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COPPER WORK

AN ILLUSTRATED TEXT BOOK FOR TEACHERS
AND STUDENTS IN THE MANUAL ARTS



BY



AUGUSTUS F. ROSE

t

RHODE ISLAND SCHOOL OF DESIGN, PROVIDENCE




ATKINSON, MENTZER & GROVER

NEW YORK CHICAGO BOSTON ATLANTA DALLAS



Copyright, 1908
By AUGUSTUS F. ROSE



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PAGE



Chapter I. Introduction, Equipment, Materials n

Chapter II. Problems, Escutcheons and Hinge Tails 27

Chapter III. Drawer and Door Pulls and Hinges 34

Chapter IV. Finger Plates, Pad Corners, Box

Corners, Stamp Box and Match Box 49

Chapter V. Sconce, Picture Frame, Soldering,

Repousse or Embossing 67

Chapter VI. Raised Forms % 81

Chapter VII. Porringer, Trays or Plates 93

Chapter VIII. Ink Pot, Sealing Wax Set and Watch

Fobs 99

Chapter IX. Spoons, Sugar Tongs, and Tea Scoops,
Rivets, Drawing Wire, and Tubing,

Polishing, Stamping Work, Coloring no

Chapter X. Enameling 119



238842



PREFACE.

IN this book the subject of Copper Work, as it may be
introduced into the public schools, is treated to the
extent of specifying an equipment and suggesting some of
the possibilities of a course. Not only will there be found
an abundance of illustrative material on this subject, con-
sisting of drawings and photographs of various objects
executed by upper grammar and high school pupils, but also
a detailed description of the processes necessary for the
execution of many of the designs. It is not expected that
the problems as given will be -^lavishly copied, but rather
that they will make clear the methods and processes that
may be applied in the working out of similar problems. It
is hoped that this volume will be especially helpful to
teachers in the Manual Arts who are trying to introduce
Metal Work into the regular school course.

The author is indebted to Charles J. Martin and Antonio
Cirino, for valuable assistance in making some of the
illustrations.

AUGUSTUS F. ROSE.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PLATES.



PLATE



1. Anvils . ... 15

2. Hammers ....... 17

2A. Hammers ....... 18

3. Shears and Plyers 20

4. Escutcheons ...... 28

5- " Photograph . . . . . 29

6. Hinge Tails ...... 31

7- " ....... 32

8- .... 33
9. Drawer and Door Pulls ... 35

10. " "...... 36

" 37

12. " . Photograph ... 38

13. Hinges ....... 44

J 4- ... 45

15- 46

16 - 47

IT " >

1 7- ....... 40

1 8. Finger Plates 50

19. " Photograph . 51

20. Pad Corners 53

21. Box Corners ...... 55

22. ' 56

23. Stamp Box . . ... 58

24. .... 60

25. " Cover Design ..... 61

26. " Photograph . ... 63

27. Match Box ...... 65

28. " Cover Designs .... 66

29. Sconce A. . .... 68

29A. " Pattern 69

30. Desk Set. Photograph .... 70

31. Sconce B. . . . . . . .72

32. Picture Frame . .... 74

33. Picture Frame Designs ..... 76



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. (Continued.)

PLATE PAGE

34. Raised Forms. Photograph . . . 81

35. Raised Forms ...... 82

36. " 84

37. " Photograph .... 86

38. Pitchers ... 88

39. Raised Form. Photograph .... 89

40. Tea Set ... 91

92
94
95
97
100

IOI

103

105
107
108
in

112
114



13
13
13
14

16
16
16
19
19
19
19

21
21



41.


Pupils at Work. Photograph


42.


Porringer . . .


43.


" Handles


44.


" Photograph .


45-


Ink Pot


46.


" Photograph


47-


H


48.


Sealing Wax Set .


49.


Watch Fobs


5o.


" Photograph .


5i.


Spoons .


52.


Sugar Tongs and Tea Scoops .


53-


Rivets




FIGURES.


FIGURE


I.


Pickle Pan


2.


Rivet Header


3-


Bench Pin . . .


4.


Sawdust Box


5.


Annealing Tray .


6.


Draw Tongs


7-


Mortar and Pestle (Agate)


8.


Saw Frame


9-


Sand Bag or Engraver's Pad


10.


Draw Plate


ii.


Borax Slate


12.


Chasing Tools


13.


Engraving Tools



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. (Continued.)

FIGURE PAGE

14. Dapping Tools and Die . . . 22

15. Sawing ....... 27

ISA. Sawing. Photograph . . 30

1 6. Draw Pulls ... 34

17- " 34

34
39
39
39
.40

40

40
40



41
41

41
41
57
59
59
80
80
83
83
87
89
90
93
99
115

US
116

117
120
122



i8.





