed the greatest deviation from
the other two groups and also from
the seventh grade norms given in the
Ayres scale was the 1937 group. At
every point this group was inferior
in handwriting to the other two. In
terms of overlapping, only twenty-
one per cent of the 1937 group over-
lapped the median quality of writing
score on the Ayres scale, while in the
1931 group fifty-five per cent of the
pupils exceeded the median quality
of writing score. In rate of writing
scores, only ten per cent of the 1937
group exceeded the Ayres scale med-
ian, while in 1931 thirty-six per cent
exceeded the median rate of writing
score on the Ayres scale.

The quartile ranges for both qual-
ity and rate of writing were much
lower for the 1937 group. More pupils
tended to score at the lower end of
the distribution when there was no
supervision.

The standard deviations in both
quality and rate were smaller for the
1937 group. The conclusion was drawn
that the variability of a group is re-
ducei! when there is no supervision be-
cause the pupils who have the ca-
pacity to write well do not develop it.

The correlation coefficient between
the quality of writing scores of the
1931 and 1932 groups was .88, which
indicated that the children, as indi-
wduals, tended to retain the quality
5f writing which they had at the end



of the elementary school period. How-
ever, the coefficient of correlation for
the rate of writing between the 1931
and the 1932 groups was only .44
which seemed to show that the chil-
dren as individuals did not maintain
the rate at which they wrote on leav-
ing the elementary school.

The ogive curve was used to com-
pare the scores of all three groups
v.-ith each other and with the Ayres
norms. In both quality of writing and
rate of writing the 1937 group fell
far below the other two as well as
below the Ayres norms.

A study of the results of the survey
made by the author in April. 1937,
seemed to justify the following con-
clusions :

1. There has been a marked de-
crease in the number of supervisors
of handwriting in this country dviring
the last ten years.

2. Analysis of the data collected in
many surveys shows that the hand-
writing of the junior and senior high
school pupils of today is markedly in-
ferior to that of pupils in similar
schools ten years ago.

3. The older courses of study are
being replaced by local courses of
study.

4. Handwriting is losing its iden-
tity as a separate subject and is be-
ing classed with either English, the
language arts, or with art.

An analysis of the data collected
from the 1931, 1932, and 1937 groups
seemed to warrant the following con-
clusions;



13



1. When supervision of handwriting
exists in a school system, the chil-
dren tend to be approximately at norm
in both quality and rate of writing.

2. Under supervision the scores of
children tend to be better distributed
than when there is no supervision.
Lack of supervision seems to cause an
uneven distribution to develop marked
by a piling up of the scores at the
lower intervals of the frequency dis-
tribution.

3. Fewer pupils exceed the norm for
their grade in either quality or rate
of writing when there is no super-
vision.



DOUBLED ENROLLMENT

L. W. Huntsinger, of the Wilcox
Commercial College, Cleveland, Ohio,
visited The Educator office recently
and reports the Wilcox School in a
very prosperous condition. The school
has doubled its enrollment and today
claims the largest enrollment of any
business college in Cleveland.

L. W. is a relative of E. M. Hunt-
singer, who was one of the most out-
standing figures in penmanship and
commercial education.



GETTING IN TRIM

H. J. Ennis of 2315 N. E. 40th Ave.,
Portland, Oregon, who is one of the
skillful penmen of the Pacific Coast,
is getting his arm limbered up for
the coming penmanship season. The
ornamental specimens and flourishes
before us are unusually delicate and
skillfully prepared.




This third grado writing was dons by Rosemary Vimont who had I'A years of manuscript writing and IV2 years of cursive writing. She is a pupil
in the Washington School, Maywood, Illinois. Mrs. Pierce i3 the Principal. This shows a very nice carry over from print to script.



14



The Educator



Statement of Ultimate Goals in the Con-
gressional Demonstration in Character
Education in the Washington Public Schools

Prepared by Frank W. Ballou
For Conference of Educational Consultants

Distributed and Discussed at the Meeting of The National Association of
Pennianshi|> Teachers and Supervisors, Wardman Park Hotel

By Dr. Frank W. Ballou, Superintendent of Schools, Washington, D. C.



Assuming' that character education,
i.e., character development, is defin-
itely to become one of the desired re-
sults of public education, what
changes become necessary in the
statement of our educational theory
and in our educational practices.

