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must be far greater than either of the females. His antennsB, (organs of
smell), have also a greater development of olfactory nerves, and are two-
thirteenths longer than either that of queen or worker, thus his power of
smelling is far superior than theirs. His eyes, notwithstanding he spends a
large portion of his time in the dark, have a far keener power of vision than
either female. Bees have both simple and compound eyes. The compound
eyes of a queen bee have 4,920 facets, she having to spend the largest
portion of her time in the dark. The compound eyes of a worker, who has
to spend most of her time in the open air, have 6,300 facets ; but those of a
drone, although he spends most of nis time in the hive, contain 13,090 facets,
or nearly three times the number of a queen, and more than double the
quantity of the worker ; therefore, his power of sight must be far greater
than that of the other sexes of the hive. Why has nature endowed him with
these superior aids to sight, to smell, and to locomotion ? His paternal
duties are always consummated in mid-air. The race is to the swift and
fight to the strong. The fleetest, the most agile, the most dexterous, and the
strongest are the successful competitors in the matrimonial race when the
virgin queen is on the wing. That is why '* in the heat of the day he flie^
abroad, aloft, and about, and that with no small noise." Drones are sting*
less ; their abdomen is made up of seven belts, and each belt is composed of
two plates — a dorsal and a ventral — the former being the larger, and over-
laps the ventral on the lower side of the body. In queen and worker the
abdomen has only six belts.

Length of

Length of


anterior wing.

poeterior wing.

united area.










Digitized by


Bee-keeping. 696

To sum up, tbe chief external anatomical differences of drones are, as
compared with the workers, larger eyes, larger wings, larger body, longer
antennsB, an extra belt to the abdomen, and an absence of sting, wax
pockets, and pollen baskets.

The life-history of drone bees is a very short one, and, apart from the
other inmates of the hiye, is not interesting to the bee-keeper, but to the
scientist it is fraught with the deepest interest, and is full of scope for
research. The Farthenagenical production of male bees ; workers becoming
fertile without copulation, and producing drones only ; q^ueens that have
failed in their wedding flight to meet with a consort, or that in their develop*
ment or in maidenhood haye been deprived of the power of flight, also become
fertile without copulation, but such fertility is confined to the production of
male bees only; that they are rarely produced by a queen in the full
vigour of youth, health, and strength, <fcc., but are always produced as the
queen advances in years — the older the queen the greater the abundance of
males in the hive. These are subjects in connection with the * inmates of the
hive" that we shall deal with later on.

Very little attention has been given to the production of high-class drones.
They are the Ishmaels of bee life. Every bee-keeper*s hand is against
them. They have been given a bad name> and it sticks to them, and all
sorts of traps have been invented for their destruction. For the improve-
ment of other domesticated animals a high-class sire is the one most sought
for the purpose. In the improvement of bees it is otherwise. A high*
class dam (queen) is supposed to be the one thing needful. We have the
matinc^ proclivities of bees so little under control that breeding by the selec-
tion of males appears to be a thing of the future. As we now stand, much
can be done to improve our bees by the power we have in our hands. An
immediate descendant partakes of the mental, physical, and industrial
character of both parents. Traits in parentage can be traced for many
generations, and although drones have no father, yet there must be an
influence exerted on a descendant from both sides. Parthenogenesis, as it
regards drones, has been proved to have exceptions. Bee-keepers have
•frequently met with cross-bred drones. J. Lowe, in 1867, as recorded in
Trans. Ent. Soc, says that fully 20 per cent, of drones bred from the same
'mother showed the mixed character of the parentage. J. Perez, in 1878 and
1880, in his investigations, obtained similar results, and P. Cameron, in an
article on Parthenogenesis, in the Hymenoptera, published in the Trans*
Nat. His. Soc. of Griasgow, 1888, drew bee-keepers' attention to similar facts.

Sometime ago we submitted the following series of questions on this point
to some of the most observant and practical ,bee-keepers of the colony :—

Ist. Have we hybrid drones ?

