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Courtesy of Lake County Board of Education, Waukegan, Illinois

Kathleen Mulryan
Margaret Sorenson
Marguerite Zimmer
Mildred Hulik


Published monthly (except July and August)
612 N. Park St., Columbus. O.

E. A. LUPFER Editor



(To Canada, 10c more; foreign 30c more)

Single copy, 25c.

Change of address should be requested
promptly in advance, if possible, giving the
old as well as the new address.

Advertising rates furnished upon request.

THE EDUCATOR is the best medium
through which to reach business college pro-
prietors and managers, commercial teachers
and students, and lovers of penmanship. Copy
must reach our office by the 10th of the
month for the issue of the following month.

The Educator-

Wartime Business Penmanship

Because of the large number of men in the service, who are compelled to write at whatever place they happen
to be, under all conditions and because they have a great desire to write, there is a greater demand for handwrit-
ing today than ever before. Then too, there is a shortage of typewriters. Let those of us at home, who have the
opportunity, do everything we possibly can to learn to write legibly and easily.

Before starting to practice, it is a good idea to loosen up the muscles the same as a baseball pitcher in the
bull pen ''warms up." Nearly all athletes go through a little preliminary exercise before entering a contest. You
will find the above exercises very good to use in getting in shape for the real writing lesson. Penmen have found
these exercises very helpful in the past. They may be, in themselves, meaningless, but as a penmanship mus-
cular developer, they are worth trying.

Where you have trouble in getting a smooth, free movement like at the bottom of the G, work in an ex-
ercise on that part of the letter, as suggested in the first line. Study proportion and shape of each letter.


Keep the back of the I and J straight. Both letters start the same.

The Educator

This is a good exercise to develop freedom and system in your practice
gest this copy especially for students who crowd their work.

It would help in spacing. We sug-

Are all of your loops open ? After writing' a page, check back through all of your loops to see that they are
all open and uniform in size.

A compound curve on the back of the letter is the one which should receive most of your attention.
Mze of the loops and the directions in which they point.

Study the

The top of the T gives many students much trouble. See that you practice faithfully on the top part alone.
Study the beginning curve and the position of the cap.


The Educator

American Junior
Red Cross

Last September, the 15th to be
exact, the American Junior Red
Cross celebrated its twenty-fifth an-
niversary. More than half of the
29,000,000 boys and girls of all ages
in primary and secondary schools in
this country are members of this or-
ganization. In addition, Junior Red
Cross groups are active in many other
countries throughout the world.

A quarter of a century ago Junior
Red Cross members produced up-
wards of 15,000,000 articles for per-
sonal and recreational use by the
armed forces. They established a
National Children's Fund, to which
they contributed $3,000,000 from their
earnings and collections. For 25 years
this fund has been at work in this
country and abroad for the benefit of
young people. It has been used to
equip playgrounds and orphanages.
It has been used to provide food,
clothing and other essentials to chil-
dren in distress. It has been used to
furnish books for schools lacking
these essentials of education. In fact,
it has been used in almost every way
calculated to be of benefit to young

In the years following the World
War, the Junior Red Cross program
of community and world service was
expended in many countries. Con-
structive activities were carried on
in schools all over Europe, in the
English-speaking countries, in Japan.
Thailand, India, Iceland, and in Cen-
tral and South American nations. Al-
though Junior Red Cross societies of
other lands have generally been ex-
tremely active, the greatest for-ce in
this world-wide movement has come
from the United States.

Today the American members of
this organization are making material
contributions to the humanitarian
needs engendered by the war. War
orphanages have been established
with American Junior Red Cross
funds. Refugees all over the world
have been clothed with garments
made by American school girls.
America's soldiers and sailors are
reading thousands of books collected
by Junior Red Cross members in the
Victory Book Campaigns. Since the
beginning of the expansion of our
armed forces, Junior Red Cross mem-
bers have made some 3,000,000 arti-
cles for use by soldiers and sailors in
recreation rooms, hospitals and on
other occasions. These are from a
list of more than 70 that includes

pingpong tables, afghans. book carts,
lamps, games of all kinds, and sim-
ilar items.