Changes in General Educational
Theory

If character development is to be
included as one of the desired results
of public education, then our general
theory of education must be stated
accordingly, and necessary changes
must be made in our educational prac-
tices.

1. The protection and the develop-
ment of a wholesome personality in
each individual becomes a paramount
purpose in education. This means
that:

a. Every person associated with the
education of a pupil should think
of the individual pupil being
taught, his needs, capacities, and
probable future career— environ-
ment into which he is moving.

b. Every such person should think
of each individual as a unity,
made up, to be .sure, of physical,
intellectual, social, and moral as-
pects.

c. Every such person miist thor-
oughly understand each individ-
ual pupil before he can deal in-
telligently with the pupil's indi-
vidual needs.

2. The development of a wholesome
personality takes place as a result of
the individual's total experience,
whether in school, in the home, in the
church, reading the newspaper, listen-
ing to the radio, going to the movie,
or running the streets. This means
that:

a. The school must promote whole-
some development of each indi-
vidual throughout all his experi-
ences.

b. The school must protect the
wholesome development of each
individual from subversive and
detrimental influences.

3. The maximum personality de-
velopment will be achieved when each
individual pupil engages in a task at



school, at home, or elsewhere, which
he can do and which seems to him
worth doing. This means that:

a. School tasks must be within his
capacity and interests.

b. The child's successes are to be
promoted and emphasized rather
than his failures.

4. The largest opportunity for char-
acter development is to be found in
what individuals do in association
with others. This means that:



N. A. P. T. S. OFFICERS

President, Ralph E. Bowe, Port-
land, Maine

Vice President, Ida Koons, Fort
Wayne, Ind.

2nd Vice President, Henry Garvey,
Tuckahoe, N. Y.

Secretary, Ottie Craddock, Farni-
villc", Va.

Treasurer, Doris E. Almy, Fall

River, Mass.



a. Each individual must feel that he
is a member of a worthy group,
in which his membership is
worthwhile to him and to the
group.

b. The school must promote the or-
ganization of pupil groups for
the development of social inter-
ests, cooperation, and of readi-
ness to sacrifice personal inter-
est for the sake of the group.

5. The methods by which these edu-
cational theories are to be put into
practice from Kindergarten through
college in the public school system of
Washington, D. C, will be gradually
evolved, and will be conditioned and
determined by the size and nature of
the school, the age of the pupils, the
culture of the community, the wisdom
and leadership of the principal, and
the personal zeal and the professional
qualities of the teachers. This means
that:



a. Each school must work out its
own character training program
in the light of the aforemen-
tioned conditioning factors.

b. A pattern for a group of schools
is quite as impossible of attain-
ment as is a single personality
pattern for all individuals.

Changes in Selection and Use of
Curricula

1. Mastery of the course of study
will be looked on more as a means to
a worthy educational end, than as an
end in itself.

2. Greater differentiation of courses
of study to meet individual needs of
pupils will be a necessity.



Changes in Teaching Methods

1. Teaching classes or groups of pu-
pils will continue as desirable.

2. Recognizing individual differ-
ences among pupils of the class by
the teacher will be a growing neces-
sity.

3. Thinking of individual pupils and
of the combined effect of all educa-
tive influences on them will be ex-
pected of administrators, supervisors,
and teachers.



Changes in Teacher Training

1. The program of training in
teacher training institutions will
necessarily be reorganized to give
prospective teachers more knowledge
and practice in the methods and tech-
niques of learning the psychology of
varying types of pupils, such as
normal pupils, problem pupils, gifted
pupils, physically handicapped pupils.

2. Every school system should
carry on a program of training of
teachers now in service in the char-
acter training program proposed
herein.



Changes in School Organization

1. Homogeneous grouping of pupils
will be continued, and will be more
efficiently done on the basis of more
and better information.



The Educator



15



2. Increased individual initiative
and activity among individual pupils,
consistent with the interests and de-
velopment of the group will be pro-
vided for by classes, by grades, and
by the school as a whole.

Changes in School Administration

1. Greater unification of the educa-
tive process as controlled by the
school, under the teacher and the su-
pervisor is urgently needed.

2. The home room teacher plan as
a unifying force may be greatly ac-
centuated and extended at once.

3. The student council and the as-
sembly may become important admin-
istrative guides for educating young
people to function for a common pur-
pose.