(The term hybrid to mean a crossbred. Hybrid is a misnomer as applied
to a cross between varieties. A hybrid is an intermediate between species^
variety is subordinate to species in the same manner as species is subordinate
to genus.)

2nd. What are the markings of the progeny between the first cross of a
pure Italian drone (Ligurian) and a black queen ?

3rd. What are the markings of the progeny between the first cross of a
black drone and a pure Italian (Ligurian) queen ?

4th. A drone two removes from a pure Italian queen. What are his
markings ?

6th. Through how many generations of drones can you trace Italian blood ?

Digitized by


' Tq jJl Awp q ^ ea ti ei wb wori w d imtmem ftom •roiy «Be to w huia we

Ist. The gumma l mwaion k'** Kq^" as itg qgard sHMMJring* or
r from

The drone progeny from a qoeen that has mated wMi a draae x
▼aritfty partakes dt thewotew of both pareirta, but Ibe matenHdvatapefldwajs
predemkiatae. Twe^err alwfliui g iartaaeet in prorf feereof aie BWUtioti A.
The ^vriter aaja, ^ I hfed a adM yellow iL«ioricaB qfoeen, sot a partiele of
iark «ok>or evea at t^ Hf. (Siicth dw ga l pkle.) Thia ^aeen iraa OMAid
wMi a ligariaa (Hafiaa) qmemtk, HhoB ^fseen, 4ucnig ^m Iteanner of MW-
94, produoed, heiag yomg, ooeolj aiaiked dvooee, akiinit jdkwr (iiawplei of
i bom ireve fonvardod lij Mr. Mamifield, Largg, io the T loo hwo loft ita l MiiWj
MdtiBfBd). Dariag <he Sttaawr lWi?-8S aboat lOper oett of dw iam fca m
iihu Bome^fnoenvanedffOBthecharai^erwtietof tho^^pKal I^^ la

Ute aecond eaae then waB a aimilar peaolt, but ^bee wtcAet bee «aa one
remore finrtker from ^lo Amenoan Uood by wu^ tyf 3Lm|uiian, m tiM
Hhere ipro bct wee a 40 and W ]>ef cent of the <kimes ahowinig

Sad. Tbe nale proeoaw pariaheu of the patonialoolGRR>-aDd nailcHigB,^fxl^
fhe OBceptien that uM nairs on the abdonvNA am bn^Mor and "aiore
near the tip.

Brd. The eame nurkings aa those from a pare Italian qneeo, i.e., the i
bronae bars on the upper edgea of the abdoBBhatl B ogmeata , eadi of th ea p
bars being aomewhat narrower than those of the oposb mentiiHied in No. S
answer. OceasioDallT theaa is a dariser patdi of Inonae extending fioai the
first and eeoond dorau-ring, and partly down each aide of the segment. The
rest of i^ abdomen is black. (H the specimens forwarded to the MaWand
Technological Musomn the donor sa^, '* Many persons are disa^mnted hi
f^ appearance of these drones, aokl it would be a good lUng to make these
eharacteristics more graierally known."

4th. These dremes Tary in their maridngs similar te i^at of the worirers,
the bkek blood showing itself more prominently in some of the progeny,
and again in ollhers of im same family the Italian maiinngs predominate.

Bfk, None of oar cor r es p ondents have traoed as yet the Italian blood
b^ond the third g e n er a tion. This is a point w^ iror tiiy of easeful investi-

Ver breeding pnrposos the stronge s t male boss ahonld be used. Am slated
iibove, the strongest drone is naturally the selected male, sheeted by Ins own
powers of flight, &c. Weak 'drones, whato^r may be the ^ranse iliereaf, eaa
only perpetuate weidcness.

Drones are tolerated in tibe fai^ and admiMedfrom oUiers as loagaa liiere
is a probability of a queen requiring fecundation. But kt the itoney-Aow
suddenly cease, and in a few days every one in the hive is banished.

