Australia. Dept. of Agriculture New South Wales.

The agricultural gazette of New South Wales online

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The homestead is of wood, built two years ago, containing ten rooms,
fitted with every convenience, and standing in a pretty flower garden, central
to the farm, and near by is the large vegetable garden and many fruit-trees,
also a coach-house and stable. The farm steading is grouped about 200
yards distant, and consists of an old dwelling-house of slabs, lined through-
out with match-boarding, and converted into an excellent dairy. This
inner lining of match-boarding gives a spacious interior, kept spotlessly
clean, and the large room is fitted with three tiers of stands for seventy-fire
tin pans. The windows are wire-lined, and a copious cross circulation of air
is provided. The old kitchen fireplace is used to heat the cleansing water.
Quite too close is the piggery, with paddocks and styes. The calf-pens have
battened floors, which afford a very clean surface to lie on. There is a good-
sized poultry-house, also a coach-house and stable, in which the implements
are sheltered, and hay stored. The milking-shed is fitted with five bails, and
has three large yards attached. Whitewash has been freely used, and the
buildings as a whole present an unusually neat appearance.

The implements comprise two one-furrow plougns, and an American one-
furrow small plough, 1 iron horse-hoe and scarifier, set of four iron harrows,
1 pair medium, and 1 heavy wood harrow, wood roller, A. B.C. com-sheller,
com mill (Eichmondand Chandler), chaff-cutter (Bentall), mower (Hornsby),
bullock dray, spring cart, buggy and sulky ; also a large dairy plant. Re-
pairs are done by tradesmen.

The rotation and system of cultivation is as follows : — The farm consists
of 76i acres of pasture, 16^ acres of arable land, a pig paddock of 8 acres,
farm buildings, dairy, and residence, with orchard and garden, 2 acres, in all

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National JPrize CompetiHon,18QS. 161

103 acres. The 76 j acres of pasture are divided into fourteen paddocks, and
tlie 16i acres of arable into four fields, of which 2 acres are in lucerne, 10
acres in broadcast corn, 4 acres are planted with corn, and there is a half
acre plot of potatoes. A small quantity of oats is grown for hay for use
when the grass is too fresh, but rery little dry fodder is required since the
pastures never fail. The maize yields over 80 bushels per acre; lucerne
gives six cuts per annum, potatoes do well, and some field peas are thrashed
out for the poultry.

Beyond gathering the scrapings from the milking-yards, and keeping the
fowl droppings for the garden, no manure is conserved, but on a dairy farm
the animals fertilise the pastures direct, and where there is a largo pig
paddock, as is the case here, the same also occurs.

Very little fodder has need to be conserved on a purely pasture farm. The
management of the grass land is veiy instructive, and Mr. Gibson lays down
grasses successfully. When he commenced to farm this property two years
ago, the pastures were in a neglected condition, being covered with tussocks
of hard, unedible grass. To eradicate these, the lea was ploughed, and
maize, sorghum, or planter's friend were sown in the furrows, and either cut
green or let ripen. After this wa3 sown, barley, together with from 2 to 3
bushels of rye grass, and 10 lb. of clover. On the barley dying out, the
rye grass and clover will be found to occupy the ground. It is the opinion
of Mr. Gibson that rye grass wears out in this district in ten years, where-
fore he renovates his pastures by taking a maize crop cut green followed by
the above mixture of parley and grasses. Great pains are exercised to get
good ryegrass seed, hitherto the supply has been derived from the Kangaroo
VaUey and Broughton Creek, but last year a Sydney firm supplied an
extremely clean-looking sample, with the result that aU tne pasture derived
from it developed a thick yellow rust, whereas the old pasture adjoining was
wholly free. The same rust has apparently appeared in other districts this
season, and it is usually the case that by inadvertent channels, pests are
introduced. Great pains are taken to hoe out weeds and tussocks, the
pastures being continually gone over, and the debris burnt, for, without
doing so, the grazing value would be seriously diminished.