19.


II


20.


a


21.


i<


22a.


"


22b.


" .


22C,


d. "


226.


"


23b.


d


230.





2 3 d.


U


236.


it


24.


Stamp Box


25.


u


26.


tt


27.


Chasing. Photograph


28.


" Hammer


29.


Hammering. Photograph


30.


Raised Bowl, First step


31.


Surface Plate. Photograph


32.


Snarling Iron


33-


" in use. Photograph


34-


Soldering Porringer


35-


Dapping Tools in use


36.


Drawing Tubing .


37-





38.


Drawing Wire. Photograph


39-


Stamp .


40.


Engraving. Photograph


41.


Engraving



Chapter I.



INTRODUCTION.

During the past few years many experiments have
been tried in the development of Manual Training Courses
and much time has been spent in discussing of what lines
of work they should consist. Wood and iron were the first
materials used and are yet indispensable, but experience
has led those who are developing this work to believe that
there are other materials as well adapted to Manual Train-
ing work in all its various forms. Clay, used not only for
modeling but for ceramic work as well, leather, brass, and
copper are materials that have also been put to the test
and found satisfactory in many ways.

In ancient times copper was known as a useful metal,
and down through the ages it not only held its own but
increased in usefulness. Among its valuable properties may
be mentioned toughness and ductility; its toughness enables
it to be beaten into thin strong sheets, while its ductility
enables it to be drawn out into fine wire. Copper readily
forms important alloys, such as brass from copper and
zinc.

Work in sheet copper and brass has been introduced into
the public school course with gratifying results. It has
proved itself to be a valuable departure from other branches
of Manual Training work and gives promise of being per-
manent. Sheet copper and brass offer possibilities for
various kinds of treatment, either in the flat work which
includes saw piercing, embossing and enameling, or in the
raised work.

There is something about this work that appeals to
pupils and holds their interest. The nature of the material,

ii



hard enough to offer some resistance and yet pliable enough
to allow its being wrought into many forms, the durability
of the object when completed, and the variety of colors
that may be obtained, especially with copper, all tend to
make the subject not only interesting but fascinating.

All exercises in sheet metal should be of some real
value to the pupil; no time should be spent on work done
simply for practice, but the various steps should be learned
in the making of useful objects of artistic worth. In this,
as in other work, it seems best to give each member of
the class the same work for a while until he has become
acquainted with the different tools and learned the limita-
tions of the material. When this has been accomplished,
each pupil may be allowed to work out his own designs.
In this the educational value is very greatly increased. The
pupil conceives the idea and makes several sketches of it,
carrying it through repeated changes until it is brought to
the perfected design appropriate in every way to the idea.
Some may not be fortunate enough to get a full equipment
so that all of the various kinds of metal work may be
done, but such may be able to make a beginning by doing
light work in saw piercing, which requires a very limited
equipment.




12



EQUIPMENT

The equipment necessary for a start in Copper work
need cost but little if the teacher is somewhat ingenious,
for the patterns of the various anvils may be made by him ;
from these patterns the castings can be made at any foun-
dry for three or four cents per pound. It is better to begin




FIGURE" 1 .



with a few anvils and toojs and to add one or two at a
time as the need is felt for a more varied supply. If the
work can be done in a room already fitted with benches and
vises, it will reduce the first cost considerably. Any home-



FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3.

made bench will do if a regulation one is not to be had.
One that has given satisfaction was made of 2" x 4" stud-
ding with plank tops in lengths of 12 feet, giving space for
four vises at each bench. A swivel vise that may be turned
at any angle will be found satisfactory.

13



ANVILS.



6,






is.






/o.



f






3. /4




I




PLATE 1.



15



An annealing tray made of a piece of sheet iron in the
shape of a box about 18" square and 3" deep, with the corners
lapped and riveted and filled with slag, answers very well,
but one similar to the illustration, Figure 5, is better. In



I



J



FIGURE 5.

this the top is circular and rotary, which is an advantage.
A pair of light, long nose-tongs are needed to handle the
work. Any ordinary foot bellows and blow-pipe will do.
A box, Figure 4, large enough to hold two 4-gallon
stone jars and about half a bushel of sawdust, is needed.




| R|



FIGURE



FIGURE 7.



One of the jars is for water in which the object is cooled
after being annealed; the other is for pickle which is used
to clean the work. The sawdust is used to dry the object
after it has been dipped in the water.

16



HAMMLRS




PLATE 2.



HAMMERS




LJ



PLATE 2 A
18



Plate i illustrates forms of anvils that have been
found most useful.

