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began to make way for lieux de plaisance. The existing
palace was begun, under Pierre Lescot, in 1541.

' Fran9oi5 i"', voulant avoir dans Paris un palais digne de sa magni-
ficence et dedaignant le vieux Louvre et l'h6tel des Tournelles, amas
irregulier de tournelles (tourelles) et de pavilions gothiques, avait fait
demolir, des 1528, la grosse tour du Louvre, ce donjon de Philippe-
Auguste duquel relevaient tous les fiefs du royaume. C'etait demolir
I'histoire elle-mSme : c'etait la monarchie de la renaissance abattant
la vieille royaute feodale. ' — Martin, ' Hist, de France. '

Lescot continued his work through the twelve years'
reign of Henri II. The palace which he built was the
whole western side of the court of the Vieux Louvre, and
the wing which contains the Galerie d'Apollon. The pavilion
which connected the two wings was called Pavilion du Roi.
After the death of Henri II., his widow, Catherine de Medicis,
left the Palais des Tournelles, and came with her children
to live in the new palace, which she enlarged by erecting a



THE LOUVRE 39

portico with rooms above it along the quay. It was whilst
he was at work upon these buildings that the great sculptor
Jean Goujon perished. On the day after the Massacre of
S. Bartholomew he had gone as usual to his work upon a
scaffold ; he thought that his art would save him, but a ball
from an arquebus struck him down. In these ' buildings
the Huguenot gentlemen, who were ' marquds k tuer,' fled
from chamber to chamber, and from gallery to gallery,
and were cut down one after another, except M. de Lezac,
who took refuge within the ruelle of the bed of the Princess
Marguerite, married six days before to the King of Navarre.
' Moi,' says the queen in her memoirs, ' sentant cet homme
qui me tenait, je me jette k la ruelle, et lui aprfes moi, me
tenant toujours \ travers le corps. Je ne connaissais point
cet homme, et ne savais s'il venait 1^ pour m'offenser, ou si
les archers en voulaient k lui ou k moi. Nous crions tous
deux et dtions aussi effray^s I'un que I'autre.' The young
bridegroom, Henri de Navarre, for whom Catherine de
Medicis had made ' les noces vermeilles,' was amongst
those whom she wished to save. The queen-mother ' grilla
si bien, pour un matin, ses fenetres, qu'il ne put jamais
dchapper, comme il en avait volont^.' According to Bran-
tome and d'Aubignd (neither of them at Paris at the time),
Charles IX. stood at his chamber window, shooting down
those who were taking refuge in the Prd-aux-Clercs.'

The Louvre was still inconveniently small for the
number of persons who had to live in it. These, under
Henri III., included four queens — the reigning queen,
Louise de Vaudemont ; the queen-mother, Catherine de

* The window of the little gallery, marked by an inscription falsely recording
this event as having taken place there, existed at the time, but was walled up.



40 PARIS

Medicis ; the Queen of Navarre, Marguerite de Valois ; and
Elizabeth d'Autriche, widow of Charles IX., usually known
as 'la reine Blanche.' When Marie de Medicis, who
measured palaces by the Florentine Pitti, arrived in France,
she could not conceal her astonishment at the inferiority of
the Louvre. 'Plusieurs foys,' says Cheverny, 'je lui ai ouy
r^p^ter depuys qu'elle ne fust jamais presqu'en toute sa
vie si estonnde et effrayde, croyant que ce n'estoit le Louvre,
ou que Ton faisoit cela pour se moquer d'elle.'

Henri IV., therefore, wished, in 1595, to unite the
buildings of Catherine de Medicis with the other palace
which she had built, and which, under the name of the
Tuileries, was still outside the limits of the town. For this
purpose, he ordered Antoine du Cerceau ^ to erect the
(original) Pavilion de More beyond the south extremity of
the Tuileries and to unite it to the Tuileries of Philibert
Delorme on one side, and to the Louvre on the ether, by
buildings which extended to the pavilion which under
Louis XV. took the name of de Lesdiguiferes, from a
neighbourmg hotel, enclosing the three arches called ■
Guichets des S. Fires, by which carriages cross from the
banks of the Seine to the Rue de Rivoli. The porticoes of
Catherine de Medicis were then enclosed, and an upper story
added to make them harmonise with the later constructions.