The Junior Red Cross salvage pro-
gram, officially termed the ''War on
Waste," has taught many a youngster

the need for conservation and has re-
sulted in the collection of thousands
of tons of paper, rubber and other
materials. Junior Red Cross mem-
bers have been on hand to assist both
officials and the public on the various
registration and rationing days, work-
ing as clerks, receptionists, guides,
and performing other tasks.

In the general activities of the
American Red Cross the Junior mem-
bers have taken an active part. More
than $500,000 was contributed to the
War Fund collected in 1942, and
Junior organizations everywhere have
been planning ways and means of
raising contributions for the 1943 Red
Cross War Fund. Last year these
young people earned 260,000 first aid
certificates and organized Junior Red
Cross First Aid Detachments in
many schools. More than 37,000 of
them were awarded Red Cross Junior
lifesaving certificates, while 44,000,
mostly girls but including some boys,
also successfully completed the Red
Cross course in home nursing.

Despite the stress of war and the

preoccupation of Junior Red Cross
members with programs designed to
be of service to our own people, these
young people have not forgotten
those of other lands. Last fall 100,-
000 gift boxes, each containing at
least 12 articles, were packed by
them and shipped abroad as space
would permit, to be distributed to
youngsters in foreign lands. Gift
boxes were sent to England, Ireland,
Iceland. Greenland, Alaska, and Cen-
tral and South American countries.
Along with these boxes went thou-
sands of pounds of hard candy. In
England these gifts were destined
not only for English war refugees
and orphans, but also for those from
European countries who had found
shelter in the British Isles.

Ever since its creation by Presi-
dent Wilson the Junior Red Cross
has operated in the schools. Its
primary principle is to learn by do-
ing. Thus the organization offers
our boys and girls excellent oppor-
tunities for worthwhile service in the
world at war. With millions of mem-
bers in thousands of communities,
the American Junior Red Cross is
today making a real contribution to
our country and, in the long run, to
international understanding.

President Roosevelt has named
March Red Cross Month. During
that period the 1943 Red Cross War
Fund of $125,000,000 is being raised.
Your contribution to this fund will
guarantee the maintenance and
necessary expansion of Red Cross ac-
tivities on behalf of the armed forces
at home and abroad, and on behalf
of the civilian front.

Our Men Need

Send AH You Can Spare

— Good books, in good condition,
are wanted by the 1943 VICTORY
BOOK CAMPAIGN for men in all
branches of the service. Leave
yours at the nearest collection
center or public library, or mail to
PAIGN, Room 1503 Empire State
Building, New York, N. Y.

The Educator


The Eastern Commercial Teachers' Association

Largest organization of commercial teachers in the U. S.
(Joseph Gruber, Publicity Chairman, Central Commercial Hit>h School, 214 E. 42nd St.)

In the interests of war economy,
the Kith Annual Convention of the
E. C. T. A. will be held in conjunc-
tion with the Convention of the Com-
mercial Education Association, at
Hotel Commodore, New York City,
April 21, 22, 23 and 24.

"War Time Problems in Business
Education" will be the central theme
which will be developed through gen-
eral as well as section meetings, all
to be followed by discussions in
which the audience will participate.
The problems to be considered will
deal with two main topics:

War Time Problems of Manage-
ment and Adjustment, and War
Time Problems of Classroom Pro-

The central theme will be related
to all branches of business educa-
tion as they apply to public, private
and parochial schools on the second-
ary and collegiate levels.




Wednesday, April 21

Visits to schools, stores and business
offices. Meeting of Executive

Thursday Morning, April 22

Visits to schools, stores and business
offices. Official tour of exhibits.
Thursday Afternoon, April 22

The President's Message: Clinton
A Reed, Chief, Bureau of Busi-
ness Education, New York State
Education Dept.
From the viewpoint of:

(a) The Principal of a large City
High School, William L. Moors,
Prin. John Hay High School,

(b) The Principal of a large Pri-
vate Business School. Dr. Wil-
liam Sope, Pies. Drake Busi-
ness College, Newark.

(c) An Employer of a large force
of Office Workers. Lydia G.
Giberson, M.D., Medical Div.,
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.

(d) A Large War Industry. L. W.
Mosher, General Office Ac-
counting Dept. General Elec-
tric Co.