Plates 2 and 2 A show a variety of hammers needed.




FIGURE 9.
Sand bag or engraver's pad.




FIGURE 8.



FIGURE 10.



Plate 3 shears and plyers. ^

The following tools are also necessary:
Cutting shears straight and curved.
Steel square 12".
Jeweler's saw frame. Figure 8.
Piercing saws.




FIGURE 11.



Breast drill and assortment of drills.

Compasses.

Calipers.



DLYE.B5




PLATE 3.



20



x^x ^^ -^1

980



FIGURE 12.
Chasing tools and punches for embossing.





^f*~~*+^^


t




I






\J


\

FlGl

Engra\


JRE 13.

r ing tools.


V



21



Surface gauge.

Surface plate.

Assortment of files.

Sand bag or engraver's pad. Figure 9.

Pitch pot.

A set of chasing tools and punches. Figure 12.

A set of engraving tools. Figure 13.

A set of dapping tools and dapping die. Figure 14.




FIGURE 14.

Flyers flat nose, round nose, and pointed.

Cloth and felt buffs.

Two 4-gallon stone crocks.

Mortar and pestle (Porcelain).

Mouth blow-pipe.

Pickle pan. Figure i.

Rivet header. Figure 2.

Bench pins. Figure 3.

Draw tongs. Figure 6.

Mortar and pestle (Agate). Figure 7.

Draw plate. Figure 10.

Borax slate. Figure n.

22



ANVILS.

Plate i.

No. i. A general one; either one end or the

other is used in beginning raised work.

Nos. 2 and 3. Very useful forms; used at various stages
of the work as required.

Nos. 4, 5, 6. Circular flat top stakes, indispensable for
finishing the bottom of any circular object.

No. 7. An oval shaped stake, giving a variety

of curves, especially useful in forming
corners in rectangular trays.

No. 8. A square flat top stake; may be put to

many uses.

No. 9. A rectangular flat top stake; like the

square one is a very useful tool, especially
in forming rectangular boxes such as are
used for stamps and matches.

No. 10. An extension arm necessary in the making

of forms such as illustrated on Page
88. The length of the arm of this tool
requires that it be made of the best tool
steel to avoid breaking at the elbow as
would be the case if made of cast iron.

Nos. n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 1 6. Forms used in connection with
the extension arm.

No. 17. A socket made to hold all tools of this set.

In using tools of this nature it is very important that
they should be held firmly in place. To meet this
requirement the tools and socket have been tapered so
that a fit is assured in every case. A half-inch square-

23



headed bolt extends through the bottom of the socket;
this bolt is long enough to go through the top of any
ordinary bench and is fastened underneath with a nut.
Holding the socket in this way allows its being placed
at any angle with the bench, and this is often an
advantage. The socket is drilled so that it may be
screwed to the bench if desired.

Any of the anvils on Plate i may be held in a vise as
well as the socket.

HAMMERS.
Plate 2 A.

Nos. i and 3. Raising Hammers. No i adapted for
large work and No. 3 for small or medium
sized forms.

Nos. 2, 5, 4. Planishing Hammers. No. 2 has two
round faces, one flat and one convex.
No. 5 has one square and one round face,
both flat.

No. 4 a planishing hammer used for finish-
ing concave surfaces, as about the neck
of a pitcher or cover.

No. 6. A finishing hammer found useful for many

things where a larger one cannot be used.

No. 7. A hammer used in connection with chasing,

embossing, and dapping tools.

No. 8. A fibre faced hammer for general use on

metal where the surface is to be kept free
from marks.

No. 9. Rawhide mallet, an indispensable tool in

connection with copper work.

24



MATERIALS.

Copper is the material best suited for the work outlined
in this book, although the processes as described may be
applied to brass or silver. Brass may be used successfully
in the flat work, but for raised work copper is the best
material for the beginner.

Copper is obtainable in different thicknesses and in
various grades but the best grade should be used. For
most of the work from 18 to 24 gauge is used, while metal
from 12 to 1 8 gauge is used occasionally.

Copper wire is used in several sizes for making rivets.

No. 22 and 28 iron wire is indispensable for binding
when soldering.

Easy running silver solder, may be made by the user,
but as a small piece will solder many joints, and as it is
not practical to make it in small quantities, it is better to
buy it ready made as desired.

Powdered or lump borax is used as a flux in soldering.
Charcoal or asbestos blocks are used when soldering small
work.

Liver of sulphur and sal ammoniac are used for coloring.

Yellow ochre is used for protecting soldered joints.

Cut-quick and rouge are used for polishing.

Nitric and sulphuric acids are used to clean work.

