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circulation of sap m a tree is always going on more or less, and it is made
active after a day's soaking rain in any month of the year.

Porester Stopford, Penrith. — February.

South Table-land aitd South Coast.

Forester Eotton, Picton. — ^Eingbarking or sapping proves most effective
when the sap is up, in the months of November, December, January,
February, March, and the beginning of April.

Forester Allen, Milton. — January and February in coast districts. Should
it be a wet season, the trees die well, and are not followed by any second
growth. July and August in the Jingera and Monaro districts, according
to local residents.

Forester Benson, Bega. — End of February. The forest growth has pretty
well ended in February in this district.

Forester Harris, Queanbeyan. — About the end of summer, ** when the sap
is well up." It is difficult to define any exact month in the year for ring-
barking, as it must depend a good deal on the seasons, and also on the kind
of country to be rung, and it must be remembered that ringharking is always
more effective after a shower of rain. Experience alone will suggest the
proper time to ringbark.

Nobth Table-land

Forester Crowley, Casino. — Beginning of December, in hilly or ridgy
country, to end of April. Near the coast in flat country the timber should
be ringbarked from April to August.

Forester Deverell, Glen Innes. — As regards what time of year best to
ring, I must say that no set month or regular time can be stated, as it
mostly, as far as my experience goes, depends on the season and soil, *.<?., it
must be done when the sap is up, whicn occurs generally on good soils in
the eastern parts about January or February, and in bad soils even later ;
while in the western part about a couple of months earlier, viz., November
or December.

Forester Siddins, Armidale. — I have always found ringharking most
effective when the sap is up, which occurs after heavy rains, when the
operation can be performed with the certainty of the trees dying without
producing suckers. It is particularly effective when rains fall from the
middle of spring to the middle or end of the autumn.

Forester Kingsford, Gunnedah. — During the late summer months, Febru-
ary and March, when the sap is up. Some persons consider that the winter
months, July and August, are best for the purpose, the sap then being
**down"; but, in this latter case, the stump is liable to "sucker" at and
below the ring when the sap again commences to ascend. In any case I do
not consider it prudent to operate in any months, other than tnose stated,
during which the sap is in circulation, the work of killing the trees being
thus rendered more difficult.

Digitized by


18 Notes on Mmghoirkmg and Sapping.

Forester Marriott, Mudgee. — Early autumn during the months of
February, March, and April, when the sap is at its height, and the work of
flowering and fruiting is over. As, however, different trees vary in their
periods of flowering, this cannot belaid down as a general rule; it is necessary
when ringbarking a stretch of country — ^if it is to be effectively earned out —
to notice this diffisrence, and not ringbaffk promiscuously. Latitude and
altitude also bear upon the latter point.

Dbt Plain Countbt Mainly.

Forester M*Gee, NarraJbri. — ^The best time of the year to ringbark or sap
trees is during the spring and summer months when the sap is up, particularly
after rain, at which time sap is most abundant.

Forester King, Coonamble. — May or June, as, if the trees should throw
out suckers, their growth would be checked during the summer months.

Forester Kidston, Condobolin. — December and January, unless they are

Assistant-Forester Postlethwaite, Grenfell. — December, January, February.
Suckers will generally put out in six or eight months, and if done in summer
have another summer to contend against, and being small and weak the hot
8un will frequently scorch and kill them before gaining strength, but if rung
in the winter they have the whole of the following winter to mature.

Forester Taylor, Wagga Wagga. — As early in the autumn as possible.


Inspecting-Forester Manton, Moama. — The summer.

Forester Condell, ]S"arrandera. — November, December, January, when the
6ap is well up in the timber.

Forester Wilshire, Deniliquin.— October to March, the sap being then
well up.

Forester Pay ten, Corowa. — March, April, May, June, July. I have noticed
that red-gum trees when sapped during the latter end of March die out and
l>ut few suckers appear, though trees sapped in March cause the land to be
strewn with dead timber shortly after, consequent upon the flow of sap in
the trees at that time, which haatens decay, and trees rung in the winter
when the sap is less active caus^ the trees to linger for, say, twelve months
before they die.