From this time no one touched the Louvre till the
supremacy of Richelieu, who demolished all that remained
of the old feudal buildings (the north and east fagades) and
employed Antoine le Mercier to continue the palace.
Intending to double the dimensions of the original plan,
this great architect used each of the existing wings as the

* All the plans of Du Cerceau stiU exist.



THE LOUVRE 41

half of a fagade for his new Louvre, and built two others on
the same plan, so as to make the building a perfect square.
Whilst the minority of Louis XIV. lasted, Anne of Austria
lived with her children at the Palais-Cardinal, now Palais-
Royal, but Levau was employed to continue the works at
the Louvre, and an apartment there was bestowed upon the
exiled Henrietta Maria of England (daughter of Henri IV.),
who was treated with the greatest generosity by her sister-
in-law. A number of hotels of the nobihty — de Bourbon,
de Longueville, de Villequier, d'Aumont — had hitherto occu-
pied the ground close to the Louvre, but those on the east
side were now demolished, and all the architects of France
were invited to compete with designs for a fagade which
should be of such magnificence as to satisfy Colbert, while
Bernini, then at the height of his fame, was summoned from
Italy for the same purpose. The plans chosen were those
of Claude Perrault, who built the east fagade, adorned with
twenty-eight Corinthian pillars, called the Colonnade du
Louvre, for Louis XIV, 1665-70. Levau died of grief be-
cause his plan — a very noble one — was not chosen. Still, the
Louvre remained unfinished, so that Parisians used to say
the only chance of seeing it completed would be to make it
over to one of the four great mendicant Orders, to hold
their chapters and lodge their General there. Louis XV.
and XVI. did nothing more than repair the buildings
already existing, and then came the Revolution. Even in the
time of Napoleon I., the space between the Louvre and the
Tuileries was invaded by a number of narrow, dirty streets,
which, with the royal stables and several private hotels,
destroyed the effect of the two palaces. After the Revo-
lution of 1848, these were swept away, and Napoleon III.,



42 PARIS

from the commencement of his power, determined to unite
the Louvre and the Tuileries into one great whole. This
was carried out and completed in 1857. The difference
of the axis of the two palaces was then cleverly concealed
by the arrangement of buildings which enclose the ' Square
du Louvre,' though the destruction of the Tuileries has
since rendered the design ineffectual.

Entering the Louvre from the Rue de Rivoli by one of
the five entrances under the Pavilion de Rohan in the north
fagade, we find ourselves in the Place du Carrousel of
Napoleon I., which is a great enlargement of the little
square in front of the Tuileries occupying the site of the
' Jardin de Mademoiselle ' (de Montpensier), and originally
named from a carrousel or tournament which Louis XIV.
gave there in 1662. In the centre of the grille of what was
formerly the court of the Tuileries still stands the graceful
Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, built in 1806, by Fontaine
and Percier, for Napoleon I. The car and horses which
surmount it are modelled in imitation of the famous horses
of S. Mark, restored to Venice by the Allies ; the figures and
reliefs commemorate the successes of the fiist emperor at
Austerlitz, Ulm, Presburg, Vienna, and Munich. The
initials and monograms of their different builders mark
many of the surrounding buildings. Opposite the point at
which we entered, is the Pavilion de Lesdiguilres, dividing
the renaissance Louvre of Charles IX., adorned with
Tuscan columns supporting mezzanini, from the later build-
ings continued under Louis XIV., which have no mezzanini,
and where the pediments rest 'on coupled Corinthian
columns as a stylobate. The modern buildings on the
north-east, occupy the site of the Hotel de Longueville,



PLACE DU CARROUSEL 43

famous for the intrigues of the Fronde,^ and those on the
south-east beyond the entrance of the Square du Louvre
that of the church of S. Thomas du Louvre, which fell in
upon its congregation, October 15, 1739. The buildings of
Napoleon IIL are surrounded by statues of eminent French-
men. ■ All around is magnificence —

* Le palais pompeux, dont la France s'honore.'

Voltaire^ ^ Henrzade.^

The most interesting associations of the Place du Car-
rousel are those which belong to the fruitless flight of the
royal family on June 20, 1790.