PICKLE.

Pickle is a trade name given to solutions used in
cleaning work. Different proportions of acid are used
according to the work to be cleaned. For copper and
silver a dilute bath of sulphuric acid is used of i part acid

25



to is parts of water. The solution may be used cold but
when used hot it becomes much more effective. When used
hot a copper dish is necessary. The object being placed
in the dish with enough pickle to cover it, it is then placed
over a gas plate and allowed to come to a boiling heat. The
pickle is then poured off and the object rinsed in clean
water. A dilute solution of nitric acid is used for brass.

GAUGE.

Gauge, as referred to in this book, is a term used to
denote the thickness of sheet metal. The Standard Wire
Gauge is divided in gauge numbers from 5 to 36; and is
used for measuring the thickness of wire and sheet metal.
It is usually a plate of steel having round its edge a series
of notches of standard openings.




26



Chapter II.
PROBLEMS.

ESCUTCHEONS.

Escutcheons may be made of any metal; but copper,
brass, and iron are most used. The size and shape of the
escutcheon are determined by the size of the lock and the
space at our disposal. The outline may be circular, square,




FIGURE 15.

or rectangular, or it may be modified somewhat, care being
taken to keep it in harmony with its surroundings.

First make a careful drawing of the design. Take a
piece of metal a little larger than the drawing calls for, and
of the desired gauge, from 12 to 20 gauge is all right for
such an exercise. The design is then transferred to the
metal by the use of carbon paper, or a tracing is made on
rice paper from the drawing pasted on the metal. Then
take a metal saw (No. 2 or 3) and saw about the design,

27



E.SCUTCME.riS




PLATE 4.



28




PLATE 5.



2Q



Figure 15, isA. To saw the key whole, a hole must be drilled
through which the saw can be placed to follow the line.
Before drilling use a center punch, making a slight depression
as a start for the drill. After the sawing is completed, a
file is used to true up the outline and to smooth the edges.




FIGURE 15 A.

The holes for the nails are next drilled. After using a little
emery paper about the edges, it is ready to finish.

The metal, as it comes from the rolling mill, is perfectly
smooth. If, in this piece of work, it is desired to make the
surface a little more interesting, it may be done by taking
any hammer with a smooth domed face and going over the
surface. This, however, should be done before sawing. As
the hammering stretches the metal somewhat, if it is left
till after the sawing is done, it means more filing to get the
design into shape. For a beginning this exercise has proved
very satisfactory, as it gives the pupil an acquaintance with
the metal and uses but a small piece of material.
HINGE TAILS.

These plates represent suggestive designs for hinges and
may be given among first exercises in sawing; when so used,
they should be treated like the escutcheon already described.

30



hlNGE. TAILS




PLATE 6.



MIMGE. TAILS



n



Q





X XI

Zs-






Q) 11



y

ULJU



PLATE 7.



MIMGE TAILS











W



I'LATE 8.



33



Chapter III.
DRAWER AND DOOR PULLS.

Pulls generally consist of two parts, the handle and
the plate to which the handle is fastened. Some pulls are
stationary as in Figures 16, 17, while in others the handle
swings from either one or two points, Figures 18, 19, 20. In
this case the handle may be made by taking a rod as great




FlGVRK 16.





FIGURE 18.



FIGURE



in diameter as the thickest part of the handle, and either
drawing it out by hammering or filing it down to the required
taper. After it is tapered to the required size as at Figure



34



DRAW PULLS








PLATE 9.



35



DRAW PULLS




PLATE 10.




PLATE 11.



37




PLATE 12.



21, it is then bent into shape according to the design. If
the handle is to swing from one or two points, it should be
fastened by any one of the following methods.

Method i. If it is possible to have the handle support go
through the drawer or door, the support may be made from a





FIGURE 20.



FIGURK 19.



FIGURE 21



piece of square rod of the length desired, a hole being drilled
through one end, the size needed, as at Figure 22 A. A
shoulder is then made by filing the rod down to the size of the
hole in the plate. In making the shoulder the remainder of
the rod which is to go through the drawer front may be left
square or filed round; as the hole is round that is drilled
to receive it, this last is the better way. It is also easier to



39



fasten it on the inside of the drawer when it is made in this
way, for it may be simply headed up as in making a rivet,
Figure 22 B, or a thread may be cut and a nut used, Figure
22 C, D. The latter method is better where taps and dies
are at hand. When it is fastened by riveting, a circular or








FIGURE 22.

square piece of metal called a washer, Figure 22 E, a little
larger in diameter than the bolt, with a hole the size of the
bolt, is placed next to the drawer front on the inside; this
makes the riveting more secure.

