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teacher to discover wherein he has
failed in his efforts to help the pupil
toward his whole or partial realization
of worthy objectives. A third use of
this check will be to see whether or
not the pupil has managed to trans-
late his learning experiences into at-
titudes or ideals. Has the pupil learned
some things or has he learned some-
thing? All the dates in American His-
tory, all the names in English Litera-
ture, all the problems in Geometry or
Algebra, are of no value unless the
pupil can put these things together
into a component whole — unless he can
put these items to use in his life
either here and now or later. If the
check on the success of the pupil does
not include this type of measurement,
then the check should be discarded.

NINTH: Good teaching is sometimes
done best when all rules are forgotten.
Sometimes greatest learning occurs
when the learner is told "What" to do
with no hint concerning the "How"
or "Why." We still have those in this
world who want to push on in their
own way toward an unknown goal over
(to them) uncharted paths. Upon the
group will rest the burden of a con-
tinued civilization and we must give
them their opportunity, though their
unimaginative classmates are left
wandering in the wilderness for a day
or for a week. The good teacher, how-
ever, remembers all of his pupils and
does not use the needs of these few
to excuse his own laziness.

TENTH: Good teaching demands
many other things, things unrelated
to the classroom as such. We must as-
sume that the teacher who aspires to
be good has abundant health, some per-



sonality, some knowledge of the homes
and environment of his pupils, a deep
appreciation of his work as being much
more than a "job," a complete indif-
ference to the amount of time the work
takes and no idea of how much work
is too much. The worries of salary will
never affect good teaching, really good
teaching is so scarce that people are
willing to pay for it.

As one will notice, good teaching
and the good teacher go together. We
cannot have one without the other. It
is also to be noted that good teaching
calls for nothing unusual on the part
of the teacher. A re-statement of what
we mean by good teaching is often
beneficial — "That which we would, we
do not" — how often would that explain
what is seen in many classrooms. All
may not agree with this outline of
what good teaching is, all must agree
that the subject is worthy of our con-
sideration. All must agree that what-
ever improves teaching improves our
schools.




This shows how to stand at the board.
Try the letters first at the board.




This flourish was hand engraved by Claude D. Scribner, commercial artist

and penman in the Sterns Engraving Company, Raleigh. North Carolina.

The lines were cut into a flat piece of metal with an engraver's tool.



/ ■ ; '




By the late C. C. Lister who was a very skillful business writer.



18



Penmanship Starts on the Up-grade

Reprinted from "The Atlantic City Press" during the
meeting of the N. A. P. T. S. held in Atlantic City, N. J.

Plan to attend the next meeting May 1-2-3



To millions of moderns handwrit-
ing is just something resembling rab-
bit-tracks that one puts at the bot-
tom, or back of a check.

The noble art that began when
some up-and-above-the-crowd caveman
traced a line or two in primeval slime,
had its golden age when quills were
the implements, wrists were supple
— and sand a good blotting medium for
those wishing to hasten drying of
ink. But with the advent of the type-
writer hand writing, as an art. found
itself in a cramped position and with
scarcely any outlets for expression.

Literally — at least, modern educa-
tion started to toss the whole thing-
back into the lap of the caveman. And
had the trend continued, handwriting-
instructors say, a few generations
hence would find many of us reverting
to use of tick, tack toe marks for
signatures — just as our ancestors did
in the days before free education. Pen-
manship would have become a lost art
— obsolete because no one was finding
any use for it.

But educators, quick to discern what
was happening, launched at once into
a campaign to revive the declining old
practice that had served as faithfully
in building civilization, and preserving
its story for this modern world.



It is gratifying to note, at this time,
that Miss Olive A. Mellon, Superin-
tendent of Handwriting for the At-
lantic City Public Schools, is able to
report the following:

"Though it has been said that the
typewriter is replacing the pen, re-
cent statistics show that the amount
of writing materials — pen, ink and
pencils, being sold is largely on the
up-grade."

Despite the optimism expressed,
however, Miss Mellon does not hesitate
to point out that there are signs all
around us showing the ravages cut
by our indifference to the thing that
is "mightier than the sword."

"It is amazing, the number of men
and women who are responsible for
the handwriting of thousands of chil-
dren, who can scarcely write beyond
the level of the average grammar
grade child," he says. "This same
situation is found in many of out-
colleges where the teaching of hand-
writing has been assigned to persons
unskilled in the art.