* Madame Elisabeth sortit la premiere avec 'Madame Royale, suivie,
k pen de distance, de Mme de Tourzel emmenant Monseigneur le
Dauphin. L'un des trois gardes du corps I'accompagnait. Soit
hasard, soit fait expres, une des sentinelles des cours, qui, en seprome-
nant, croisait le chemin par ou les deux princesses devaient passer,
tourna le dos au moment 011 il etait prfes d'elles, et allait les rencontrer.
Madame Koyale le reniarqua, et dit tout has k Madame Elisabeth :

^ This famous mansion, originally called Hotel de'Vieuville, was built by Cle-
ment Mi^tezeau for the Marquis de Vieuville. He sold it, 1620, to the Due dc:
Luynes (the tyrant minister of Louis XHL), who died in the following year. His
widow sold it to Claude de Lorraine, Due de Chevreuse, whom she afterwards
married, and who received the Duke of Buckingham here when became over to
fetch Henrietta Maria. The duchess, celebrated in a thousand love-affairs, was
driven into exile by the enmity of Richelieu, and at his death only came back to be
again banished for a time by the influence of Mazarin. She returned, however,
to make her hdtel a centre for the intrigues of the Fronde, seconded by her
daughter, 'quiavaitles yeux capables d'embraser toute la terre ' (Mme de Motte-
ville), and by the Duchesse de Longueville, ' I'h^roine de .la Fronde,' who eventually
purchased the h8tel and gave it a new name. Her daughter-in-law, the Duchesse
de Nemours, bequeathed the h3tel to Henri de Bourbon, Prince de Neuchatel,
whose daughter brought it back by marriage into the family of Luynes. The hQtel
existed in a degraded condition till 1832, when it was pulled down to enlarge the
Place du Carrousel. Another building, demolished about the same time, was the
church oF S. Louis du Louvre, where a protestant congregation continued to wor-
ship during the great Revolution (John Moore, Journal of Residence in France,
December 1792), and which contained the tomb of Cardinal Fleury, the Prinie
Minister of Louis XV. (who had proposed to pull do^vn the Louvre and sell the
materials^ represented expiring in the arms of ReHgion.



44 PARIS

Ma tante, nous sommes reconnues. Cependant elles sortirent des cours
sans etre remarquees, et se rendirent, suivies, comme je I'ai deji dit, de
Mnie de Tourzel et du jeune prince, sur le Jetit-Carrousel, au cour
de la rue de I'Echelle, ou M. de Fersen les attendait avec une voiture.
C'^tait un carrosse de remise, ressemblant assez, par sa forme et les
chevaux qui le menaient, k ce qu'on appelle k Paris un fiacre ; il
I'avait lou6 dans un quartier eloigne, et c'4tait lui qui servait de
cocher, habille comme le sent ces especes de cochers. II etait si
bien d^guis^, que pendant qu'il attendait, ayant d^ji dans sa
voiture les deux princesses, Monseigneur le Dauphin et Mme de
Tourzel, un fiacre vide s'^tant arrets prte de lui, le cocher, qui
croyait parler a I'un de ses camarades, I'atlaqua de conversation sur ce
qui pent en faire le sujet ordinaire entre gens de cette espece : elle
dura assez longtemps, et M. de Fersen la soutint avec assez de pre-
sence d'esprit dans le jargon de cocher de remise, pour ne donner
aucun soupfon k son confrere. II s'en dftarrassa apres lui avoir
donn^ une prise de tabac dans une mauvaise tabati^re qu'il avait. Pen
de temps aprfes, le roi arriva, accompagne du second garde du corps ;
il y eut un assez long intervalle entre sa sortie et celle de la premiere
bande, mais elle ne fut pas moins heureuse, quoiqu'une de ses boucles de
souliers s'etant cassee assez pres du sentinelle de laporte du Carrousel, il
fut oblig^ de la raccommoder presque sous ses yeux. La reine, qui
devait sortir la derniere, se fit attendre plus d'une demi-heure, et
donna bien des inquietudes aux voyageurs. On lui avait laiss^ le
troisi^me garde du corps pour Taccompagner et lui donner le bras.
Tout alia bien jusqu'k la grande porte de la cour royale ; mais, au
moment ou elle sortait, elle voit venir la voiture de M, de la Fayette,
avec des flambeaux et ses gardes ordinaires ; il rentrait chez lui, et
traversait le Carrousel pour gagner le Pont-Royal. La reine avait un
chapeau qui lui couvrait le visage. La nuit etait fort obscure : elle
se rangea pres de la muraille, pour laisser passer la voiture de M. de
la Fayette. Apris avoir echapp^ a ce danger, elle dit a son garde du
corps de la conduire sur le Petit- Carrousel, au coin de la rue de
I'Echelle, c'est-k-dire k deux cents pas de I'endroit oil ils etaient. Son
guide connaissait encore moins Paris qu'elle ; il 4tait trop dangereux de
demander le chemin, si pres de la porte des Tuileries ; ils tournferent
au hasard k droite, tandis qu'ils devaient prendre k gauche, passerent
les guichets du Louvre, travers^rent le Pont-Royal, et errerent assez
longtemps sur les quais et dans la rue du Bac. II fallut enfin se r^soudre
a demander leur chemin. Une sentinelle du pont le leur indiqua : il
leui fallut revenir sur leurs pas, repasser sous les guichets, et longer les