Thursday Evening, April 22


Toastmaster: Clinton A. Reed.

Address: "Business Education for
Victory," Dr. Willis A. Sutton,
Supt. of Schools, Atlanta.

Reception and Dance

Saturday Morning. April 24

General Meetinir: Chair., Miss Mary
Stuart, Vice Pies. E.C.T.A.,
Brighton, Mass.

Address: "Today— The War— Every-
body's Business," Lieut. Richard
M. Kellv, U.S.N.R., Public Rela-
tions Officer, Third Naval Dis-
trict, New York.

Address: "Tomorrow — After the War
— Everybody's Business," Colonel
M. Thomas" Tchou, (former Sec-
retary to Generalissimo Chiang

Business Meeting: Election of Offi-
cers and Members of Executive

The members of The
E.C.T. A. have always been
boosters for good penman-

Friday Morning, April 23
Problems of Curriculum Readjust-

Under the direction of Sadie L. Zieg-
ler, Secretary, Rider College,

Chair.: Charles W. Hamilton, Assist-
ant in Secondary Education, New-
Jersey Dept. of Public Inst.,

Assistant Chair.: J. Goodner Gill,
Vice Pies., Rider College, Tren-
"The Business Educator's Immedi-
ate Job in the War Emergency,"
Dr. Hamden L. Forkner, Prof, of
Education, Teachers College,
Columbia Univ.
"The People Speak as to War
Time Business Curricula," Alex-
ander S. Massell, Prin., Central
Commercial High School, New
"Preparation for Government Serv-
ice and Placement Problems,"
Dr. Earl P. Strong, Special
Agent, Research in Business Ed-
ucation, U. S. Office of Educa-
tion, Washington.

General Discussion by Members of
the Audience.

Problems of Personnel Adjustment

Under the direction of Mrs. Frances
Doub North, Western High
School, Baltimore.

Chair.: Mrs. Margaret L. Radoff,
Western High School, Baltimore.

Assistant Chair.: Dr. Anson B. Bar-
ber, Madison College, Harrisburg,

"Problems of Personnel Adjust-
ment from the Junior College
Point of View," Marsdon A.
Sherman, formerly with San
Jose Junior College, Calif.

•'Problems of Personnel Adjust-
ment from the University Point
of View," Professor Cecil Puck-
ett, Univ. of Ind.

"Problems of Personnel Adjust-
ment from the Point of View of
the Director," Clarissa Hills, Dir.
of Business Education, Johns-

Problems of Student Mental and
Emotional Stabilization

Under the direction of Conrad J.
Saphier, Dept. of Secretarial
Studies, Samuel J. Tilden High
School, Brooklyn.

Chair.: John M. Loughran, Prin.,
Christopher Columbus High
School, New York.

Assistant Chair.: Mrs. Charlotte Dee-
gan Chickering, Secretarial De-
partment, Jamaica High School,
N. Y.
"Problems of Student Mental and
Emotional Stabilization," Kath-
erine Reif, Guidance Counselor
and Teacher of Health Educa-
tion, Samuel J. Tilden Hitch
School, Brooklyn.
"Emotional Stability of Students
in War Time," Dr. Ruth Strange,
Professor of Education, Teachers
College, Columbia Univ.
"Adolescence in War Time," Dr.
Morris Krugman, Chief Psychol-
ogist, Bureau of Child Guidance.
New York.

General Discussion by the Audience.

Problems of Supplies, Equipment,
and Maintenance

Under the direction of Dr. Noel P.
Laird, Prof. of Advertising.
Franklin and Marshall College,

Chair.: Clyde B. Edgeworth, Sup. of
Com. Education, Baltimore.

Assistant Chair.: Louis A. Rice,
Prin., The Packard School.
"Keeping the Schools Going Dur-
ing the War," Dr. Harvey A.
Smith, Supt. of Schools, Lan-
"Supplies and Equipment Adjust-
ments for War Time Economy,"
John G. Kirk, Dir., Com. Educa-
tion, Philadelphia.

One Speaker to the Announced.

General Discussion by the Audience.