"What an inspiration it is for a
child to see his instructor glide
through the movements of writing
with fluency, precision, accuracy and
beauty!"

It is a lamentable fact, Miss Mel-



lon points out, that in the past many
school administrators did not give
handwriting the support it deserved.
Business corporations continue to re-
gard legible handwriting an indis-
pensable asset in business. Many firms
are now providing- courses of training
in handwriting for their employes."



Most of us recall those magnificent
elders of our grandfathers' day who
could toss off a signature with great
dexterity — producing a finished prod-




Doris Almy, Supervisor of Handwrit-
ing of Fall River, Massachusetts, and
President of the N. A. P. T. S.

uct that combined everything from
nestling ducks to a pack of beagle
hounds in full pursuit, all inter-
twined with a whirling something
that looked like the Atlantic Cable
undergoing the last agony. Some called
it "Spencerian" — but it would seem
at this late day that Spencer must not
have intended it that way — for speci-
mens of this beautiful type of pen-
manship that remain extant are far
more pleasing to the eye.

The oldtimers meant well, of course.
What they sought to exhibit was grace-
fulness of movement, also perfect
wrist control — and the ability that
comes with endless practice in making
long, slanting loops with interchang-
ing light and shade produced by pres-
sure, or lack of it, on the steel pen.

But with the coming of the 20th



Century the world had little time for
fancy penmanship. Gone were the
scrolls and nestling ducks — and in
practically no time at all a new deal
in handwriting was introduced. It was
a sloping easy style that looked well
on paper, but alas — just a transition
that brought in what undoubtedly was
the most hideous of all trends in
penmanship, vertical writing.

No Spartan scribe, armed with
stylus and clay slab, could have turned
out more labored, unsightly looking
writing than this new "vertical" hand
was producing in the days of the
bloomer girl. Straight up and down
the lines went, and school children
were driving outraged parents to cover
with copy books filled with the fright-
ful stuff. A fine state of affairs, indeed,
for those oldsters who held to the
Spencerian school.



Fortunately, Miss Mellon informs
us, vertical writing was so unpopular
that it lasted in favor but a short
time. It was both unsightly and im-
practical, she says, and business would
have none of it because it slowed up
writing.

Incidentally, individuals are easily
"dated" by their handwriting — partic-
ularly those who got their education
during the vertical writing years.

Following the short-lived up-and-
down penmanship there was a slant-
ing hand, which — in its diverse forms,
endures with us today. It is called a
"medium slant," and is known to the
experts as connected writing. There
are no "Ys" left with their tails hang-
ing midway through a word — no wide
gaps between letters.

"There is an important field open
to those who write a legible, connected
hand," according to Miss Mellon.
"Good handwriting is used in adver-
tising — you see it on billboards all
around. Somebody had to do that writ-
ing in the original. It is used on cards
of various kinds — and even the sky-
writer and the Neon sign man have
to be sure their writing is graceful
and connected."

Not everyone can learn to be a
professional writer, Miss Mellon ex-
plains, but "anyone with proper edu-
cation can acquire a good and pleasing
style if they are physically equipped
to do so."

To the many people who seek ex-
cuses for their poor handwriting by
saying — "I know it's bad, but it ex-
pressed my own individuality and I
don't want to destroy that by chang-
ing to a new style," Miss Mellon re-



The Educator



19



plies that individuality cannot be de-
stroyed — "that's an inheritance that
has nothing to do with the mechanics
of writing. Improved penmanship will
still show that individuality if it is
there.

"No handwriting, with or without
individuality, is any good if it is not
legible!"

Those of us who have struggled to
decipher handwriting that looks like
footprints of Donald Duck will add
huzzahs to this last — there being noth-
ing quite so aggravating as the "nice
long letter" that can't be read. It is to
forestall such future miseries that Miss
Mellon lifts her voice in favor of big-
ger and better interest in an art that
has a cultural as well as utilitarian
history.

Under prevailing conditions, the
school child gets little more than four
years of handwriting training — these
being devoted, mainly, to development
of a good business hand. The training
starts at about the second school year,
but — as Miss Mellon points out, chil-
dren grow and change, "and it is folly
to abolish instruction in writing just
at an age when they are becoming bet-
ter equipped to absorb what they're
being taught."

The reference is to the period when
the pupil reached Junior High age at
which stage the study — as such, is
abandoned. Miss Mellon would "carry
the instruction through Junior High,"
or for two years.