PLACE DU CARROUSEL 45

cours des Tuileries pour arriver k la rue de I'Echelle. lis parvinrent
enfia i la voiture, sans autre accident que du temps perdu. Mais i'eu
^tait un trop r^el ; le prix de chaque minute ^tait incalculable.

' Toute I'illustre caravane ^tant r6unie, on se mit en route pour aller
joindre la voiture qui attendait au delk de la barriire Saint-Martin.' —
Weber, ' MSmoires. '

Under the Consulate, the Place du Carrousel was the
scene of the weekly reviews of Napoleon I.

' C'^tait un spectacle curieux que celui de ces parades, surtout
celles du consulat. Sous I'empire, elles pouvaient etre plus magni-
fiques ; mais en 1800, leur splendeur ^tait tout nationale ; c'^tait la
gloire de la France qu'on voyait dans ces escadrons, ces bataillons, qui,
soit qu'ils fussent conscrits ou vieux soldats, faisaient autant trembler
r^tranger qui les regardait des fenetres du palais.' — MSmoires de la
Duchesse <f Ahranth.

The Place was constantly used for military pageants
under the first empire, and of these none took a greater
hold upon the spectators than the reviews of the Old Guard
by Napoleon I.

' C'^tait dans ce vaste carre que se tenaient les regiments de la
vieille garde qui allaient Stre passes en revue. lis presentaient en face
du palais d'imposantes lignes bleues de vingt rangs de profondeur.
Au delk de I'enceinte, et dans le Carrousel, se trouvaient sur d'autres
lignes parall^es plusieurs regiments d'infanterie et de cavalerie prets,
au moindre signal, k manosuvrer pour passer sous I'arc triomphal qui
erne le milieu de la grille, et sur le haut duquel se voyaient, a cette
^poque, les magnifiques chevaux de Venise. La musique des regi-
ments avait iyi se placer de chaque c&te des galeries du Louvre, et ces
deux orchestres militaires y ^taient masques par les lanciers polonais
de service. Une grande partie du carr^ sabU restait vide comme une
ar^ne pr^par^e pour les niouvements de tous ces corps silencieux. Ces
masses, disposees avec la symetrie de I'art militaire, reil&hissaient les
rayons du soleil par le feu triangulaire de dix mille baionnettes
etincelantes. L'air agitait tous les plumets des soldats en les faisant
ondoyer comme les arbres d'une forgt courbes sous un vent impetueux.
Ces vieilles bandes, muettes et brillantes, offraient mille contrastes de
couleurs dus \ la diversity des uniformes, des jiarements, des armes et



46 PARIS

des ajguillettes. Cet immense tableau, miniature d'un champ de
bataille avant le combat, etait admirablement encadr^, avec tous ses
accessoires et ses accidents bizarres, par ces hauts batiments majes-
tueux, dont chefs et soldats imitaient en ce moment I'immobilite.