Forester Guilfoyle, Moama. — January, February, and the greater part of
March. It is always better to wait till the new growth of the tree has made
some progress. By ringbarking at that period the check will be greater than
if the work is done immediately after the new growth commences. The
evaporation from the foliage of such trees as red-gum and box is much
greater after the new growth has made some headway than at starting, and
consequently the more severe the check to the vitality of the tree when the
sap current is broken. It must be borne in mind that in dealing with this
most important matter of ringbarking, local conditions of climate and kind
of tree should always receive due consideration. Fifty or sixty miles up or
down the Murray from any given point might possibly be a different climate,
so that some judgment in regard to the exact time to begin ringbarking or
thinning is absolutely necessary. It means simply to watch for the time
when the bark strips freely, and then to go to work as rapidly as possible.

Digitized by


Notes on Mingbarkmg and Sappmg.


13ie inf (H-mtttion eostaiaeel m the f ore^ing repliee will be cleerer if the
months reeommended for rixtgbarkiiig are pitt in tebvleir form : —


Head Qaartera.

Months reconmiended.




Macdonald ..


Angus Kennedy
J. McLemiAn ..



Grafton ...
Kempeey ...
Port Macquarie

North Coast.

August to December.


January SI to March 31 (at latest).

February 1 to April 30.

Port Macquarie ..


Deeeiaber, January.
Summer months.

March, April, May.

When sap well up ; March, &c.




Central Coast.

Singleton ' October.

Gosford j June, July, August.

Penrith ! February.



South Tablk-land and Socth Coast.



November to end of March.

January, February (for Coast) ; July, August

( Jingera and Monaro).
End of February.
End of summer.







Glen Innes

Armidale ...
Modgee ...

North Tablk-laxd.

December to end of April (hilly country) ; April

to August (flat coast lands).
January, February (eastern slope) ; November,

December (western slope).
Middle of sprint to middle or end of autumn.
February, March.
February, March, ApriL

Dry Plain Country Mainly.






Narrabri ...
Grenfell ...
Wagga Wagga

Spring and summer.
May, June.
December, January.
December, January, February.
Early autumn.







Moama ...
Corowa ...
Moama ...


November, December, January.

October to March.

March to July.

January, February, March.

Digitized by



Notes on JRingbarking and Sapping.

From perusal of tbis table it is at once seen that no one month, or series
of months,* is best for ringbarking in all seasons and in all parts of the
Colony. This point is emphasised by most of the foresters, some of whom
point out the necessity for noting local experience. This is, of course, the
truest guide, as a general rule. Speaking generally, it is recommended,
almost without exception, to ringbark when the sap is up, for the reasons
stated in slightly different language by different foresters. As one forester
puts it, " Watch for tbe time when the bark strips freely, and then go to
work as rapidly as possible.*'

Months recommended for ringbarking.




and South



Dry plain


bidgee and























*1 *


1 '






i *















Explanatory. — In compiling the above statement, spring has been interpreted to mean
September to November ; summer, December to February ; autumn, March to June.

Taking the Colony as a whole, it will be observed that the months most recommended
for ringl&rkingare from December to March, while February is preferred. The numbers
in the columns show the number of ** votes" given per district for each month, so that
the desirability or not of ringbarking in any particular district during any month may
be at once seen.

2. At what time ineffective ?

Tbe answers are, in tbe main, tbe converse of those given in reply to
No. 1, so they need not be tabulated or discussed at length. The general
opinion is that ringbarking is inexpedient in the winter months.

NoBTH Coast.

Forester Huxham, Grafton. — "Winter.

Forester Mecham, Bellingen. — Ineffective so far during the winter months
and when the sap is rising, when, if ringbarked, suckers grow from the
stump and roots, causinc: a heavy undergrowth.