An interesting new trend in mod-
ern education is introduction of "man-
uscript print," a type of writing taught
in the primary grades that aids chil-
dren in distinguishing letter forms
and makes the transition from writ-
ten to printed word less difficult.
Youngsters introduced to manuscript
print learn to read much quicker than
those taught as older folk were
taught.

Olive Mellon is president of the De-
partment of Handwriting, New Jersey
Education Association, and Secretary
of the National Handwriting Council.



Helping the Student






The above writing was done by a
student who should be given help in
alignment. It would be well for him
to make his capital letters a full %
of an inch high and the tops of the
letters should touch the blue line and
the bottoms rest on the base line. Some
practice of this kind would probably
enable him to get his lettering more



nearly the proper size. Of course, the
letters should be, for actual writing,
% of the distance between the two
blue lines. There should always be a
little white space between the top of
the writing and the base line above.
In practicing it is well to use a ruler
to test the height of the letters.



EARNS A DEGREE

D. L. Walker who attended the Zane-
rian in 1913, was recently granted a
degree by the Glenville State Teachers
College, Glenville, West Virginia.

It is interesting to note that he re-
ceived credit for work taken in pen-
manship at the Zanerian. He also took
work from Ohio University, Athens,
Ohio, and Salem College, Salem, West
Virginia. When we first met Mr. Wal-
ker he was teaching a country school
at Reedy, West Virginia. He is now in
the Roosevelt School, Parkersburg,
West Virginia. This is considered one
of the most modern buildings in the
state.

We recently examined specimens
from Mr. Walker's students and found
many of them up to our Certificate
standard. Mr. Walker is certainly to
be complimented on his perseverance
in completing his education while
teaching and also upon the good results
which he secured from his students.

Mr. Walker's penmanship is beauti-
ful — the kind that makes you take a
second look.



GOLDEN WEDDING
ANNIVERSARY

Mr. and Mrs. John F. Siple, 535
Maple Avenue, Newport, Kentucky, re-
cently celebrated their Golden Wed-
ding Anniversary. Mr. Siple became
interested in penmanship at the age of
sixteen, through the influence of a
penmanship magazine. He received his
first real penmanship training from
Uriah McKee of Oberlin College and
in 1892 he attended the Zanerian Col-
lege of Penmanship, after which he
taught penmanship in Bartlett's Busi-
ness College at Cincinanti, Banks' Col-
lege in Philadelphia and for nearly
thirty years was policy engrosser for
the Union Central Life Insurance Com-
pany.

He has appeared in hundreds of
questioned handwriting cases and is
today considered one of the best hand-
writing experts in the country. Mr.
Siple still writes a very beautiful, bold
hand.




By F. B. Courtney, Detroit, Mich.



20



The Educator



The School Exhibit

By ETHEL J. KESTERSON
Supervisor of Handwriting, Champaign Public Schools



School exhibits, like all other school
work, should be carefully planned and
organized. They must be denned and
justified by a sound objective. They
may represent any department and
be of any type, depending upon the
subject— handwriting, art, vocational
subjects, activities, music, festivals,
dramatics, and athletics. They may
be simple or elaborate, but they must
show the actual work of the children
developed from regular classroom
study. Co-operation is vital. All
concerned must feel that their contri-
butions add to the project.

Even though it has been stated that
the teaching world has overdone ob-
jectives, an exhibit should have its
objective. There are still reasons for
most human activities, even for liv-
ing. Such a reason may be for fun
only, but that in itself is a purpose.
Robert Littell, in an article in the
September, 1937, Readers Digest.
commenting on extra-curricular ac-
tivities in a senior high school, says,
"Fun is one of the best teachers in
the world and one of the least ap-
preciated." Any goal successfully
reached or purpose satisfactorily ac-



Reprinted from The Illinois Teacher

complished may furnish a certain
amount of fun.

In my opinion, exhibits add color
and life to school work. The plan of
display must vary from year to year,
else they may become stereotyped.
They must also show a proper balance.
Up to the present time the schools in
Champaign, Illinois, have used three
plans, which have been equally suc-
cessful and interesting to the public.
They may be classed as the general
exhibit, the building exhibit, and the
optional building display. In each
plan the same fundamentals of hand-
writing, of art, and of activity study
are found in the exhibitions.