The livestock comprise 4 horses, 98 cattle, 11 sheep, 51 swine, and 300
head of poultry. Tnere were 2 plough and 2 buggy horses, but several
horses were running on the leased land. The cattle comprise 72 milkers,
12 yearlings, 13 calves, and 1 bull. Mr. Gibson's experience is instructive
as to the effect of continued breeding from a cross in dairy cattle. When
at Dapto his dairy herd was pure ** Major*' stock, celebrated for size and
yield of milk, Durham being the dominant type. About six years ago the
lashion set in for Ayrshires, and Mr. Gibson purchased full-blooded bulls
at &ncy prices. The first cross were full of vigour, and mostly bulls, but
when the first cross heifers were put to an Ayrshire bull, the progeny was
stunted, with small teats, and altogether inferior. Mr. Gibson has abolished
the Ayrshire, and is determined to build up again a " Maior" herd, and
now uses one of his own home-reared bulls, three years old, called by him
" Major II." He is of a Hght roan colour, of a kindly disposition, and with
points that will please a cbstiryman. Already his iimuence is shown in a
large fall of heifer calves, large, robust, and with good coats. The ** Major"
strain is scarce enough, that bull having died eleven years ago, but now that
the Ayrshire fancy is over, Mr. Gibson considers that the good old Ulawarra
type, with dominant Durham influence, is likely to re^in its reputation
without any further crossing experiments. A ready sale is found for
springers at up to £10 per head, and each year £120 is derived from this

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162 National Prize Competition, 1893.

source. The cattle in milk number 72. They show the Ayrahire croes
plainly, also a Jersey touch here and there, indicated by the yellow skin.
Owing to early precocity from rich pasture, together with the carelessness
of neighbours with regard to their bulls, several of the heifers in mik
are less than two years old, and in consequence aire also stunted in their
growth, but may nil out ere their second calf is born. There were two
" Major" cows, mother and daughter, each of which yield 5 gallone of milk
per (fay five months after calving. Work in the dairy commences at 4 ajn.,
and in one and three-quarter hours the 72 cows are finished, the iamilj
miBtering 6 milkers, each stripping 10 cows per hour, with a boy to carry
the buckets to the dairy. Into each milk-^an a spoonful of ^' thick" milk is
placed prior to pouring in, with a view of ripening the cream with certain^.
At 4 p.m. the evening milking commences. The introduction of the factory
system has displaced a large number of hand dairies, but by careful manage-
ment, as good, if not better, butter, may be made. The possible liability e(
the factory system to inferiority is due to inability to control care and
^cleanliness on the part of the supplier, both with regard to i^e ^oali^ of
the stock, their health, feed, and surroundings, also the production or an
unvaried quality of milk, all of which the one proprietor has at commaQd.
He sees that thie milk is treated under the best circumstances, and that the
dairy utensils and water are clean. Moreover, whereas factories are worked
by men, in a hand dairy women superintend, and are probably more particu-
larly neat, exact, and cleam. There are other appendages of good manage-
ment, to a home dairy in the better utilisation of skim milk, bearing ef calm,
and fattening of swine. Altogether, Mr. Gibson's dairy affords a successfiil
instance of an dd-fiifihioned d^ry holding its ovni. The milk sets in from
24 to 26 hours, but if the weather be hot, sufficient ferments are deposited
from the air without the spoonful of thick milk being first put in the pan.
Qiurning is done in an SO-lb. Kiama chum, the butter being washed m it
with two waters, and is next lifted out to drain all night on a tray, where it
is salted, and next morning worked on a Bradford's rotatory table, and
finally packed for market. The butter had a rich, natural colour, with good
^ain and a delicate taste, and has a reputation for keeping a long time with-
out turning. The present production is 330 lb. per weeJt from 72 covfb, many
being heifers, with their first calf. The cows calve without attention, and
no losses occur. The calves are taken away the second day, and themie-
forward fed on '* thick" milk, on which they thrive, and soon learn to feed
on the rich pasture. The butter is purchased by one dealer, whose conned
tion li^ witn the nainers. He pays the top price for dairy butter in Sydney
on the day of sale, and accounts are settled weekly.