' Un enthousiasme indescriptible eclatait dans I'attente de la multi-
tude. La France allait faire ses adieux k Napol&n, i. la veille d'une
campagne dont le moindre citoyen prevoyait les dangers.

' L'horloge du chateau sonna une demi-heure. En ce moment
les bourdonnements de la foule cess^rent, et le silence devint si pro-
fond, que Ton eut entendu la parole d'un enfant.

' Ce fut alors que ceux, qui sefflblaient ne vivre que des yeux,
purent distinguer un bruit d'^perons, un cliquetis d'ep^es tout particu-
Hers, qui retentit sous le sonore p&istyle du palais.

' Un petit homme, vetu d'un uniforme vert, d'un pantalon blanc,
et chaussd de bottes a I'ecuyere, parut tout k coup en gardant sur sa
tSte un chapeau ^ trois comes aussi prestigieux qu'il I'etait lui-meme.
Un large ruban rouge de la Legion d'Honneur flottait sur sa poitrine.
Une petite epee ^tait a son c&te.

' II fut aper9u par tout le monde et de tous les points k la fois.

' A son aspect, les tambours battirent aux champs, et les musiques
debut^rent par une phrase dont I'expression guerri^re deploya tous les
instruments, depuis lagrosse caisse jusqu'a la plus douce des flfltes. A
leurs sons belliqueux les imes tressaillirent, ' les drapeaux salu^rent,
les soldats port^rent les armes par un mouvement unanime et
r^gulier, qui agita les fusils retentissants depuis le premier rang jusqu'
au dernier qu'on put apercevoir dans le Carrousel ; des mots de com-
manderaent se r6p6th'ent comme des &hos, et des oris de : Vive
I'Empereur ! . . . furent pousses par la multitude enthousiasmee ; tout
remua, tout s'ebranla, tout frissonna.

' L'homme entoure de tant d'amour, d'enthousiasme, de devoue-
ment, de vosux, pour qui le soleil meme avait chass^ les nuages du
ciel, resta immobile sur son cheval, k trois pas en avant du petit
escadron dore qui le suivait, ayant le grand-marechal k sa gauche, le
marechal de service a sa droite. Au sein de tant d'emotions excitees
par lui, aucun trait de son visage ne s'^mut.

' Oh ! inon Dieu, oui. II ^tait comme 9a a Wagram, au milieu du
feu, et k la Moscowa, parmi les morts.' — Balzac, ' Le Rendez-vous.'



LE MUStE DU LOUVRE



M



The first French sovereign who formed a collection of
pictures was Frangois I. This was enormously increased,
under Louis XIV., by Colbert, who bought for a ridiculously
small sum the greater part of the collection of pictures and
drawings of Charles I. of England, of which the original
purchaser was Everard Jabach the banker, who was after-
wards compelled by poverty to re-sell them. This became
the germ of the existing collection, enriched under Louis
XV. by the sale of the Prince de Carignan and by works
ordered from the best French artists of the time, and, under
Louis XVI., by a collection of Flemish pictures. Under the
Republic, the pictures at Versailles were added to those of
Paris, and the collections were offered to the public as
Le Museum de la Republique. With the Italian campaigns
of Napoleon I., such a vast mass of works of art deluged
Paris as even the immense galleries of the Louvre were
quite insufficient to contain.

' Sous quels debris honteux, sous quel anias rustique

On laisse ensevelir ces chefs-d'oeuvres divins !
Quel barbare a mSI6 sa bassesse gothique

A toute la grandeur des Grecs et des Romains ! '

Voltaire.

' Vous avez enrichi le Musdum de Paris de plus de cinq
cents objets, chefs-d'oeuvre de I'ancienne et de la nouvelle
Italic ; et qu'il a fallu trente sifecles pour produire,' said
Napoleon to his soldiers after the taking of Mantua. But
nearly the whole of this collection was restored to its
rightful owners in 1815. Under Louis Philippe and the
second empire a vast number of bequests added greatly to
the wealth of the original Museum.