Forester Macdonald, Kempsey. — ^The time at which the operation would
generally prove most ineffective is in midwinter or the dry season, when
there is a partial suspension of the sap. and the chief vitality of the tree is
in the root. The reason is obvious. If the operation is performed at such
a time, the root and stump of the tree being in full vigour, it has a powerful

* If it is absolutely necessary to give a season, summer is the best.

Digitized by


Notes on RingbarJdng and Sapping. 21

tendeocj (with the rising of the sap) to throw out a new growth in the
fonn of suckers, the destruction of which often costs far more than the

Porestep Brown, Port Macquarie. — I have not observed.

Mr. Angus Kennedy, Port Macquarie. — Early in the season (spring),
because the sprouts then grow strong and able to withstand the frost ^e
following winter.

Forester Rudder, Booral. — Generally the dry time. When the sap is

Centbal Coast.

Forester Cobcroft, Singleton. — Nil.

Forester Martin, Gosford. — Spring and summer months. This also ex-
presses the result of Mr. Martin's experience at Dubbo.
Forester Stopford, Penrith. — July or August.

South Table-land and South Coast.

Forester Itotton, Picton. — When the sap is down, in the months of May,
June, July, August, September, and October. I do not say that ringbarking
or sapping done in these months will not destroy the trees, but they are
almost sure to throw out suckers, and give more trouble than if done the
proper season.

Forester Allan, Milton. — Winter months, i.e.^ when the sap is down. At
the same time the sa]) flows at different periods- in the case of different trees.

Forester Benson, Bega. — Winter or spring months. To ring them then is
throwing money away. If the land is timbered heavily, suckers will spring
up in abundance causing more to eradicate than the ringing.

Forester Harris, Queanbeyan. — ^Winter.

Nobth Table-land.

Forester Deverell, Glen Innes. — I consider that for all practical purposes
it is ineffective to ringbark or sap during the winter months, first because it
takes a long time to kill, if ever, and secondly because it generally produces
suckers, especially in this district with stringybark and box.

Forester Siddins, Armidale. — It is not effective during the winter as a
rule, or a drought, or when the sap is down, as on its rising suckers are
forced out below the cut, and these are extremely difficult to destroy.

Forester Marriott, Mudgee. — During the spring and early summer, when
the trees are making fresh wood.

Dbt Plain Countby Mainly.

Forester McGee, Narrabri. — ^The winter months generally prove unsatis-
factory for sapping or ringbarking, as the sap is all down in the roots of the
trees then. When the sap rises in the spring it cannot get further than the
ring, and consequently throws out suckers all round the tree. The tree dies,
but the suckers flounsh and are as much trouble to kill as the tree. During
moist and wet seasons trees ringbarked or sapped frequently throw out
suckers more or less, as sap is then plentiful.

Forester King, Coonamble. — During the hot weather. It is probable the
shoots would grow very rapidly during the winter months, especially if a wet
season ensues.

Digitized by


22 Notes on Rmgbmrking and Soaping.

Forester Kidston, Condobolin. — ^After heavy rain, followed by warm
Assistant-Porester Postlethwaite, G-renfell.— July, August.
Porester Taylor, Wagga Wagga. — ^In the sprii^g.


Inspecting-Forester Manton, Moama. — ^In the winter.

Forester Condell, Narrandera. — ^Winter and spring months. Trees ring-
barked during these months throw out suckers and shoots, as the sap rises to
where the tree has been rung.

Forester Wilshire, Deniliquin. — The autumn and winter months.

Forester Payten, Corowa. — Sap-ringing would be efEective at any time,
only if done during spring or summer raie trees would throw out suckers,
thereby causing the work to be done oreer again, and if the trees are ring-
barked during that period, and wet weather sets in, it would in many cases
cause the sap to unite.

Forester Guilfoyle, Moama. — The ringbarking or sapping of " red gum "
(Eucalyptus rostrata)^ or ** box gum " {E, hemiphloia), two of our very
beat timbers, should by no means ever be attempted in the winter season,
for the simple reason that the sap at that time is not in on active state, or
what bushmen call " up." The work would be useless, to say the least of it.