There were were &1 «wine at the time of my visit, consisting of 1 boar, 9
breeding sows of a Foland-Berkshire cross, 32 pigs two months old, and 9
fattening three months old. The intention is to get a pure Bei^shire boar, and
•eliminate the Poland-China strain. The young pigs are purchased by deaten
for the Sydney mai*et, at an average of 12 ^er month. Several are fattened
for bacon, chiefly for home use.

A small flock of Southdofwn sheep were kept, consisting of 1 nun, 4 ewes,
fuid 6 lambs, of a pure type and splendid condition, with a tendency on these
Tich pastures of attaining a great size. Sheep are extremdy scarce in IHa-
warra, and these Soutiidowns are merely a fancy flock.

Poiiltry add consid^ably to the annual turn over. Bionro-wing and
ordinary turkeys are reared to the extent of fifty per annum, also geese and
ducks, manjr prizes being taken at local shows for all classes of poufey.
Eepresentatives of the following pure breeds are kept .— Spamsh, White

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National IPrize Competition, 1893^ 168

Le^om, Black Leghorn, White Hamlmrgb, Game (Australiau and Buck-
wing), aad Ptpnouth Bocks. Thiek milk is used as poultry food, and the
fowk pick oyer the maize and oats, and run extensirelj oyer the farm,
eandng their own liyhig without labour to the farmer.

Ordbard fruit k sold, also surplus yegetables, the dealer taking what he
wants, Ikat kitchen garden being yerj produetiye and well attendeMd.

Book-keeping is elementary, merely a record of sales and purchases being

1%e labour of the fann is done by ihit family, the four daughters and son
atiJudiBg to ^e milking and dairy.

!n» subeidisry aids are : — Co-operatiye family labour ; sales of springers,
ealfes, pigs, and poultry ; also orchard and garden produce.

The praits of intereet are : — Excellent pasture ; the hoeing out of tussocks,
sadtfae mode of laying down grass; a pure dairy herd and Southdown
dieep ; the breeding of a large number ot pigs ; keeping of aU yarieties of
poultry, many prises being won ; a model dairy on the hand system ; marketing
of Roouee to a dealer, who pays cash on the basis of Sydney prices.

The management, with a yiew to profit, is shown by the returns to be
eBdlent. The farm is a freehold of 103 acres, costing, at £85 per acre.
£8^905 ; iiie hoiwe, fencing, and improyements may be tal^n at £1,100, and
te live stock at £900 ; in all, £5,605. The sales per annum are about
£780, made up of — Dairy produce, £500 ; sales of cows and calves, £130 ;
mi, £100 ; poultry, £50 ; total, £780. In addition to which there are the
ho wa eho ld expenses of a family of seyen persons. The management may
be regarded as excellent, and the dairy a model one, on the old-fashioned

William Swan, The Meadows, Albion Park.

Sooth Coast District. — Place, No. 10 ; points, 66*.31 percent. ; arable, 35 acres ; pastnre,
124 acres ; homestead, 1 acre ; total, 160 aotes.

(3 November, 1893.)