As soon as the honey-ilow is no longer abundant the edict is Beak
forth for the destruction of all the males of the household. There is no
mercy shown. The old and the young, egg, larva, and chrysalides, nrast all
suffer the same fate. The only crime for which they have to suffbr is they
are masculine. Thooe males, that a sew wens boibre were ao active and
strong on the wing, when the general order has gone forth for theirdeBlrBc-
tioa, odfar no resistanee. They ii<eadily anbaiit k> lie iilaafehtof e d » and those
very nurse bees that were ao watehnil %)i their weU-betng at onoe hoeoins
idieir executionera, until the whole of the male sex of that hive is exterminated.

As queen bees mate but once during life, the drones that are required for
the fouowing season are the progeny from the same mother and are full
brolners of the slanghtered victims of the previous year.

Digitized by


Bee-ioufii/kg^ WBR

How often lias the question been asked, " "Why are there so many drones ?"
and what queer answers have been given to it. To produce extra heat, to
aid in the ripening of the honey, food for birds, <&c., are the answers that
have been given. It must be remembered, as stated above, that conjunction
between the queen and one ditone ti^es place but once djiring the former's
lifetime, and flQcb cosijaneiian miHit take plaoe when the queen is about six
days old, although cases have arisen where queens have successfully mated
for some time after that period. If there were a scarcity of drones the queen
may fail to meet her mate and become a drone-layer. The superabundant
number of male bees to one female is analogous to the great number of
stamens and anthers in a peach '* blossom " or other bloom to the one or few
carpels in the fiower. One grain ef 'peTien from «ne «tamen is sufficient to
fertilise one cmx^ ilttn -^j mo wny ctemaBs mtai pollen grains is a
question the answer to which has never been doubted. Undoubtedly (he
same answer as it regards the excessive number of drones applies in this case.

^ our 'Biiiid an ^zeeas <A VB^ese d]*ones is on argimieiit against the idnHty
of -the bee-keeper, or a want e€ knowledge of the «ge of bis queem. I>fone
ov^r-'pFodmetion €«i be minimifled by judioioas managem eni. Young qtieenfli^
and cloeer apaomg of farood^eoiHyb when neooMSvy, -aire about 1^ befft drone-
tfme that were ever inwnted.

For high-class droned, select an old queen, one that has a record -of ^(mL
indtB, perhaps the older ike belter. If i^ has piodooed wo^era up to
fvat ideal atandftrd of usefulttess, there is atnoml e e riainty that her tfronqfi
^tSl he ei equal ntent. To « certain ^xtewt in tKk way good drones «an be
velecied. " It k not fully true iSaab i3ae drone it b^ond control,*** tnyB
OMriiire. With care, tteleoled drones «an be «o secined for 1^ pnrpeae of
iB«tiBg miA selected quaeos. When a qneen is ^ or -G-doys old, and nmmatod,
dtoae the hzre she ooevpiee at night, and remove it to a t;ool daric room, and
Iraep it there till ike afterztoon dF the second dur ; return the hive to its m-
ffhial «taid. A. nucleus hive is t^ most handy for the purpose. Before
vetiDBing it to its place, feed aH wiibin with heated honey diluted with warm
water. Before lU)erating the ^neen and other inmates of the hive, be satn-
£ed there are no drones on the wing. Tins mi^ be done by listenii^ for
theor deep bass hum, and netioing the ontrances of the sxnrronnding hives. It
is better to have two nucleus hives for the purpose. One should contain ill©
virgin queen and the other the drones, wherein there is a fertile moliier-bee.
IVaen the nucleus hives are placed on the stand in the sunlight, it will cause
gieat oxeitement in both hives. The ^neen and drones irill at once rash
out, and there is a mend o e rtaint y that the objed; sought will be attained.

Digitized by


898 The Dairy Indtuiry in Denmark.

Tlje Dairy Industry in Denmark.