48 PARIS

The collections of the Louvre are of various kinds —
paintings, drawings, engravings, ancient sculpture, sculpture
of the middle ages and renaissance, modern French sculp-
ture, Assyrian antiquities, Egyptian antiquities, Greek and
Etruscan antiquities, Algerine museum, marine museum,
ethnographical museum, collection of enamels and jewels,
the Sauvageot museum, the Campana museum, the La Caze
museum, the Oriental museum, the Le Noir museum. It is
not possible to visit many of these collections separately
without crossing and re-crossing others. As those who are
only a short time in Paris will prefer to take the more
important collections on the first floor first, we will begin
with those, entered on the right of the Pavilion Sully, which
faces the Arc du Carrousel in the centre of the front of
the Louvre. The staircase (in part of the building of
Franjois I.) is due to Henri II., and bears his chiffre, arms,
and emblems frequently repeated ; its sculptures are by
Jean Goujon. Reaching the first floor, a door on the right
opens into the Salle des Seances, containing the collections
bequeathed to the Louvre by M. Louis La Caze, 1870.
Each room should be visited from right to left. We may
notice in this room —

221. Largilliire : Portrait of President de Laage.

165. Boucher : Female Portrait.

260. Watteau: ' Gilles'— of the Comedie Italienne.

*242. Rigmtd ; Portrait of De Cr^qui, Due de Lesdigui^res.

78. N. Maes, 1648 : GracS before Meat.

16. Tintoret : Susanna and the Elders.

18. Tintoret : Portrait of Pietro Mocenigo,

32. Ribera, 1642 : ' Le Pied-Bot ' — a young beggar.

170. Chardin : Children's grace.

37. Velasquez : Portrait of the Infanta Maria Theresa, afterwards
Queen of France.



SALON DES SEPT CHEMINEES



49



98. Rembratidt, 1651 : Male Portrait.

17. Tintoret. Virgin and Child, with SS. Francis and Sebastian,
and a donor in adoration. From the gallery of Cardinal
Fesch.
243. Rigaud : Portrait of President de Berulle,

The pictures of Watteau here, and in the rooms devoted
to the French school, are chiefly interesting as the best
representations we possess of the aristocratic society of
France in the time of Louis XV. and Mme de Pompa-
dour—

' A voir cette society brodee, poudre et musquee, dont Watteau
nous a laiss^ un si aimable' portrait, qui eut pu croire qu'elle portait
dans ses ilancs la plus grande et la plus fiirieuse revolution que
I'histoire puisse raconter ? Comment tant d'energie et de colere
pouvaient-elles couver sous cette enveloppe d'esprit, de galanterie et«
de gaiety ? ' — Balzac, ' Six Rois de France. '

The next room, Salle de Henri 11.,^ only contains some
pictures by French artists, of no great importance, though
No. 47 is an interesting portrait of Descartes, by Bourdon.

The Salon des Sept Cheminees (forming part of the
Pavilion du Roi, and once inhabited by the Cardinal de
Guise, uncle of Marie Stuart) is devoted to the French
school. Its works are exceedingly stiff and mannered. Yet
there are few visitors to the Louvre, especially young
visitors, who have not in time become interested in these
pictures ; therefore we may especially mention —

240. Girard : Portraits of M. Isabey and his daughter.
277. Cuirin : The Return of Marius Sextus from Exile. He
finds his daughter weeping by his dead wife. Collection
of Charles X.
1252. Girodet : Attala borne to the Tomb. Bought from Chateau-
briand for 50,000 francs.
236. Gh'ard : Psyche receives the first Kiss of Love. From the

E



5b PARIS

collection of Louis XVIII. Girard was the most popular
painter of the Restoration. Three sovereigns — of France,
Russia, and Prussia — sat to him on the same day.

802. Mme Lehrun, 1786: Portrait of Mme Mole Raymond, of the
Com^die Frangaise. From the collection of Napoleon III.

156. David : Portrait of the artist as a young man. David gave
this portrait to Isabey ; M. Eugene Isabey gave it to the
Louvre.
83. Mme Lebrun : Portrait of the artist and her daughter— a
lovely picture. From the collection of Louis Philippe.

242. Giricault : Scene on the Raft of the Medusa, when, on the
twelfth day after its shipwreck, the brig Argus appears on the
horizon. From the collection of Charles X. This picture
is said to have inaugurated modern emotional French art.
*I59. David, 1805 : Portrait of Pius VII. The Pope holds a letter



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