]fr. Wiiiiam Swan is a native of the lUawarra district, and has had a
iifs-loBg experieaee in dairying. He im a tenant of the farm entered for
c(nBMlitk>n, the first full term of three years haying been completed, and
«M natf of a second one has expired. This farm laWnrs, theretore, under
iSbB disadyaiitage of a yery short leasehold, without compensation for ira«
nopeBMBts. The rent is £2 per acre, paid half-yearly in advance, but as
Mr. fisvaoi added to tiie dweUmg-hovse and })ut up divisional fencing, at a
ooii of £275, a rent of 50s. per acre in reality is arrived at. The land is tbe
wy pc^ of the l aiaed lUawarra 4i8trict, and is distant from Albion Park
tMMup aboBt fai^«a-mile. It lies midway between the mountains and the
aMHa,aneh bemg^^ miles away. The Macquarie Biver bounds the pro-

K,. winding for e^rer a mile, and waterlog every paddock. At flood-lime
nd wuLj be aubm^ged in places for a few houra, but the waters drain
off at once irom this ilat, alluyial fiarm. There is very little shelter for live
flteokybuttkey lie, during winter nights, on the deeply-excavated sandy banks
sf Aeriver. Milk is the ehief product of the farm. That of the morning is
MBtto Sydney, via the Fresh rood and lee Company, and the neighbouring
Albion Park "Gutter Factory takes the surplus Sunday and evening milk.
farin^Kn, calrea, and fattoied cuUs are sold at good prices locally, the
hnUi bemg sought by tiie butdiers. The climate is aU that could be
^ M irod , ^ring az^ later frosts are exceptioiml, and a drought merely serves
t» cfaedc &e laxnziaDce of the grass, so that mudi preserved fodder is

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164 National Prize Competition^ 1893.

unnecefisary, for cattle will not touch hay when they can get pasture.
Before Bettlement, cedars formed the chief tree, and a dense, luxuriant
brush occupied this fertile ground. The banks of the Macquarie are 15
feet in depth, and probably as many more before bed rock is reached, tbe
soil being a deep, porous, chocolate loam, with a limited area of sand and
clay. Drainage has been necessary where some surface soakage lay in a
depression, and a wide open ditch, 60 chains in length, is a success. In
another paddock some deep furrows have also proyed effectual^ and are all
that a short lease would warrant. Bain-water is conserved for household
use, whilst wells, 15 feet in depth, will strike water anywhere. The fences
are serviceable, generally two-rail, with a barb wire in many instances, which
cattle quite understand. There are thirteen paddocks, from 3 to 35 acres in
extent, and are grazed in routine order. The farm is under-stocked, so that
the grass is nowhere eaten bare, whilst weeds and tussocks are carefully
hoed out. . Couch grass forms a proportion of the pastures, and the cattle
leave it when they can get sweet young grass, but it serves as a stand-by for
winter. The buls of the herbage is made up of rye grass, prairie, and white
clover, all of which grow with great luxuriance.

The residence consists of a six-room wooden cottage, erected by Mr. Swan,
and the original slab dwelliug-house with kitchen. There is a small flower
garden in front, and the pasture extends up to the other sides. The ham
buildings are of wood, and coibprise a three-stalled stable and bam, five
milking bails with yards, and a neat refrigerator shed for the milk before
despatch by rail, erected at Mr. Swan's cost, fitted with tanks and Lawrence's
cooler. Should a laa-ger bam be at any time needed, the landlord allows the
use of one that stands by the fence line.

The implements consist of a one-furrow wood beam bullock plough, a one-
furrow iron plough, iron horse-hoe and scarifier, a wood-framed one, wooden
harrow, " Prince " com-sheller, four-wheel truck for drawing timber and
green stufE, spring cw^, and buggy. The milk refrigerating plant, including
dairy cans, cost £65. A mower and roller are borrowed when required.
Eepairs are done by tradesmen.