4. Provision for continuous curricu-
lum reorganization and revision in the
interests of varying needs of pupils
would appear to be a paramount ne-
cessity.

5. Report cards sent home to par-
ents should include evidence of char-
acter development.

Changes in School Supervision

1. More attention to pupil super-
vision and relatively less attention to
subject matter supervision is obvious-
ly desirable.



2. Educational guidance of individ-
ual pupils will become a major aspect
of school supervision.

3. A written record of the salient
facts needed for intelligent guidance
purposes is needed.



Changes in Measurements of Educa-
tional Results

1. Individual standards for individ-
ual pupils will be the measure, not
mass measures.

2. Has each individual pupil done
his best, might be a general standard.

3. An adequate testing program
should be set up for guidance toward
the character objective.



INCREASED ENROLLMENT

An invitation to attend the com-
mencement exercises of Miami-
Jacobs College in Dayton, Ohio, was
received. We notice that the school
had a graduating class of over 200
students. We want to congratulate
Mr. W. E. Harbottle, the president,
a'^d his corps of teachers upon their
excellent enrollment.



ONE HUNDRED YEARS AGO

In 1837, women were admitted to a
regular College Course leading to a
degree of Bachelor of Arts at the
Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. Har-
vard College, for men, had been estab-
lished about 200 years prior.

Since Oberlin College opened its
doors to women, coeducation has ad-
vanced with rapid strides. About fifty
years ago — 1888 — the Zanerian Col-
lege of Penmanship was established.
From the beginning women enjoyed
the same privileges as men. Many
of the best women penmen and teach-
ers of penmanship have, since that
time, received their training in the
Zanerian.



Miss Dolly R. Hyams, 710 Pacific
Building, San Francisco, California,
has been doing artistic penmanship
work, resolutions, elc. in San Fran-
cisco for a number of years. Miss
Hyams writes a very beautiful orna-
mental style of penmanship.



Mr. O. H. VVhit«, 705 Fullerton
Bldg., St. Louis, Mo., is doing consid-
f;rable engrossing work these days. He
recently sent us some of his fine
script.





ro(



D- cniOvOQ



c






i 1* ••



pui'^ ngna or

)f f:






\/yu'



o



O



r-






' \ , "i



<l



Manuscript writing by a first grade pupil in the Mason City, Iowa, Public Schools, under the instruction of Mrs. Stoner. First grade pupils enjoy
doing the work large. They are able to express themselves very early.



16



The Educator




ra^r/zpf^^ K^a^z/Jy





Business Cof/ege ,Shrc\'eprirl L^



"WASTE NOT, WANT NOT"

Would that we might get ALL of
YOU to APPRECIATE, fully, the
value of time and money. If you will
use your time to the best advantage,
you will be able to qualify to hold a
good position. That position should,
of course, pay you a nice salary. If
you WASTE your time, you are
simply postponing the day when you
will be able to hold a good position
and enjoy a good income. Not only
that, but it costs you — or someone —
inoney to stay in school. For that
reason, if no other, you should try to
make EVERY MINUTE COUNT.



You should avoid waste in the use
of stationery and other supplies. This
applies both to your OWN stationery
and supplies, as well as the COL-
LEGE'S, if you happen to be working
in the college office — and it applies
likewise to your employer's when you
get a job.

Usually letterheads, envelopes and
various pieces of advertising matter,
etc., cost not less than one-half cent
each, and sometimes two or three
TIMES that amount. Hence, when
you spoil and destroy stationery and
advertising material, it runs into
REAL MONEY! Frequently, you can
erase carefully and save time and sta-
tionery; or, in case you are address-
ing folders or the like, you can save
the folder, write the name and ad-
dress on a slip of paper, and paste it
over the incorrect or spoiled address.
Remember this, please, because it
may save you your job some day!



Try to learn to appreciate the value
of your MONEY, because, unless you
do this, you will not likely ever have
very much. Always, before buying
anything, stop and ask yourself
whether you really NEED it; whether
you should really buy it. Lots of
young people, when they go to work,
throw away money every day on
lunches and incidentals — money
which, if saved, would enable them to
take care of their obligations prompt-
ly, or that would amount to a nice
savings account at the end of a year.