8« Tlie kiad of lumber that is most easily destroyed and tlie Mnd

that is the reyerse.

This is a very important question, and, after the replies have been read,
it will be found necessary to examine the tabulated lorms and brief sum-
maries at the end, in order to grasp the replies. While there is little or no
doubt as to the facility (or the reverse), with which certain trees may be
killed by ringbarking or sapping, one must be careful not to generalise too
much upon the data before us. There is great diversity as to the number of
trees referred to by individual foresters. Some foresters have hardly specified
a single tree, while others have named a good many. It is obvious, therefore,
in counting the " votes " as to whether a certain species of tree is easy or
difficult to kill, the trees referred to by foresters who have supplied long lists
will monopolise the votes. The only way to exhaustively ascertain whether
certain timbers are easy to kill, or the reverse, would have been to have
requested each forester to report upon twenty specified trees, but, as it is, a
good deal of valuable information has been secured.

In some instances it has not been possible to give the scientific name with
absolute certainty (owing to non- receipt of flowers and fruit) ; in these cases
it has been omitted, or a query put in front of the name. These botanical
names have been given wherever possible, in order to properly define the
trees referred to, as local names are often vague. In a few instances the
replies might weU have been a little fuller, but, taking them as a whole, they
impart useful information.

NoBTH Coast.

Forester Pope, MurwiUumbah. — Easiest : All kinds of timber (except
stringybark) are on an equality as regards destruction by ringbai^ing.
Most difficult : Stringybark (JEiMMlyptus acmenoides) .*

*[NoTE. — This tree is usually known as white mahogany, but it has a fibrous bark»
hence the aame of stringybark in the district. Fruits o! the tree referred to have been
received from Mr. Pope.]

Digitized by


Notes on Ri/n^mrking and Sapping. 23

Forester Huxham, Grafton. — Easi^t : All our forest timbers. Most diffi-
cult : Soft brush timbers.

Forester Mecbam, Bellingen. — Easiest : Turpentine {Syncarpia Jaurifolia) ;
gum (the smooth-barked eocaljpts) ; iron bark (JShicalyptus paniculata) ;
biackbutt (Mucalyptiis pilularis) ; tallow- wood (Eucalypius microcorys) ; grey
gum (JEucalyptus saluftta var.) ; white mahogany (Eucalyptus acmenoides) ;
red mahogany {Eucalyptus resinifera). Most difficult : Brush or white box
{Tristania eonferta) ; forest oak {Gasuarina suherosa mainly) ; bloodwood
{Eucalyptus corymbosa) ; these require heavy sapping to ensure success.

Forester MacDonald, Kempsey. — Easiest: Apple-tree (Jnyophora stih-
velutina) ; ironbark {Eucalyptus paniculata')) forest oak {Gasuarina torulosa) ;
stringybark {Eucalyptus eugenioides) . Most difficult : Biackbutt {Eucalyp-
tus pilularis) ; spotted gum {Eucalyptus maculata) ; grey gum {Eucalyptus
saliffna and t&reticomis) .

Forester Brown, Port Macquarie. — Easiest: Stringybark {Eucalyptus
mtyemioides) ; mahogsny {Eucalyptus resinifera) ; stinking or broad-leaf gum
{Eucalyptus sp.) (It will be observed that the experience of Mr. Forester
Brawn and Mr. J. McLennan do not agree as regards the stinking or
broad-leaf gum.)

J. McLennan, Tarras. — Easiest : Stringybark {Eucalyptus eugenioides) >
grey box {Eucalyptus hemiphhia) ; ironbark {Eucalyptus paniculata^ Sfc,) ;
forest oak {Casuarina torulosa) \ bloodwood {Eucalyptus corymbosa) ^ tallow-
wood {Eucalyptus microcorys) ; red or scrub box {Tristania conferta) ; blue
gam {Eucalyptus saligna). Most difficult: White or ribbon gum {Euca-
lyptus viminalis) ; broad-leaf or stinking gum {Eucalyptus sp.)