The system of cultivation and rotation is as follows : — On entry, five years
ago, Mr. Swan commenced to renovate the pastures by ploughing in the lea
and taking a crop of maize, planter's friend, or imphie. The stubble is
then ploughed in, a seed bed prepared, and the following mixture sown
broadcast in March or April : — ^Kye grass, 1 bushel ; prairie grass, 1 bushel ;
white clover, 1 lb., and oats may or may not be sown as well. About August
the stock feed oft the first growth, principally the oats, and by spring the
new turf is firmly established, the growth oeing so rapid, and the paddock is
browsed in rotation with the others. The 35 acres of arable land are cropped
as follows : — ^Planter's friend, 12 acres ; imphie, 5 acres ; maize, 7 acres ;
oaten hay, 4 acres ; potatoes, i acre. A paddock of 6^ acres of green oats
was fed o^ during last winter, and is now kept as summer herbage. The
maize sown in the furrow is hoed by horse and hand, and husked in the field,
yielding 75 bushels per acre. This season " Pig Tooth" com was sown from
seed got two years ago from Berry. In past years " Hogan" yielded well.
Out of the 500 bushels expected from this 7 acres, 100 bushels will be kept
for the poultry, and the rest sold locally at from 38. 6d. to 4s. per bushel.
" Brownell's Beauty" was the potato planted on the i-acre plot. The haulm
looked well, and all tubers over home requirements will be sold. " Planter's
Friend" is held in high repute as a cleaning crop for couch grass on arable
land, which is starved into weakness by its dense growth. The 12 acres
about to be planted will be cut green in May and through the winter. Last

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National Prize Competition, 1893. 165

t .

year £25 was realised from sales of imphie seed, tbe best heads alone being
takeD, and 40 bushels of 60 lb. each were secured, which sold at from 208.
to 238. eacht Grrass seeds are thrashed in some years to the extent of
80 bushels, which, on sieving, separate into 20 bushels of rje grass, worth 48.
per bushel, and 60 bushels of prairie, worth 3s. 9d. per bushel.

No system of manuring is pursued, the milking yards are cleaned up each
veek, and the gathered dung is made into manure for application to the
ploughed land.

Fodder is not cqnseryed to any extent, since pasture never fails, and
cattle will not eat hay if they can get grass. Doubtless if a long lease were
granted more of this fertile ground could be ploughed, and a larger number
of stock kept.

The system of laying down grasses, already noted, is excellent.

The live stock are as foUows : — 7 horses, 110 cattle, and 150 head of
poultry. There are 2 plough horses, and 6 for saddle or buggy. The dairy
cattle form the leading feature, in that a more level lot of heautifurcows
with deep frames and big udders cannot be met with. Pure Durhams and
the "Major" strain predominate; here and there an Ayrshire touch is
noticeable, and perhaps a Jersey cross. Their excellent condition and deep
milking were remarkable ; — the result of exceptionally good pasture. The
cows must milk well or they are culled to be sold fat. Old cows are not
kept, and with a due proportion of heifers coming; on the herd is composed
of milkers in their prime. Data is, unfortunately, not available as to the
annual yield of any one cow ; such records should be kept bjr every dairyman ;
but the' buying of milk on its fat value by the factories will, doubtless, lead
to complete entries of yield and richness being made. Fat in milk is a
regular factor, not dependent on food or health, but peculiar to the indi-
Tidnal ; and, as Mr. Swan remarks, " thick blood makes thick cream,'' whilst
the skill of dairj farming is to cull at once the old and inferior and to keep
the cattle in equal condition all the year round. Mr. Swan's herd has
established a reputation, whilst the rich pastures sustain the cattle in prime
condition, and, m fact, many more could find food. There are 53 cows in
milk, 17 dry cows, 35 yearlings, 1 bull, and 4 working bullocks ; total, 110.
When opportunity offers and grass is abundant likely cattle are purchased
cheap for fattening. The milking is so arranged as to be in time to cart tbe
cans to the Albion Park factory, whose van collects in one load for the
station the milk of many suppliers, charging 8d. per can of 11 gallons for
the service. The milk goes to the Sydney dep6t of the Fresh Food and Ice
Co., a fixed price of 6d. per gallon being given, but the morning's milk only is
taken for six days in the week, whilst the local factory separates the
evening; Sunday milk and surplus milk, retumingan average of from 8H*
to 4d. per gallon, in proportion to the butter sold. The skim milk is returned,
which, on this farm, cannot be done without for (feeding calves. Household
hotter is purchased from the factory, none bein^ made at home. No swine
were kept. Poultry number 160 head, and return £60 per annum for pro-
duce sold locally, 85 dozen of eggs being gathered weekly. They are well
fed, a portion of the maize crop being retained for their use.