Method 2. Another method for fastening this style of
a handle is to cut a slot through the plate -^ inch wide
and length called for by the design, Figure 23 A. Then
take a strip of copper in length 7 times the diameter of the
handle end and as wide as the slot in the plate is long,
Figure 23 B. This is then bent circular a little larger in
diameter than the end of handle as at Figure 23 C, and
placed in the slot at Figure 23 D, and clinched on the back



40



of the plate as at Figure 23 E. The plate is in this case
fastened to the drawer or door by nailing or riveting.

Method 3. When it is desirable to make the plate and
handle support all in one piece, it may be done in any one of
three ways. First. By allowing enough metal in the center








FIGURE 23.



of the plate to form the handle support as at Figure 19.
Second. By allowing metal at the top of the plate to bend
over handle as at Figure 18. Third. By allowing metal at
the sides to be turned up at right angles to the plate to form



the support, as at Figure 20. In this case holes are drilled in
the side pieces and a rivet is put through from one side to
the other to hold the handle. For this one the handle must
be either bent around the rivet or drilled to receive the rivet.
In all three of these cases the plate is fastened to the door
or drawer by nailing or riveting.

HINGES.

Plate 13, Various outlines of the same hinge.

Plate 14, Hinges of same outline with interior variations.

Plates 15, 1 6, 17, Butt and Strap Hinges.

In a hinge, the joint is the important feature. The
size of the hinge, the strength required, and the decoration
must also receive attention. After these have been deter-
mined, a drawing should be made giving a development of
the joint. Whatever the size of the hinge, the following
principle in regard to the joint must be kept in mind. There
must be alternating projections left on the inner ends of
each leaf of the hinge to fit into one another so that the
pin may pass through them and allow the hinge to swing.
The method of making these projections is determined by the
size of the hinge.

In hinges of any considerable size, the projections are
left attached to the hinge proper ; in allowing for them there
will be an even number on one leaf and an odd number on
the other. To obtain the strength desired, the width of the
projections on one leaf should equal the width of the pro-
jections on the other leaf. This applies to any number
of projections. Their length should be determined by the
diameter of the joint; three times the diameter is the approx-
imate length.

In making small hinges the projections may be bent
into position by the use of the round nose plyers. In
larger work the projection is fastened in the vise and begin-

42



ning at the end is bent around the pin a little at a time
using the rawhide mallet to work it into shape.

For small joints or hinges, such as would be used on a
match box, stamp box, bon-bon box, or ink pot, the joint
should be made of small tubing as described on page 115.
This tubing is sawed into the required lengths and soldered
to the leaves to be hinged. The parts to receive the joint
are sometimes filed out.







43



^ *



c o





















o o



o o



o o




O



MINGE.S






o o



o O



PLATE 13.



44



HIMGES












PLATE 14.



45



HIM GELS




I LATE 15.



46



HINGES




PLATE iti.



47



HirtGE.5




PLATE 17.



4 8



Chapter IV.
FINGER PLATES.

The finger plate used on the edge of a door to receive
the wear of the hand serves as an excellent exercise in
sawing and filing. The design is transferred to the metal
by use of carbon paper. The sawing is done as in the
escutcheon. The surface may be left smooth or it may
be gone over with a hammer having a face somewhat
rounded. If the design calls for any repousse work, it is
done as described on page 78.




49



FIMGE& PLATE.



^



Si

o



<^s^
c_^>

> O O




LETTER OPEMIhG



hAME PLATE



(\/l



*?



^



LE.TTE.iaf




PLATE 18.




V



m

.A




Pl,ATK 19.



PAD CORNERS.

Desk pad corners while not difficult to make, are very
useful as well as ornamental. The design may be carried
out in any one of three ways : pierced, embossed or enameled.

In making the pattern for the pad corner, an allowance
must be made for the thickness of the pad, as at A, and also
for laps as at B, that are to go under the pad to hold the
corners in place. The corner may be riveted to the pad at
the back or the laps may be bent in such a way as to clamp
them to the pad, and permit of their removal at any time.

When the design has been pierced or embossed, the
laps can be bent over a piece of metal equal in thickness
to that of the pad. If the design is to be carried out in
enamel, all bending must be done before enameling as any
expansion or contraction of the metal will crack the enamel.




PAD





PLATE 20.



53



BOX CORNERS.

Box corners serve primarily to protect the corners of the
box and to increase its strength, but they can be so made
that they give character to the box. The corner should be
designed to suit the particular box or chest to which it is to


1 3

Online LibraryAugustus F. (Augustus Foster) RoseCopper work : a text book for teachers and students in the manual arts → online text (page 1 of 3)