The Educator


From many sources we notice a
growing interest being manifested in
handwriting, especially in high
schools preparing people for office
work. Most people are required to
do more handwriting today than in
recent years and are realizing a lack
of ability to write well. An article
recently appeared in The Rochester
Democrat and Chronicle, which states
that the war has put many people
on their feet financially again and is
also putting penmanship back in a
prominent place. It states that the
increasing lack of available type-
writers causes people to discover that
they must do more longhand writing,
both in business and social corre-

Typewriters Frozen

An enormous demand for hand-
writing has been created by the boys
in service. The article calls atten-
tion to the fact that typewriters have
been frozen and that the government
has been securing as many used ma-
chines from business places as pos-
sible in order to do the work re-
quired of the Armed Forces. This
has made a shortage of typewriters
among business firms and offices,
which increases the demand for good

A Growing Need

The newspaper in making a survey
of the work being done in schools in
handwriting, finds that school officials
have recognized the need for good
penmanship and that much is being
done to get the students interested
in improving themselves in handwrit-
ing. Mr. Clifford M. Ulp, Super-
visor of the School of Arts at Me-
chanics Institute, believes in good
handwriting, and that it is a desir-

able attribute. He receives many
letters and evidence that convinces
him that good penmanship is greatly
needed today. More systematic drill
classes are needed in high schools.

Demand for Lettering

This institution conducts classes in
manuscript and lettering. The Edu-
cator is glad to see Mechanics Insti-
tute giving instructions in some of
the broad pen alphabets, such as Old
English, and Engrossing Text, etc.,
as well as the standard styles of let-
tering such as Roman, Egyptian, etc.
It is worth giving some attention to
these styles for the demand for this
kind of lettering is on the increase.
You can see it in more signs, maga-
zines, circulars, etc. A number of
good positions are open at the pres-
ent for good engrossers.

We sincerely hope you will
have a regular class in hand-
writing for legible handwriting
is a social "must", a good rec-
ommendation in business and a
valuable life companion.

Good handwriting helps pupils
to advance faster in school ani
makes the teacher's work easier.
First positions are often secured
because of good handwriting and
promotions are frequently made
because of neat, accurate work.

Persons trained to be neat and
careful with the pen are usually
careful and proficient in other
things. Holding regular classes
in handwriting is the best way
of acquiring the necessary skill
to write well.

Teachers Are Improving
The Business Education Depart-

ment of the public schools of Roches-
ter, under the direction of Charles E.
Cook, employs Mrs. Arthamann, a
champion of good penmanship. Mrs.
Arthamann gives "Pep Talks" to the
pupils along with blackboard demon-
strations. She emphasizes the good
points of writing and inspires the
students to want to do good hand-
writing. She states that many public
school teachers are improving their
own handwriting as well as making
a serious effort to raise the standard
of handwriting among the pupils. In
many places teachers are taking cor-
respondence instruction, holding
teachers' meetings and practicing

Drill and Remedial Classes
In the high schools there has been
a tendency for pupils to disregard
handwriting. In many high schools
the handwriting became atrocious.
There is a marked improvement to-
day toward handwriting in the high
schools. Many are conducting regular
drill classes while others have rem-
edial classes trying to bring all up
to standard. From Baltimore, Mary-
land, The Educator gets a report
that that city is endeavoring to do
something about the handwriting in
the senior high schools. Surely no
high school student should go out
into an office position or into a uni-
versity without being able to write
legibly and freely. It is something
that practically everyone can learn to
do by studying and practicing intelli-

Improves Present Style
Mrs. Margaret F. Lunger, head of
the English Department of the
School of Commerce in Rochester,
emphasizes penmanship in some of
the classes, especially in accounting

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The Educator


and bookkeeping;. Evidently Mrs.
Lunger does not try to change the
style of a student's handwriting in
her department but works on the
theory that you can improve the
style that they have easier than to
completely change it. Many teach-
ers have found that this is a sensible
way of teaching.

You may induce a pupil to make
some change in letter forms like
rounding out turns, opening e's, and
dozens of other little things which
affect legibility, while you might not
be able to get him to change some
of the larger things.

You can start in gradually on little
things and if the pupil responds
readily you can eventually make a

radical change in his handwriting.
If you can get a student to write
legibly and with a fair amount of
ease you have accomplished much.