The general exhibit is a centralized
display held in the gymnasium of the
junior high school in early spring.
Each department and each school is
represented. Classroom posters and
projects from the handwriting and
the art departments show correlation
with all subjects. Different kinds of
machinery from the vocational school
are installed for demonstration of
everyday work. The colorful mounts,
the miniature villages depicting the
study of community life and of nat-




The Exhibitors Enjoy the Exhibit



ural resources, together with the noise
of activity, give evidence of an educa-
tion designed from the words of
Dewey — "Education is a process of
living, and not a preparation for fu-
ture life."

Handwriting pupils, stationed at
various desks, take the signatures of
visitors, young artists make sketches
of them, and students from the print
shop show their skill with personal
cards for many guests. Hundreds of
people, both local and from nearby
towns, are registered during the two
days and evenings of the display.

The building exhibits carry out
many of these features. They are
held in each school building at dif-
ferent dates — more often at the time
of a P. T. A. or Dad's Night meeting.
Usually this plan furnishes more
room and gives teachers and pupils
better opportunities for initiative in
arrangement, since both classroom
and hall space are utilized. Each
grade exhibit is assembled in one
unit while the hall display may repre-
sent all grades, or show steps of
progress in some particular subject
such as handwriting, or it may show
different grade levels. In both plans
work from each child is displayed and
meaningful drill, progress, and ap-
plication of daily study are keynotes
of the work.

The third plan of exhibit may start
at any time of the year and grow as
study progresses. The date or occa-
sion for display may be decided by the
building faculty or principal; how-
ever, the superintendent may have a
reason for setting the date. All co-
operate for its success. Such displays
serve a worthwhile purpose as a me-
dium of growth and a tie-up of study
after completion of a project. They
are a means of showing tangible re-
sults and definite outcomes of an ac-
tivity. They aid in organization of
thought through expression in hand-
writing, in creative music, and in art.
They teach qualities of citizenship and
encourage the development of leader-



The Educator



21



ship by their units of group work.
They stimulate a pride in accomplish-
ment and exemplify two outstanding
principles of education: that people
vary in their mode of learning, and
there is no fixed body of subject
matter which has in itself any great
importance unless it is useful.

In planning the hand-writing ex-
hibit the following objectives are
set up.

1 To stimulate pupil interest

2. To display a sample of work from
each child

3. To show progress of work of in-
dividuals

4. To show progress of work by
grades

5. To aid pupils in analytical selec-
tion between results

6. To show style, size and standard
writing for each grade

7. To show the public the skill, exe-
cution, and results in handwriting

8. To show writing as an integral
part of all school work

Each building in Champaign has a
writing chairman, who has the privi-
lege of calling meetings or issuing
bulletins of general information, after
meeting with the supervisor and con-
sulting with the principal. When the
meetings deal with exhibits, some of
the problems discussed are units of
subject matter, arrangement and
mounting of specimens, and size of
cardboards. Any phase of study,
projects, or activities of daily class
work furnish interesting material for
integration and correlation. Exam-
ples of general interest are: safety,
health, communication, transporta-
tion, current events, or any study of
community life or of home products.
The teacher and pupil select their
own subject matter, thus giving va-
riety and individuality to the mounts.

Different qualities of work may be
set up in units — work that shows su-
perior ability, that is done by left-
handed children and that centers
around drill or shows definite im-
provement.

The arrangement must be artistic.
Illustrations from art or suggestive
pictures are used on mounts. Card-
board is now available in many at-
tractive colors and is very desirable.



Writing papers are mounted accord-
ing to supplementary tones used.

The writing program is flexible and
furnishes a wealth of display material.

The exhibits are interesting, con-
structive, and effective, and each year
should show some outstanding point
of progress, big enough to measure
pupil, teacher, and supervisor growth.



considerable pen work, filling diplomas,
etc. Mr. Via conducted a course of
lessons in THE EDUCATOR several
years ago. He received his training in
the Zanerian.



Doing Pen Work

Harry R. Via, 6356 Normal Blvd.,
Chicago, the skilled penman with
whose work most of our readers are
familiar, states that he has been doing



Specimens
Mr. J. G. Wootton of the Carolina
Commercial College, Reidsville, North
Carolina, recently sent us a large
specimen of his work containing a com-
bination of ornamental and roundhand.
Mr. Wootton is an enthusiastic fol-
lower of THE EDUCATOR and is a
very skillful penman as well as an all-
round commercial school man.







t^*& od?^W 'SfCey"



By W. Anthony of P. O. Box 3146. Washington. D. C.