Angus Kennedy, Port Macquarie. — Easiest : Ironbark {Eucalyptus pani-
cuUda) ; box {Eucalyptus kemipMoia) ; apple {Angophora subvelutina) ;
grey gum {Eucalyptus tereticornis) . Most difficult : Stringybark ( Eucalyptus
eu§m^oides) ; blue gum {Eucalyptus saligna) ; flooded gum {Eucalyptus

Forester Rudder, Booral. — Easiest : Bloodwood {Eucalyptus corymbosa) ;
ironbarks {Eucalyptus paniculata, siderophioia, Sfc.) ; blue gum {Eucalyptus
saligna) ; flooded gum {Eucalyptus saligrta) ; grey gum {Eucalyptus saligna
var.) ; turpentine {Syncarpia laurifolicCy\ red mahogany {Eucalyptus
resinifera) ; stringybarks* {Eucalyptus eugenioides and m^crorrhyncka) ;
tallow-wood {Eucalyptus microcorys) ; river oak {Gasuarina Cunningham-
tana) ; forest oak {Gasuarina torulosa). Most difficult : Brush box {Tristania
conferta) ; tea-trees {Melaleuca spp.) ; swamp oaks, viz., forest swamp oak
{Gasuarina glauca) , and coast swamp oak {Gasuarina stricta, quadrivalvis) ;
spotted gum {Eucalyptus maculata) ; red gum {Eucalyptus tereticornis) ;
grey box {Eucalyptus hemiphloia). These are usually hard to kill, or sucker
a good deal. Brush or scrub trees are very deep in the sap, and are mostly
hard to kill.

Cej^tkal Coast.

Forester Cobcroft, Singleton. — Easiest: Ironbark {Eucalyptus crebra^ Sfc.) ;
box {Eucalyptus hemiphloia). Most difficult: Tea-tree {Melaleuca spp.).

Forester Martin, Oosford. — Easiest : Box {Eucalyptus hemiphloia) ; apple
{Anf§pkora lamceolata) ; biackbutt {Eucalyptus jpi7w/a7^«) ; stringybark
{Eucakff^tua eugenioides) ; ironbark {Eucalyptus paniculata, ^c.) ; blue
gum {Eucalyptus saligna) ; red gum (^Eucalyptus tereticornis) ; grey gum

Digitized by


24 Notes on JRingbarking and Sapping.

{JEuealifptus tereticomis). Most difficult : Flooded gum {Eucalyptus
saligna) ; mahogany {Eucalyptus resinifera) ; spotted gum {Eucalyptus

South Table-land and South Coast.

Forester Eotton, Picton. — Easiest : All. Most difficult : "Red box
{Eucalyptus polyanthemd) (?) ; peppermint {Eucalyptus piperita) ; ban-
gallay (Eucalyptus hotryoides) ; blue gum {Eucalyptus saligna) ; grey gum
{Eucalyptus tereticornis) ; white box {Eucalyptus hemiphloia).

Forester Allan, Milton. — Easiest: Nearly all our eucalypts, and the
majority of brush trees. Most difficult : Fig {Ficus ruhiginosa) \ stinging-
tree {Laportea gigas and L. photiniphylla) ; kurrajong {Sterculia diver-

Forester Benson, Bega. — Easiest: Not stated. Most difficult: Pepper-
mint {Eucalyptus piperita) ; black box {Eucalyptus longifolia (?) ; stringy-
bark {Eucalyptus eugenioides) ; as they throw more suckers than other
kinds of timber. [The black box of this district is known as woollybutt in
other parts of the Colony.]