By F. E. H. W. KRICHAUFF, Cos. Msx. R.H.S.,
Chairman of the Agricaltnral Bareaa of South Australia.

After considerable delay I hare at length secured a copy of the fall report,
in 133 pages, by Professor C. C. Gl-eorgeson, of Manhattan College, Kansas,
U.S A., upon " The Dairy Industry in Denmark," which I have endeayoured
to condense into the following pages. Since the publication of the Fro«
fessor*s report the progress of dairying in the United States has been most

Whilst giving the fullest credit to Mr. David Wilson, of Victoria, Beyndds
& Co., of New Zealand, A. W. Sandford, of South Australia, and many
Managers of dairies in Australasia, and others, for iEnprovements in our
system of dairying, we can all agree with Professor Greorgeson that the
Danes are ahead of the rest of the world as regards butter-making. He says
that the leading secret of the uniformly good quality of their butter is that
'^ pure cultures of cream ferments" are in common use in all good dairies
exporting butter. It always has the same bright straw colour, the same
degree of saltness, and it varies but very slightly in flavour, aroma, and
texture ; and this uniformity in quality gives both dealer and consumer
confidence. Most of the exported butter is made in co-operative dairies, of
which there were more than 1,000 (now probably nearer 1,500), besides
about 400 owned by private individuals who purchase milk from smaller
farmers. The first of these co-operative dairies was started in 1882 — ^pro-
bably the first in existence.

Mr. E. B. Young, of our Wine and Produce Dep&t, telegraphed on A.pril
22nd 1895, recommending the pasteurising (».«., sterilising) process and the
use of selected yeasts (meaning pure cultures of bacteria), to counteract the
'* fishy" flavour of Australian butter. I had long held the same opinion, and
had again written to the Bacteriological Station at Kiel, Holst^in, for such
pure cultures, as some of these had been successfully introduced into
New Zealand, although apparently neglected or lost through the want of

Notwithstanding the most scrupulous cleanliness in milkin^-sheds or
stockyards, and in the vessels used, it is not possible to avoid disa^eeable
flavour or to retain the aroma unless the milk or cream is sterilised and
inoculated as soon as separated, with the particular bacterium in sufficient
quantity, which will ^ve the desired aroma and prevent the action of all
organisms producing bad flavours. These latter noat in the air — especially
the butyric acid bacillus, which causes ranciditv — ^and are not present in the
milk as drawn from the cow. We too often forget the discovery made by
M. Pasteur in 1860, that the process of fermentation is due to the presence
of living organisms, or bacteria; and the buttermaker should imitate the

Digitized by


The Dairy Industry in Den^nark. 699

4 -

practice of the brewer, who, inetead of leaving the fermentation of his beer
to chance and uncertainty, carefully cultiyates a yeast containing only those
bacteria which will give his beer the taste and aroma desired, and thus he
secures a complete mastery over the fermentation.

The report is valuable, not only as evidencing how the Danes have adopted
the teachings of science in their practice, but also as showing how mucn of
their success is due to the wise aid given by the Danish G-overnment to
private enterprise. The increasing demand n)r Danish butter in England
was and is liurgely due to the services of a civil servant, an accomplished
scientist (Mr. M. Eaber), whose duties were to aid by all means the sale in
England, and to meet and correct through the press nil false and damaging
statements concerning Danish agriculture, and particularly the dairy industry.
He had also to direct attention to frauds and adulterations with oleo-margarine
and the like.

