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The Educator



Specialized Business Materials

tf-ob ^>uUnUfXf Wartime Ma*tpuuueA.

With our manpower needs in mind, notice how these War Emergency Materials of Gregg
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ARMY OFFICE TRAINING, by Allison. The story of a typical soldier from induction
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THE MECHANICS OF NAVY CORRESPONDENCE gives the essential training for
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MILITARY CORRESPONDENCE, by George Murraine Cohen. Meets the need for
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FILING PROCEDURE AND EQUIPMENT, by Gregg. A separately bound reprint
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MOST-USED NAVY TERMS, by Harry W. Newman. Text or reference book. Con-
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MOST-USED AVIATION TERMS, by Baughman and Gregg. Consists of 1,000 com-
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Vol. 18



COLUMBUS, OHIO, JANUARY, 1943



No. 5



CURES (or Common School Ills

With malice toward none — realizing that even your best
friends won't tell you —

We, the committee, humbly submit our cures for common,
everyday, school ills.



No. 4



BULLETIN BORED ? ?

Perhaps it is because he is expected to
sensibly interpret the presence of Cham-
berlain, Sonja Henie, and the Baby Panda
all but lost in an avalanche of last month's
prize penmanship papers.

Pertinent, interesting clippings, and at-
tractively mounted pictures can be made
a pupil responsibility, one that affords a
splendid opportunity for ingenious and
artistic endeavor. Bulletin boards should
complement and supplement the activities
in the room where they are located, and



the material presented should have suf-
ficient significance to justify its display.

WATER, WATER EVERYWHERE

Are the walls around the lavatory exam-
ples of the pupils' splatter painting? And
the floor a sample of mottled wood or
linoleum? Can you detect the original
color of the bathroom fixtures?

Daily cleaning will help to keep the fix-
tures shiny and bright. Many times a
well-conducted school is marred by un-
sightly looking bathrooms. Frequent air-
ings and rigid cleaning schedules will
eliminate odors.



The Committee



Edith Becker

Mrs. Betty Anderson

Mrs. Mary McDevitt

Courtesy of Lake County Board of Education, Waukegan, Illinois



Kathleen Mulryan
Margaret Sorenson
Marguerite Zimmer
Mildred Hulik



THE EDUCATOR

Published monthly (except July and August)
By The ZANER-BLOSER CO.,
612 N. Park St, Columbus. O.

E. A. LUPFER Editor

PARKER ZANER BLOSER Business MgT.



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE. SI. 50 A YEAR

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Single copy, 25c.

Change of address should be requested
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old as well as the new address.

Advertising rates furnished upon request.



THE EDUCATOR is the best medium
through which to reach business college pro-
prietors and managers, commercial teachers
and students, and lovers of penmansnip. Copy
must reach our office by the 10th of the
month for the issue of the following month.



Wartime Business Penmanship




% ft fy Vf fy If fy fy % If ty % fr fy ft 2<




First, see that you have a good position of the body, hand, pen, and paper. Second, note carefully the
relative size of letter as compared with other letters.




See how easily and gracefully and yet how correctly you can execute these forms. See to it that the i
has an angle at the top and a short turn at the base, and that all letters rest on the base line. Form and
freedom are the prime factors.



The Educator




-S3^yy3y3^j^3^?^3^ / 3^2'y3^^&




Be careful to make the down strokes nearly straight and slanting. The tendency is to curve the down
stroke entirely too much. Keep the down strokes as light as the up strokes, which will necessitate a light,
elastic action of the arm.




sy sy yy yy <k <k ak ^y ^y <x~ ak <o^ <ak <k ^x

^A? ^Qz> ~A>? -A? ^Ao ZA?SA?yh SAk? J>i^> _>£? ~^Q? ZA^J>C? SA?



Push the pen freely, firmly yet lightly, with a crisp but not scratching sound. Space uniformly and strive for
neatness as well as for ease. Watch position of body, and keep holder pointing to the right shoulder.




Be sure you have the correct position of the body, aims, hand, pen, and paper. Swing the hand gracefully
and forcefully.

(Continued on Page 16-17)



10



The Educator



The Left-Handed Pupil Needs
Encouragement



Perhaps the one thing pupils need
more than anything else in penman-
ship is encouragement. Especially
is it true of left-handed writers. No
one can do his or her best without
having a clear idea of what is to
be done. Anyone likes to know that
what he is doing is satisfactory.
"Nothing succeeds like success."

A HOPEFUL ATTITUDE

It is not uncommon to meet a left-
handed writer who has a hopeless



By Pearl Tuttle
Marion, Ohio

their special difficulties, and appreci-
ation of the value of good penman-
ship in all school life and life out-
side of the school are needed by
teachers.

THE TEACHER'S ATTITUDE IS
CONTAGIOUS

When a definitely left - handed
pupil is discovered in a writing class,
it is well for the teacher to accept
the situation as a challenge, be
pleased with it, and at the same



need much patient attention. The
blackboard is a valuable tool in
teaching left-handed students.

KNOWLEDGE OF CORRECT

LETTER FORMS IS

IMPORTANT

Attention to letter forms is im-
portant. The pupil must have a
mental picture of the correct form
of each individual letter and of
combinations of letters. Much at-



^AS.