Don't quit studying when you leave
school, if you expect to advance In
the world. Instead, learn all you can
about the business In which you are
engaged and strive to become an ex-
pert in your particular line. That is
the only way you can ever hope to
get VERY FAR. The one who quits
studying when he leaves school usu-
ally stands still or finds promotion
coming very slowly. You should read
and study EVERYTHING you can get
your hands on that will increase your
efficiency; that will qualify you for a
bigger job. If you don't — well, you
just won't get there — that's all. Re-
member that, PLEASE!



Be industrious; find something to
do when you have apparently caught
up with your work. A person who is
"worth his weight in salt" can usu-
ally find SOMETHING to do around
any office or business; and it's the fel-
low who does that that attracts at-
tention, is appreciated and is advanc-



ed in the organization. Nobody wants
to employ anyone who has to be
TOLD what to do, and who DOES
only what he is told to do — and a
person like that seldom ever makes
a decent salary or gets very far.



So be industrious and use your in-
itiative! Show the "powers that be"
that you, too, can think, and that you
can work without being supervised
every minute! Take an interest in
the business — every phase of it; help
the management to save and it will
save you — retain your services and
advance you!



People are paid not only according
to their ability, or their training and
skill, but according to their WORTH
to the BUSINESS. Take two per-
sons of equal ability and training:
One may be worth a great deal more
than the other, because he takes more
INTEREST in the business and is
WORTH more to it. Try to be the
one that TAKES THE MOST IN-
TEREST and is WORTH the MOST,
and you will be the one who GETS
the MOST!



See that you take all of the sub-
jects included in your course and get
grades on them — and send your re-
port to your parents! If you feel you
do not need any of the subjects, we
shall be glad to give you a special
examination. Then, if you pass that,
you won't have to take those sub-
jects, but you will still be in line for
a diploma or a recommendation from
the school.



Be sure to notify us at any time
you cannot be in school, or give an ex-
planation of your absence when you
return. It means a great deal to you
and your future to show a co-opera-
tive attitude.




Z^



.,,<2^ - z^^^^^^ - /'^^''C^«^^«-2-^-^2!^^^-<!>^»«-^ .,««-^«^ e^










i^->^ _^




'^^^^-ZT-i - ^^



"A^



O/i/e'-m'r/i/e// /S/mcj



This is some of the skillful work of the late Fred S. Heath, who was one of America's finest ornamental writers.



The Educator



17



Lessons in Ornamental Penmanship

By H. O. Keesling, 33 South Raymond Ave., Pasadena, California



Instructions jirepared in the office of the Educator

No. 1

The position for Ornamental Writing is similar to the position advocated for good business writing. Study
the position illustrated on the cover page. Get a good solid table and place it where you have good light, prefer-
ably coming from the left. Read the instructions for position for good business writing.

Secure a good, properly adjusted, oblique penholder, fine writer pens, good paper and good ink. You are
then ready to begin working on the copies. The Educator will be glad to give you help and advice regarding
proper supplies.

To do good Ornamental Writing it is necessary to have a free easy movement and a light touch. You should,
therefore, master the exercises in the copy.

No. 1 For the push-pull exercise let the arm slide freely up and down, pulling the arm towards the center of
the body. This should be all arm and no finger action. For the ovals, let the arm roll freely on the
muscle below the elbow. Come down lightly with the down stroke and see how uniform you can make
the exercises in color and spacing. After trying the exercises two spaces high, reduce them to one space.

Introduce shading, swing into the exercise freely and press down quickly with the first finger. Cul-
tivate a quick up and down pressure in forming the shades without dragging the shade around the bot-
tom. Study the position of the shades. Be sure that your ovals do not contain wabbly lines.




No. 2 Study each style of "O". Good penmen should have the ability to make various styles. Of course, you
should thoroughly master one style. The first letter is very simple. Made exactly like the "O" in
business writing with the shading. The other etters have different flourished endings. Do not end any
letter carelessly.

It is always well to study and maintain the foundation shape of the letter, therefore, practice some
on the letters without any shades or flourishes.

First study the small "o", then make the letter using a free gliding movement on the beginning
stroke and a quick revolving motion on the body. Study the stops. The pen stops on retraces. Write
the words with a free motion and get them uniform in size, slant, and spacing.



2.







18



The Educator



No. 3 Here are six styles of "a's" to master. The body in each case should be exactly the same. If you master
the first style you should be able to add the flourishes without much difficulty. Study the location of



Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Educator (Volume 43) → online text (page 2 of 37)