Australia. Dept. of Agriculture New South Wales.

The agricultural gazette of New South Wales online

. (page 59 of 118)
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und, when at actual work, that from some cause or other I could no
itain a recharge for sometimes nearly a week instead of daily, and at othei
nes the bloom allowed to me totally ceased after, perhaps, one, two, o:
ree changes, in place of at least a dozen required.

It will thus be seen that the whole of this work has been carried ou
ider most discouraging circumstances.

I feel called upon to make these explanations, because much more tim<
3 been occupied than was anticipated when I undertook the work, and al8(
I account of some of the samples not being as complete as I would wish
Bvertheless, in every ease they are satisfactory in quality and strength, ai
r as the opportunity would allow, and demonstrate the facts that, undei
3re favourable circumstances, articles of high quality may be produced anc
rried forward to commercial success.

Bouvardia (Eumboldtii).

This sample was prepared from 3 lb. G oz. bloom, 4 lb. prepared fat, foui

anges.

Up to the present this plant has not been used by manufacturing per

mers, but our experiment proves that in this climate it develops into x



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476 Extracting 'Perfume from Vkm

most useful source of perfume, which would be quick
trade as a new article. It is very powerful, yet del
possesses all the qualities requisite as a " body " for firs



Tuberose (Double).

Prepared from 5 lb. 13 oz. bloom, 4 lb; prepared fat, y

Being supplied with larger quantities of this flowe
result has been obtained, and I consider this the finest
this series of experiments, not on account of the article
than the others, but simply because I had a more ample
work upon.

The perfume from this is very pronounced and so
weather had been favourable, instead of such heavy and
sample I feel confident would have been perfect.

From personal experience with the tuberose, I do i
that our extracts from this plant could be placed on the
sold at such prices as would prove very remunerative to
its cultivation and manufacture.



Bose, White Assorted.

Sample made from 7 lb. 11 oz. flowers, 10 lb. prepi
changes.

In this sample the odour is strong and very distinct, i
difficulties attendant upon the ^xcessiye rain alluded
beyond my expectations.

One gratifying fact has been demonstrated, that by t
used, with more or less success, the majority of the rosi
this sample is secured from the blooms of a coUectio
white and yeUow.

Bose^ Assorted Beds.

Sample made from 8 lb. 1 oz. flowers, 10 lb. pi-epa
changes.

The foregoing remarks on the combinations of varietic
to the coloured roses, the majority of which can j
combined.

Considering the quality of tlie bloom available, so mi
the rains, this sample is very fair, and compares iiivoura
white class.

The manufacturers could use both these [samples to
the samples are very good.

Carnations/ Assorted.

Prepared from 2 lb. 12 oz. bloom, 4 lb. prepared fat, \
This will bo another new line of goods, and if brough

believe, prove acceptable to the trade, and rfiow a fair ]

the producers.
- The perfume from this is fragrant, powerful, and lasti

general service as a ''fixing" ingredient for making artiolei



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Extracting ^erftme from Fknvera. 477



Phlox, Peremiial, AssoitecL

Prepared from 1 lb. 3 oz. flowers, 4 lb. fat, with two changes.

In tois sample of perennial phlox we have a verj peculiar, distinct, and

luable odour, hitherto unknown to the perfumers.

The experiment has been very encouraging as far as I have been able to

Mseed, but owing to the unexpected cessation of my sunplj of bloom I

re not been able to develop this in its perfection, tarn, nowever, satisfied

it we have obtained here, as stated, a new fragrance of great service to

) trade. I believe that high-class results will be obtainable in this climate

>m this plant.

SpikeheacL

Prepared from 8 oz, flowers, 8 lb. fat, and just "enough bloom for one
er.

5ere wo find another line previously unknown, the odour of which is
J delicate, and the utmost care and attention is required in handling
I bloom, otherwise the otto, which is exceedingly volatile, escapes. The
iple, although such a small quantity of flowers was used, proves that a
ry fine perfume may be secured that would be valuable for high-class
As.

Assorted Flowers.

!^o. 1, prepared from 2 lb. 6 oz. coloured flowers, 4t lb. fat, with five

Jiges. No. 2, prepared from 2 lb. 12 oz. white flowers, 4 lb. fat, with sir

fliges.

Jeeing the multitude of varieties of flowers then present in the nursery, it

ick me it would be a good opportunity to investigate, for the benefit of small

wers and those who would prefer to grow flowers in collections, to what

ent assortments of various blooms might be combined and the value of

ir products ascertained. For this purpose I selected flowers in such

obination as would by their blendea odours be acceptable in a lady's

iquet. The results have proved very gratifying, giving excellent samples

t would pass current in the trade as *' Ess. Bouquet,** thus showing that

h judgment this very popular perfume may be produced in its purity

set from the combined flowers, instead of the usual intricate method of

nding at present in vogue.

rhere were several other experiments tried on florists' flowers, but the

ults were not sufficiently satisfactory from a commercial point to be

rthy of further prosecution or record.