Professor Georgeson remained in Denmark from January 27th till March
6th, 1893. The population is about 2,000,000 ; contains 14,553 square miles ;
has a mean temperature of 43-7® Fah. to 47*3° Pah., and about 24 in. of rain —
never a complete failure of crops on account of drought. Large farms
seldom contain more than 500 to 1,500 acres, of which class there are 1,954.
Of medium farms, containing from 50 to 500 acres, there are 71,778; and
smaller farms number 150,260. The average size of farms is about 30J^
acres, if we exclude forests and waste lands, and take only what is under
cultivation and in grass. These statistics are some years old, and the sub-
division of the large estates is being carried on. Parmers now own more
than 50 per cent, of the area under cultivation, and the greater portion of
the remaining land is worked by peasants under a life tenancy, which can be
held by the widow so long as sue does not remarry. They are thus sure of
any improvements made by themselves, and the condition of agriculturists
is prosperous — more especially in comparison with the peiiod before the
astonishing output of dairy products. In 1891 the total quantity of butter
made was calculated to have been 170,074,642 lb., of which 100,600,788 lb.
were exported ; and this from a small country, which contains in the Jutland
Peninsula a very large quantity of poor heathy land. The kingdom is one-
tenth the size of California, and less than one twenty-sixth the size of South
Australia, exclusive of the Northern Territory. The number of square miles
alienated in South Australia is somewhat in excess of the total area of the
Danish Kingdom.

State Aid and Progress made in Dairying*

Up to sixty or seventy years ago dairying had been neglected in Denmark,
except upon a few of the larger farms, and the breed of cattle was very poor.
Parmers were best pleased with fattening a number of steers for the market ;
but since then matters have improved, first with the introduction of skilled
dairywomen from Holstein. But it has been onlv since 1850 that smaller
farmers began to take an interest in the dairy, and the Agricultural Society
provided practical instruction for young men, as already had been provided
for youn^ women. Professors T. B. Segelka, von Stoch, and Pjord began in
1874 to change the empirical methods, by pointing out the reasons for the
new practices to be followed, and showing how better results could be
secured by the adoption of more exact methods. The thermometer was
used instead of the finger, the milk from each cow was recorded, the quantity
of cream weighed, the food and labour placed to the debit of each cow, and
set against the product yielded by her. The separator, in 1878, began to

Digitized by


700 The Dairy Indmtry in Denmark.

supenede tbe sjrfttem of ttniiDiDg tlie railk into sballow vaxM or tab*, at
introdaced from Holsteio. Inst^ of cooling tbe milk bj water iee wm
U0ed in tab* or cemented basins in tbe ceUars, and tbe milk we^ in dejro
cylindrical cans sunk in tbem, bnt tbe separator entirely did awaj wiu
setting of tbe milk in cans on all of tbe larger farms.

(For farmers wbo bave no separator I think tbe following account of
experiments conducted hj Professor Fjord will be ralnable, and induce tbea
to at least use as cold water can be obtained :-^He experimented largely in
order to ascertain tbe relatire ?aliiee of setting milk ip cold water and in ic«
water, tbe former ranging from 39° Fab, to 60^ Fab. He proved condosii^y
tbat tbe milk ongbt to be at once cooled to a temperature as near to freezing
as possible, and tbat the depth oi milk in a can nad bnt littie influence on
tbe rapidity of tbe rise of the cream if kept in a low temperatore. From
milk skimmed after standing ten hours be obtained nearly 3f per cent, man
cream if cooled in ice to 35^ Fah. or 30^ Fab. that if kept in still water at
39"" Fab. to 40^ Fab., and more than 25 per cent, excess if the water was
only 60*^ Fab. If skimmed after tbirty-fonr hours tbe loss was respectiTeiy
1*4 per cent, and 13*4 per cent. Milk standing tbirty-fonr hours gare in
either case much more Dutter than if the cream was taken after ten hounk
Tbe loss, if skimmed after ten boura, was 5*7 per cent, when cooled with ioe,
and 9 per cent, when cocked with water at 39^ Fab., and 29'4 per cent, with
water at 50^ Fah. With regard to Iosms in butt^, it may be refmari^
that making sweet cream butter is like losing 1 lb. o€ milk lor each pound
oi butter if compared with first souring the cream.)