*H.






^C>C£s



^Oc^



l^wu^JLs



a-xxyu



These two specimens were written by Wayne Mateer, a fifth grade pupil in the Cardington, Ohio, Public
Schools. The specimen to the left was written on February 5th and the one on the right on March 24th. They
show remarkable progress for such a short time and they also show what a little encouragement and help will
do for a left-hander.



attitude toward ever accomplishing
any satisfactory skill in penmanship.
This attitude can and must be
changed. Understanding of the
methods required for teaching left-
handers, sympathy for them with




Howard demonstrates the position
for left-handed writers at the black-
board.



time show her pleasure. It is a real
opportunity. The teacher's attitude
— whatever it is — is contagious and
the pupil is no longer embarrassed
if the teacher is happy about find-
ing that he is left-handed.

THE LEFT-HANDED POSITION
IS DIFFERENT

The pupil must be given a clear
understanding of what his writing
position is to be and that he is to
receive individual instructions. His
sitting position is like that of right-
handed pupils but his paper is tilted
in the opposite direction. (The top
of the paper points to the upper
right corner of the desk). The pen-
cil is held by the left hand a little
higher up from the point than by
the right hand. This enables him
to see what he has written. Down
strokes of letters move toward the
elbow rather than toward the center
of the body as with the right-handed
pupil. The weight of the body is
shifted to the right arm, instead of
the left as with the right-handed
pupil, to give a free and controlled
movement of the left arm and to
guarantee smooth, light lines. All
of these phases of position will like-
ly be new to the pupil — they always
seem to be new — and will, therefore



tention to pauses in letters is very
necessary. Size, slant, alignment,
retraces and spacing — all have an
important place in the visualization
of correct forms of letters. If the
teacher is able to demonstrate these
in all of her blackboard writing, it
will be a great aid to pupils in see-
ing correct letter forms.




Ralph is writing with his left hand.
Study the position of the paper,
hands and penholder.



The Educator



11



FINDING SOMETHING GOOD IN
EVERY PAPER ENCOUR-

\<;i:s im{()(;ress

At the start, the teacher should
find something Rood on every paper
— and emphasize it. This will en-
courage the pupil more than any-
thing else. Finding good letters and
words will help him picture in his
mind correct letter forms and get
him off to a good start. He will



know better what to work for. As
time goes on the least sign of im-
provement should be noted. No
matter what it is — good slant, light
lines, even letters, good beginning
and ending strokes, nice tall letters
— no matter how insignificant the
improvement, call attention to it.
On every paper find something good
and stress it. Rapid progress will
follow.



PROGRESS ENCOURAGES
THE PUPIL

As progress is made and the pupil
compares his new papers with his
old ones, he will himself see im-
provement and recognize certain
faults disappearing (with very little
mention having been made of them).
There will be a wholesome attitude
toward penmanship and improve-
ment will continue.



BEFORE AND AFTER SPECIMENS








(ix^cL^Ldy °^c^ "? 7 -^^/Lo-ipCdy



We have here two specimens written by Sister Mary of the Sacred Heart, during a special summer term
at Mount Saint Mary Normal School, Kenmore, New York, conducted by Miss Pearl Tuttle of Marion, Ohio.
Notice the remarkable change in writing. The top specimen was written July 7th and the bottom specimen
July 19th. The bottom specimen is uniform in slant, height and spacing. With a little more practice this
Sister can establish permanently a good style of writing. It is very encouraging to see left-handed persons
make such splendid improvement in such a short period. It shows what good instruction and faithful, intelli-
gent effort can accomplish.



IMPORTANCE OF CORRECT POSITION

The importance of correct position of the paper cannot be over-
emphasized. See that the paper for left-handers points to the upper
right corner of the desk. The left arm should be at right angles to
the base lines.

Incorrect position of the paper may make a left-hander a poor
writer for life. The holder should point to the left elbow.



CONCLUSION

All of this seems to require so
little of a teacher, but a little
teacher-enthusiasm and a little in-
terest in the left-handed pupils go
a long way toward encouraging
them to become better writers.





Study position of paper.



12



THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
OF HANDWRITING



By Marjorie Harrison



Of all the evidences of ancient
civilizations which remain to us to-
day, the most complete and the most
unaffected by the passing of thous-
ands of years is the little group of
alphabets employed by the intel-
lectual world. The invention of the
alphabet as it is today has been the
most difficult enterprise which human
intellect has ever undertaken. As
Dr. Taylor has stated, "To achieve
the letters as we know them has
taxed the intellect of the three most
gifted races of the ancient world. It
was begun by the Egyptians, con-
tinued by the Semites, and finally
perfected by the Greeks."

THREE STAGES OF DEVELOP-
MENT

The development of handwriting
may be divided into three stages: the
Mnemonic stage, ideograms, and
phonograms.