The teacher who has not given
much attention to handwriting and
is at a loss to know what to do to
help her students improve their writ-
ing will find it of considerable help
to check their work in a systematic-
way by using- a key similar to the

Pupils can check their own writing.
Have them consider one quality at a
time and compare their own work
with their textbook. Yes, by all
means see that they have a good
text book and that they use it.

1 SIZE Irregular Too large Too small

2 SLANT Irregular Too slanting Nearly vertical

3 SPACING Irregular Crowded Scattered

4 APPEARANCE OP PAGE Poorly arranged Spotted


5 LEGIBILITY Some letters not readable Angular let-
ters Loops closed or too large Poor ending strokes

6. LINE QUALITY Kinky slow Too light Too heavy


8 Buy War Bonds


Going- over to the Rochester Busi-
ness Institute, which for many years
has been one of the leading business
institutions and promoters of good
handwriting in the country, we find
today a revival of interest in hand-
writing not experienced in the in-
stitution in many years. They are
today giving courses in handwriting
to their students. One of the teach-
ers called attention to the fact that
many of her pupils use typewriters in
school and at home to such an extent
that they neglect their longhand. Ev-
idently with the shortage of type-
writers these pupils will experience
difficulty and will begin to realize
the importance of handwriting. Most
people are faced with the fact that it
is not possible to do all writing on a
typewriter. Many reports must be
made to state and government which
must be in long hand.


Someone raises the question
whether it is good etiquette to write
social letters on the typewriter.
Naturally we are compelled to state
that if you have a friend in the serv-
ice write to him whether you use a
typewriter or longhand. We don't
pretend to be authorities on etiquette
but we do know from experience that
the boys in the service appreciate
letters that are readable. Their time
is more important than office work-
ers. They do not have time to de-
cipher illegible writing. Emily Post
would therefore say, "Legible Hand-
writing is a Social Must."

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The Educator

Motivating Capital Letter Drill
Through Channels of Interest

The Situation

It is the beginning of the year.
The teacher of this second grade
finds she has a class of average
ability. They had a splendid first
year with manuscript. The major-
ity of the class already can recog-
nize the print forms at sight. They
can also write many letters by dic-
tation. They did not find need for
many capital letters during their
first year, hence this family is not
familiar to the entire class.

One definite objective for the
teacher this second year is to teach
the capital forms and to teach them
through channels of immediate in-
terest and which will provide suffic-
ient repetitive drill to produce clear
legible letters.

As you know, the war interest has
permeated every child on every grade
level. The child in second grade is
conscious of such agencies as health,
safety, conservation, citizenship, air-
mindedness, etc., which are working
toward ultimate victory for the
United Nations. He is doing his small
bit and doing it willingly. The alert
teacher capitalizes on these agencies
as she prepares her teaching plan for
a lesson in manuscript. At the pres-
ent time the "Scrap Drive" is on.

She sees possibilities for teaching
Captital S and proceeds with the
following steps:

1. Child prints his name in first
space through center.

2. A discussion on the need for
scrap precedes the practice.

3. Child creases his paper in four
equal parts.

4. The teacher sets up a similar
form on the blackboard.

5. She writes the short sentence.
Save scrap, two times, a word
in each column.

6. She explains the importance of
spacing letters equally so as to
fit attractively in each block.

7. She has purposely selected words
of four or five letters which will
fit into the sections on paper
without undue cramping.

8. The child writes two or three
lines of the sentence.

9. He follows this with several lines
of drill on capital S, placing
three letters in each section.

10. Drill is continued on word Save,
one word in each block.

11. The word scrap is then written,
followed by drill on small s and

12. The sentence is then rewritten
with emphasis on quality of line
and uniform spacing.

13. Time is given for discussion on
papers as a whole and individual

This procedure may require two
or three periods for its completion
but the child's interest will not wane
and he will be ready to suggest
sentences for other capital letters
developed in the same manner. The
letters may be grouped under dif-
ferent heads. Air raid rules and
fire drill rules bring forth the fol-
lowing capital letters:

A - Aid others

O - Obey rules

M - Make room

P - Pass right

K - Know exits

Q - Quick steps

Online LibraryAuguste LutaudThe Educator (Volume 48) → online text (page 19 of 30)