?o sum up the value of these experiments as an industry and source of

ome, I feel confident it could be made the means of hundreds of small

d-owners, families of limited means, and even semi-invalids increasing

sir incomes very considerably.

Dhe practical work of extracting is not difficult to learn, and may be

Jcessl'uUy carried out by any intelligent person.

rhe cultivation necessary in flower-farming is very simple, and after the

id has once been prepared there is no heavy labour, thus bringing it within

i class of light industries very suitable for a section of our population

it would be thankful for such means to cam a livelihood.

rhe growers of these flowers would have no difficulty in selling their

)p8 of bloom as they came forward should they be produced in fair quan-

ies, and a company be formed to carry on this industry.



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478 Extracting Ferfume from jFIc

On the other hand, if the growers prefer to work
eielves, the only point for consideration is that th
first-class quality, as only good productions would hav
a payable market. For such there is j)ractically an
the supply of a pure article has never been equal t<
Europe or America, and this will account for the large
perfumes, which are of an injurious tendency, being

Beyond the ease with which the usual perfume plj
and developed here, I would point out that we have a
which in this favoured climate would come well w
farming, and that are at present quite outside the 1
utilised for these purposes.

For instance, we have certain of the florists*, or cu
are not, to our knowledge, worked elsewhere for peri
us, develop new and unique odours, that would be
the leading manufacturers of the world. Again, we
haustible supplies of our native flora, about which wo
the borders, as it were, leaving the inner depths co:
but what little we do know only excites our desire for
with her odoriferous wealth.

As a practical perfumer, having had many yean
Europe and Australia, I would express my opinion thai
the Minister see fit to continue tnis line of experime
that many of our native plants might profitably be b:
for perfumery purposes, and give odours of a special
manufacturing new preparations, and without doubt t
new specialities in Australian perfumes would ope
sale of all our other perfume products.



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Budding.



4^



'Budding/



By B. M. LELONG.



HE process of budding is pepformed during the growing periods of tl
uriouB kinds of trees. The peach, cherrj, almond, apricot, plum, &c., a
idded as soon as the scions, or buds, have developed or matured in tl



Fig. 1. — ^A The point which should not bo used, m the buds are generally blind. B Point from
where the buds are developed, c Beyond this point the buds are too tender, and should not
be twed. d Indicates the scion, or buddinor stick, to be used, being between points b and c.
B The scion, or budding stick, trimmed ready for budding.

ring or midsummer, and if budded early they can be started the san
iBon, but if budded late they have to be left dormant through the winte

Ibis artidt is reproclticod from the Annual Report for 1801 of the Board of Horticultu
of the State of California.



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480 Buddmff.

The apple, pear, quince, &c., are budded in the summer, and ha they do i
grow as rapidly as the peach, almond, <&c., they are left to lie dormant
the following spring, when they are started. The orange, lemon, Hi
citron, &c., are Dudded all through the summer, from early spring. 1
best time, however, is just as the sap begins to rise. The buds at that ti
" take" more readily, and the growth is undisturbed through the grow
period of the tree. The fig, walnut, chess nut, &c., are budded during
summer, and the buds left to he dormant, to be started in the spring. G
olive and other evergreen trees of this kind are budded from the time
sap begins to rise in the spring until late in the Call. If budded early, tl
are sts^ed and make good growth the same season. If budded late, tl
must be left to lie dormant till the spring following, when they are starl

Budding the Feacli.

The budding of the peach is, perhaps, the most simple. The buds t
more readily, and less care and practice are required than in budding ot




Fig. 2.

trees. The first important factor is the selection of scions, or buds,
illustrations (Fig. 1) furnish a good example of the budding sticks and
method of preparing them for budding. The budding sticks or buds hai
been prepared, they are placed in a box, and cov(
either with wet sacks or moss. In taking then
the field, it is advisable to never allow the sui
strike them. A small, shallow box, with a laye
wet moss at the bottom, on top of which the I
are placed and covered with a wet burlap sacl
much preferred. As the operator proceeds, only
stick is taken out and used at a time.

The operation is performed with a sharp ki
called "budding-knife." Fig. 2 represents a favor
style. There are others that are also very good, i
as the IXL, or Wostenholm.

A vertical incision is made In the bark of

young tree by simply pressing the point of the 1

against the bark and drawing it up, making a

from about one-quarter to one-half of an inch 1

Then by placing the knife transversely, and wii

slight twist of the hand from left to right, the tr

Terse cut is made (Fig. 3). At the same time

edges of the bark become loosened, so as to ei

admit the bud; then by pressing the bud it will v

^^'t^e^^^^^Th^^^ ite way downwards in the slit until it reaches a

ticai indaion. -position, and the bark covers it tightly. The 1

are then tied firmly with good, soft cotton twine,

left in that position until the time comes for the strings to be cut, oi

buds started or left to lie dormant, as will be explained kter on.