MNEMONIC STAGE

In the Mnemonic stage, tangible
objects were used for records and
correspondence. Perhaps the best
example is the quipu, which consisted
of thin knotted cords of varied colors
attached to a main cord. Each color
and each type of knot had a peculiar
significance. For instance, red
strands stood for soldiers, green for
corn, etc., while the meaning of a
single knot was ten, two single knots,
twenty, a double knot, one hundred,
etc. In addition to their use in
reckoning, these quipus were used
in many other ways, such as for
sending orders and for keeping
records of the dead. The quipu is
still used in elaborate form in the
plateaus of Peru. A fine example of
this same idea in use today is the
rosary, on which Roman Catholics
count their prayers.

IDEOGRAMS OR PICTURE
WRITING

Ideograms, which constituted the
next stage of development, are pic-
tures which represent objects or
thoughts. Pictorial writing devel-
oped from the need for identifying
possessions and for conveying
thoughts. Representations of animals
and of tribesmen carved in rocks, the
totem engraved upon a stone to in-
dicate the grave of a chief, a picture
of a weapon or tool to indicate suc-
cess in battle — all are evidences of
this stage of development in writing.
The primitive Chinese discovered that
they could enlarge their system of
writing by combining several pic-
tures, or ideograms. Thus, the



Chinese word for "wife" is denoted
by the combination of the pictures of
a "woman" and a "broom."



NEW JERSEY EDUCATION
ASSOCIATION DEPART-
MENT OF HAND-
WRITING 1942-43

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
President:

Maude E. Meyers

Supervisor of Handwriting
Board of Education, Newark, N. J.

Vice President:

Helen Y. Shafer

Roosevelt School, Dunellen, N. J.

Secretary :

Genevieve M. Yelton

Lafayette Street School
Newark, N. J.

Treasurer:

Edith R. Hall

Robert Stacy Jr. School
Burlington, N. J.

CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES:

Membership:

Enola M. Morgan

110 So. Church St. Morristown, N. J.



Publicity:



Pearl M. Yeager

Atlantic City, N. J.

Exhibit:

Grace M. Pharazyn

Margate, N. J.

Publications:

Olive A. Mellon

Administration Bldg.
Atlantic City, N. J.

Hand Book:

Emma G. Myers

10 Devonshire Place, Bridgeton, N. J.

Research:

Maude E. Meyers

Board of Education, Newark, N. J.

PHONOGRAMS OR SOUND
REPRESENTATION

The final stage of development,
phonograms, produced alphabetic
signs representing sounds rather than
objects. The hieroglyphs selected by
the Egyptians for this purpose are
the source of all existing alphabets.
There is reasonable evidence to be-
lieve that even so far back as 4700 B.
C. hieroglyphic writing was already
an ancient system. The Egyptian
hieroglyphic, like every other prim-
itive mode of writing, began with pic-
ture, later changing to verbal and



written signs representing sounds,
or phonograms. Even today we con-
tinue to use ideograms and phono-
grams to a considerable extent. An
example of the ideogram in use today
is Roman numerals. I, II, III were
originally pictures of the fingers,
while V was probably a picture of
the fork of the hand between the
finger and the thumb. Excellent
examples of our use of phonograms
are the dollar sign and the question
mark.

THE HIEROGLYPHICS

The Egyptian hieroglyphics were
developed through the Phoenicians
and Greeks into the Euboean form.
In about the 6th century B. C. this
Euboean alphabet was introduced into
Italy, where it was modified to form
the Roman letters from which we
have developed our English alphabet.

The ultimate dominance of the
Romans resulted in the abolition
of every other alphabet except their
own, at present being the medium
of the culture of the progressive races
of the world.

LATIN LETTERING

The oldest forms of Latin letter-
ing are those of majuscule writing.
Its simplicity and mathematical pro-
portions account for its extensive use
for inscriptions in stone. When used
in manuscript work, the letters natur-
ally acquired a somewhat different
character, becoming more flexible
because of the unequal pressure of
the reed.

RUSTIC WRITING

This type of writing which is
called Rustic writing, was in dom-
inance in the 5th and 6th centuries.
There are several outstanding pecul-
iarities of this style of lettering. The
"A" had no cross-bar, and the "L"
and the tail of the "Q" were greatly
exaggerated. The period was always
placed above the line, often on a level
with the tops of the letters.

CAROLINE WRITING

The use of small letters as con-
trasted with capital letters began in
the 5th century as the result of the
need for a more rapid handwriting.

In the early Middle Ages, a very
beautiful style of lettering, called
Caroline writing, developed. It is
characterized by the roundness of the
letters and is outstanding in its
beauty.

In the latter Middle Ages, the
curves almost entirely disappeared,
(Continued on Page 18)



13



PENMANSHIP AT CAPITAL UNIVERSITY




Miss Clala L. Leum, for a number of years, has conducted a class in penmanship for teachers at Capital
University, Columbus, Ohio. Regular classes are conducted in Methods and Drill. The students are trained
how to write and how to teach. They are able to make model copies and are familiar with the change in
methods of teaching. Credits are given for the work in handwriting, and each year Miss Leum has a very
interesting class of students. The accompanying is a typical example of their work. The specimens were
written by students as follows:

1. Norma Jean Thomas 5. Betty Jane Simen

2. Winifred Chesnut 6. Grace Schumacher



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