22



The Educator





iitjippwrittltttit

ks.lfe(ia\jtwindcd oul3fie^U)fllTil'tln' fltfot'his connection un'llv
iVJTlrnc femtg.and




UfluCt, cwradag in 6i*_Kifl*«orc ^fwotf h'assccn from Km uncnaivp'ftd toualli)
and lull' lu\nhj-lc>ur hour service in tne inlcrcsls' oHfe linn, and

jIUluU" nc na< Iki virtue *t inaV^lfa, inlertwcp.ee and lo\iall\j rmn >"Ut> pu sle'p from

■o ih\- othce of $to iDirraiir aitlt viff-fltisiftnfUd

U! \nniUH il'fwis kenni* >jxcial\_h\irqc during all'lhW years lofocp a uMlefiraf «w]
'anonlistorta'ne? ollfios<>ftcmlcs lcu«t "able lo care torilH'insclves.auidinq andenccrina Incm.
alonq ifieir mpccKvc u^us lo n^ahnrit^ and p'rosjxriKf. and

\nm course otlhis uvrR'. h\\lhouqfi talfer lo'none, Iw* bccoincJUllu lo all!

_^ai w.ibeTDiriTlat? of thr uliUfant jpilnif s Snw (j^ouqmitydoiwrch

sianilu. hy IIksc resolutions oar sincere appreciation ol'ttys.lonq.Ioual'aricl cvlrcmcl'u 3
valuabTc scroicc and unanimous!^ wish" said iltfllUtt? i\Ull;ir *XltTlj

f|rtui| ]Kjtji|ii| I^rturus nf tbr (f) oil

>£&&&?* d

October firsl; '"nineteen -hxincirccl and 'JuxnKi.





A very beautiful piece of Illumination by the F. W. Martin Company of Boston, Massachusetts. It is a pleasure to
announce that Mr. Martin has contributed a series of engrossed resolutions, diplomas, etc., which will appear in
our columns regularly. For a good many years the Martin Diploma Company has been one of the leading en-
grossing establishments in the United States.

You will do well to study these various designs and place them in your permanent scrap book.



The Educator



23




A dashy, bold signature written in 1911



ENGROSSERS SUPPLIES


At Whole


sale Prices


Album Covers. Vellu


m. Sheepskin. Ilium-


inated Stock Borders


Books on Illuminat-


ing bought and sold.


Send for Old English


Alphabet and Price


List.


THE HARRIS STUD]


Engrossers, Ilium


inators. Designers


1403-4 Marquette


Building, Chicago



CARDS! CARDS! CARDS!

1 Dor. Embellished 35c

1 Doi. Ornamental 30c

Greeting Cards, Embellished, each.. 25c

Large Greeting Cards, 6x7 in. embellished,
with bird, scroll, lettering, and ornamen-
tal writing:, elaborate, very beautiful. ...$1 .00
Also I give courses in penmanship by mail.
Write for my free book, "How to Become an
Expert Penman," which shows what others
have accomplished by taking my courses. Your
name elegantly written on a card if you en-
close stamp. Write Tiday. T. M. TEVIS,
Box 25-C, Chillicothe, Mo.



A GOOD POSITION

If you want to improve yourself in pen-
manship and engrossing and secure a good
position come to
The Zanerian College of Penmanship,

Columbus, Ohio
612 N. Park St. Write for Circular



A very attractive circular has been
received from Cannon's School of Busi-
ness, Honolulu, Hawaii, which school is
enjoying a good enrollment. We re-
ceived some very fine penmanship from
Cannon's.



TAKE A LETTER!

"Now, Miss Blogg," boomed Jasper
M. Wurtle, Whirlwind Laundry Co., to
his stenographer, "I want you to un-
derstand that when I dictate a letter,
I want it written AS DICTATED and
not the way YOU think it should be.
Understand ?"

"Yes, sir," said Miss Blogg, meekly.

"I fired three stenographers for re-
vising my letters, see?"

"Yes, sir."

The next morning Mr. O. J. Squizz,
of the Squizz Soap Co., received the
following letter:

"Mr. O. K. . . . A. J. . . . something
— look it up — Squizz, President of the
Squizz — what a name! — Flexible Soap
Co., the gyps!!!

"Dear Mr. Squizz: . . . Hmmmmmm
— no, start over . . . he's a crook, but
I can't insult him or the bum'll sue me
. . . quit chewing that gum . . . the
last shipment you sent us was of in-



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