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JBudding.



4S



The cattmg of the bud from the stick becomes an important factor. Tl
ad should not contain too much wood, and should not be cut so thin th



FIjT. 4.'-A The scion, or budding stick, showing how the buda are cut, and the position in which
the knife is held, b c Pointo indicating the length to cut the buds.

Note.— These illustrations show how the buds are cut with the point of the bud upwards, but they
may be reversed if the operator so chooses.

len tied it is squeezed into nothing. Per this reason it is always advisab
use large and plump buds. The stick is held firmlj with the left hai

and the bud cut with the

right, as shown in Fig 4.
The bud is then inserted in

the slit or incision, as shown

in Fig. 5. The bud is then

tied; for this purpose good,

soft cotton twine is the best.

The work can be done more

expeditiously, and the results

will always be more satisfac-
tory than when other materials,

such as cloth strips, <&c., are

used. Many tie differently

from others. Some prefer to

commence the operation by

wrapping the twine below the

bud hrst, and wrap until the

top is reached. I much prefer

to begin the wrapping aboye

the bud and finish at the

bottom. It is of great adyan- ^_^ ,j^ ^^^^

tage, because the bud will not did."B The twine as'^ti^

slip while being tied,and it is Jjjj Jlf. tSSiSf* ''^

kept in position, and instead

allowing it to slip or relax, driyes it down farther into the slit, and

is way a moat periect fit ia obtained. The principal and most importai



. 5.— A The stock, b The
bodhverted.



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482 Budding.

part of the operation lies in tying the buds well, for if they should
looselj the air gets between the bud and the inner bark of the stock,
the sap between them to dry and prevent adhesion.

If the weather is f ayourable, the strings can be cut in fourteen ds
case there should be a continuance of heat it is better to leave thei
turbed for another week, because the heat sometimes causes the
open and the buds to dry out. In the summer young peach-trees gr
rapidly, and sometimes the strings will cut into the bark, and in 1
many buds are lost; therefore they should not be neglected, and the
should be cut at the proper time. It is always advisable to insert t
pointing one way — in the direction of the rows — so that in searcl
those that miss, in rebudding, or in cutting the strings, a person i
spend time in searching to find them.

Starting Peach Buds.

The most important point after budding is the starting of tl
When the plants have been budded in early spring (June) they



Fig. 7.— A The^bruBh left on the stock to Induce the bud to start, bv acting as suctions — c
I up the sap. b The stock, c Point where the bud may be tied to protect it from br

, D. Point where the old stock is to be cut awav, the dotted line below it indicating ho^

the bud is endangered by cutting lower than thb line.

started, and the buds, if properly attended to, will become saleal
by winter, known and designatea as June buds. The starting of



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Budding. 48



ad requires care, as the trees are young and full of vigour, and brittle to
^rtain extent. If the tops of the stocks are cut entirely off, as in startii]
uds in the spring, the shock to the stock is too great, and will stop tl
amediate flow of sap, and the tree will die. The best way is to bend tl
to over, and by giving it a twist the stock will crack about the centre (saj
Mut 10 or 12 inches above the bud. This will give the stock a sligl
lock, although so slight as not to disturb the flow of sap, and at the san



Fijf. 8w— A The stock trimmod of all grow-th. b The point where the bud was Inserted, c The
point where the top was cut o£f to start the bud. d The bud started.

me induce the bud to start. When the buds start and have made a grow
3 to 4 inches, the main stock is cut away about 8 inches above the bu

it should not be cleared of all the brush, as the stock may die back ai

idanger the buds. It is always better to allow a little of the brush

;main, as shown in Pig. 7, at a.
After the bud has made a growth of a foot or more the stocks are clear

[ all brush, and the stump may then be cut back, but it is better to leave

Dtiifaii. r

With buds that are let go and lie dormant, the operation is somewli
ifferent, and does not require the attention given to starting June bu(
a February the stocks are cut back about from 4 to 6 inches above the bu
len all the brush is cleared away and the nursery cultivated. Nothing th
>maius to be done but to wait for the buds to start, and with them there w
e numerous suckers, or shoots, that have to be removed from time to tin



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484 Buddivg.



These are removed by hand-pruning, they being very tei
touch. When the buds have made a growth of about a
take the entire flow of sap from the stock, and therefore c
less necessary. The bnds may be tied to the stock, so th
a straight tree ; but this is seldom practiced, and is onl^
are not grown extensively, as the buds grow remarkabl
nursery.