There is neither garden nor orchard, and in book-keeping, sales and
porchases are entered. The labour of the farm is done by Mr. Swan and
tour hojs, who 'take the milking.

Subsidiary aids may be enumerated as co-operative family labour, sales of
graas and imphie seeds, good prices for high-class springers and fat cattle,
and the disposal of eggs and table fowls.

Digitized by


166 National Frize Competition^ 1893.

The points of interest are a splendid herd, Ingh-class dairy stock, the
inethod of renovating pastures, open ditch drainage, the saving of grass and
imphie seed, and the erection of buildiDgs on a short tenancy lease.

The management, with a view to profit, is based upon keeping the highest
class of milkers upon renovated pastures of great fertili^, with co-operative
family labour, and marketing the milk through the Fresh Food and Ice Co.
and a local factory. The difficulties entailed by a short lease are many, for
instance, deficient accommodation had to be met by the tenant building at
his own cost ; there is neither garden nor orchard, and the system of letting
farms by tender leads to a rental being too frequently offered that can
leare no profit. Mr. Swan's great skill is shown in the management of his
cattle, but it would not be fair to him to publish the results. Suffice it to
say that the annual turn-over leaves a fair return on the capital invested
after the rent of £2 lOs. per acre is deducted. The farm affords an instruc-
tive example of stock of the highest quality being carried on pastures of
great fertility, the produce being most favourably marketed, and the whcrie
worked with the minimum of labour.

Haywood Brothers, Oaklands, Fambula.

South Coast District. — Prize Farm ; points, 88*31 per cent. ; urable, 371 aores ; pasture,
71 acres ; homestead, 7i acres ; orchard, 2 acres -, wattle, 30 acres ; undeaced, 37
acres ; total, 184$ acres.

(14 November, 1893.)

*' Oaklands " farm is less than a mile from Pambula township, and is
"distant 4 miles from the port of Merimbula> which is in steam commimicar
tion with Sydney twice a week. The cultiyated area of the form occupies
the alluvial flats of the Pambula itiver, which bounds the south side for
a quarter of a mUe. A portion is subject to flood, and it is exceptional if
much damage results, whilst a useful deposit of silt would residt.
There are 68 acres of hillside, 30 acres of whicn, ovei^grown with wattle, are
now undergoing clearing. Water never fails, although a dry year is fdt
by the herbage. The soil is extremely fertile, possessing somewhai; tiie
character of a black sandy loam of great depth, with a few wet spots, some
of which have been drained on the underground system. The climate is
tempered by proximity to the ocean, but is protected from its strong winds
by an intervening range of low hills. In winter, however, cold winds sweep
down from the Monaro table-land, and late frosts are common in spring, but
do no serious harm. The geology of the district is not easy to decipher ;
there is a local sandstone, and the celebrated Fambula gold mines indicate a
felsite, and even more complex formation, but as far as &e farm is concerned,
it is on a fertile alluvial flat. The property formed part of the original
grant to Mr. W. Walker, then it became connected vnth Mr. James Manning,
who was the immediate occupier prior to the late Mr. Haywood, who pur-
chased it. This last-named gentleman died in 1889, and his three sons have
since tben undertaken the management. Each one supervises a di&rent
department, and their united intelligent labour accounts for so many sub-
siouary idds being successfully conducted, which hare done so much towards
winning the Champion Prize. The late Mr. Haywood first leased and theoi

Online LibraryAustralia. Dept. of Agriculture New South WalesThe agricultural gazette of New South Wales → online text (page 22 of 118)