Tbe Danish dairies haye not reached a high standard, and tbe ayerage butter
fat is nnder 3i per cent. On tbe islands the Angler breed of Sddeswig-
Holstein cattle haye been largely imported to blend with the natiye " Bed
Dairy ** breed ; also some Bbortliorns, Ayrshires, and Swiss cows haye been
introduced. There is now a gradual deyelopment of the milking qualitiea of
ibis *• Bed Dairy " breed. "W bile formerly the yearly average yield of mOk
from eows was from about 4,2001b. to 5,3001b., there are now good ayerage
cows yielding, it well eared for, from S,000lb. to 9,000 lb , and a few up to
10,000 lb. In 1868 tbe yearly ayerage yield of butter per cow wae ll2i lb.
tn 1872 it was 146 lb., and increasing eyer since. The Jutland breed is blaek
and white, and tbe dairy qualities are not well deyeloped ; they are better
auited for beef. They resemble tbe Holstetn-Frisian breed, but tbe cows
are rather small where the soil is poor. Tbe ayerage yield of milk waa, in
1892, between 3,500 lb. and 4,500 lb. per year. In exceptional cases, after
selection, the average of some herds was as high as 6,500 lb.

The management of calves in Denmark is worthy of notice, especially in
-the aoath-east and elsewhere where tuberculosis has a f ootbcld. The calf is
at once put into a pen by itself, and within a couple of days it is injected
with tuberouline, to test whether or not it is affected with tubercnlosis from
its mother. If there is a reaction from this injection, shown by a rising
-temperature, then it is killed at once. The healthy calves are put together
by twos until they are two months old, and then four together, nntil spring,
when they all have access to a yard. In May, before being ptrt npon grass,
another injection of tnbercnline is made, so as to be quite sure to hkre a
herd free from tubercnlosis. This disease is so frequent that the afPected
eows could not be all killed at once. The germs of the disease are withont
fail indicated by tnbercnline, Professor Koch's great discoyery.

All farmers in Denmark strive with might and main to improve their stock,
especially through ** bull associations." At Binge, in Tunen, for instance,
twenty-nine farmers owned a superior buU. Th^ selected 100 of timr best

Digitized by


Jtke Dairy Indmtry in Denmark. 701

cows, and he was put to none but these. Inferior cowb were not eligible.
The service fee was nearly Ss., to proride for the keep of the bnU, bat the
State paid one-third of it. Altogether a yearly sum of about £2,700 is
deroted by the State to this purpose. Bat tlie State pays in many other
Ways for the adri^cement of agncnltnre and dairying in particular. There
are ten prirate agrtcnltnral schools, each of which receires State aid, accord-
ing to the number of students, np to £162 a year. Besides these, there are
somewhere about 100 ordinary high class schools, which give agricultaral
instruction, and about 2,000 dairies take pupils who reoeiTO board and lodg*
ing and a small salary for their services. The Eoyal Veterinary College of
Copenhagen has ten professors besides assistants and lecturers, and nearly
400 students who pay ; the State pays annually £824 for the iustruction of
twenty-two students, and the annual appropriation for the college, irrespec-
tive of salaries of the professors, is £1,762. For enlargement of the institu-
tion, £44,711 has been voted. The State pays for nine ** Konsulenter," or
advisers, who delivCT lectures and answer questions pertaining to agriculture,
three of whom are specialists in dairy matters. Persons requiring the
services of either of these advisers pay a portion of his travelling expenses,
and give him board and lodging whilst at the place.

Dairy Utensils and Butter-making.

In Denmark the Bur meister and Waine separator is mostly used. It can
raise the skim milk and cream through its discharge pipes to a height of 8 ft.,
whence it runs by gravitation to reservoirs. It is the only separator which
will do this. The BeLaval '* Alpha" separator is gaining favour, and another

Online LibraryAustralia. Dept. of Agriculture New South WalesThe agricultural gazette of New South Wales → online text (page 112 of 118)