Forester Harris, Queanbeyan. — ^Most easily: Q-um {Eucalyptus, smooth
barked species) ; apple {Eucalyptus stuartiana) , stringy bark {Eucalyptus
macrorrhyncha) ; box {Eucalyptus hemiphloia) ; in the order named. Most
difficult: Peppermint or messmate {Eucalyptus amygdalina, var.) is the
hardest tree of all to kill, on accoimt of the innumerable suckers that
appear ; it should be rung at a different time, viz., winter.

North Table-lakd.

Forester Crowley, Casino. — Easiest : Ironbark {Eucalyptus siderophloia) ;
red gum {Eucalyptus tereticornis) ; bloodwood {Eucalyptus corymhosa) ;
apple-tree {Angophora subvelutina) ; oaks {Oasuarina spp.). Most difficult :
Spotted gum {Eucalyptus maculata) ; blackbutt {Eucalyptus pilularis) ;
tallow-wood {Eucalyptus microcorys); stringybark {Eucalyptus eugenioides);
tea-tree {Melaleuca spp.) ; dogwood (? Jacksonia scoparia).

Forester Deverell, G-len Innes. — Easiest : Not stated. Most difficult :
Narrow-leaf ironbark {Eucalyptus crehra) ; bimbil box {Eucalyptus populi-
folia), »

Forester Siddins, Armidale. — Easiest: Eed gum {Eucalyptus tereticornis);
white gum {Eucalyptus pauciflora) ; red peppermint {Eucalyptus sp,) ; white

Eeppermint {Eucalyptus acmenoides?) ; apple-tree {Eucalyptus stuartiana) ;
oneysuckle {Banksia integrifolia); stringybark {Eucalyptus macrorrhyncha)
below the Eastern Falls ; bloodwood {Eucalyptus corymhosa) ; ironbark
{Eucalyptus crehra, Sfc) Most difficult : Stringybark {Eucalyptus macror-
rhyncha) on the table-land ; white box {Eucalyptus hemiphloia) ; yellow box
{Eucalyptus melliodora) ; black sally {Eucalyptus stellulata) ; narrow-leaf
peppermint {Eucalyptus piperita ?) ; and nearly all young timber of the above-
named sorts.

Forester Kingsford, G-unnedah. — ^Easiest : Apple-tree {Angophora subvelu-
tina). Most difficult: Gums {Eucalyptus, smooth-barked species); forest
oak {Oasuarina torulosa).

Forester Mariott, Mudgee. — Easiest: Apple-tree {Eucalyptus stuartiana)
and gum fully grown, and mature timber, and all pipy and stunted growths
are easily destroyed. Most difficult: Box-trees of all kinds {Eucalyptus
hemiphloia, melliodora, Sfc), and young trees full of life; saplings and trees
that have suckered are the reverse.

Digitized by


Notes on lUngbarMng and Sapping, 25

Dbx Plain Couhtbt Mainly.

Popeeter McGtee, Narrabri. — Most easily : Pine (Frenela endlicheri and
Tf^mtia) ; oak and belap* (Catuarina) ; iponbark {Eucalyptus crehrd) ; box
{EueaUfptua hemipMoia). Most difficult: Gum of all kinds (Eucalyptus,
smooth-barked) ; bibble box {Eucalyptus papultfolia) ; budda (Eremophila
MUchelli) ; brigalow {Acacia harpophylla) ; swamp box (Eucalyptus largi»

Porester King, Coonamble. — Easiest: Pine (Frenela endlicheri and
robusta) ; bull oak (Casuarina ylauca?) ; belar (Casuarina alauea) ; yar ran
(Acaeia homalophytla) ; wilga (Oeijera parvijlora). Most difficult: White
box (Eucalyptus hemiphloia) ; yellow box (Eucalyptus melliodora) ; blue gum
(Eucalyptus viminalis ?) ; red gum (Eucalyptus rostratd) ; ironbark (Euca-
lyptus siderosylon) ; apple- tree (Eucalyptus stuartiana?); budda (Eremophila

Porester Martin, late of Dubbo. — Easiest: Coolybar (Eucalyptus micro^

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