Spring Budding.

In this method the tops of the stocks are not removed, 1
turbed, so that when they leaf out the bark may slip easil}
become tightened, so as to prevent budding at this time,
generally leaf out early, and buds inserted at this time gro
trees by fall. As soon as the bark separates from the e
inserted in the ordinary way. Three weeks after the str
and the tops cut back to force the buds to start, the same as
The scions or buds are from wood of the previous season'
gathered early, and kept with the larger ends in moderal
a cool place. This prevents them from starting, and they
late in the spring.

Budding the Orange.

The best time to bud the orange is in March and ^pril, j
trees begin to show signs of growth. The sap is then risi
at that time, almost every bud will take, and m less than a
It is best not to cut the entire foliage of the stock when s
a little should be left to keep the sap in the stock flowin
buds to start. Summer budding is performed in July anc
buds do not then start even, and as many start so late the
is quite tender, and the trees are liable to be nipped by fro

The selection of the buds is very important, and only t
<;hosen. When weak and immature buds are inserted tl
dormant in the stock a year before starting. Buds to be h
are put in as late as possible, but before the stocks begin tc
to prevent them from starting at that season and the bark gr

Stages of Budding GitruB Trees.

The different stages of budding the orange, lemon, lim<
418 follows : —




F!ff.9.
Tbomy lemon bod. Thomlen onufire bud.

The selection of proper buds is a very important factor, I
the kinds of scions or buds to select.



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Budding. 48

JiW#— The vertical incisioii in the bark, and the position in which tl
ife is held. (Fig. 10.)



ng. 10, Fig. IL Fig. 12.

^Bcand — The transrerse incision. (Fig. 11.)

liri— The opening of the bark bj u uigbt twist of the liand from left t

It (Fig. 12.3



<

/




Fig. IS.



hwrih — Catting the bad. Pig. 18 shows position of the hands and knif(
the point of the bads downward. In this way the bads are cat cleane
mncu sharper, and do not crack in catting.



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486 Budding.

JY/J^A— Bud inserted. (Fig. 14.)

Sixth — Bud tied ; operation complete. (Fig. 15.)



Figr. 14. iA[

In these latter figures (Figs. 14 and 15) the method
stock to start the bud is shown, and the portion of b
remaining, to prevent a check in the flow of sap, whi
when the buds have made a start of 2 or 3 inches, at th

Apples.

Budding apple seedlings is not a difficult operatioi

require so much skill as do other trees. The operatioi

the growing season, generally in

ber. The incision in the stocl

manner as described for the p

cut from a shoot of the curr(

about an inch and a quarter 1

J below — as shown in Fig. 16, ai

bark of the stock in an incisioi

is shown in Fig. 17, and is tl

twine; for this purpose sixteei

able. In three weeks the twin

Fig. 16 -The bud as cut from t^© ^^d has " taken," it is left

the limb. the Spring following, when the

(in March) to force the buds

necessary that the stocks be making growth, so that the

otherwise the buds will not " take" so well. It is also ve



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Bvdding. A

3eratioii be performed at the proper time. If performed too early, when
ocks are in a thrifty growing state, the formation of new wood will surroi
)d heal over the wound or incision made in the stock, covering many of
ids, and many instead of remaining dormant, will start, making only sh
Qlowy shoots, which in spring start late, and do not make the best of tn
lie stocks should also be budded before they have ceased

grow, because then the bark tightens, and a bud that
L8 to be forced under the bark often fails to *' take," and
ose that fail cannot be again budded that season — the
ne for successful operation having passed. The growth

the stocks shoula be watched, ana the stocks budded
fore they have ceased to grow ; but by this it must not

inferred that very early budding is preferable, excepting
len the buds are to be started, to make what is commonly
lied June buds. Stocks finishing their growth early in
e season are budded early, and stocks that grow until
tumn are budded late. The buds must be perfectly
reloped. Undeveloped buds remain dormant in the
)ck8, and do not start even with the rest, and as they do
t start until they have developed, sometimes not until
e in summer, they make but very little growth the first
ison. For early spring budding, the maturity of the
ds is hastened by pinching the tips of the shoots of the
«8 from which they are to be gathered, the buds being
Jen from the trees just before they start the second time,
this way a soft shoot is made to harden, and its buds ^s- 17.— Bud insei
> fit for early budding in ten or twelve days. If a con-
erable quantity are wanted, they are stripped of their leaves and pad
moss or wrapped in dampened sacking immediately after being cut, j
t away for future use. Thoy can thus be kept for two or three weeks.

Almond^ Apricot, Cherry.

dlmond, — See method of budding the peach ; it is tbe same for the almo

Apricot. — See peach ; the same for apricot.

Dherry. — The method pursued in budding the cherry is very similar to
thod employed on the peach. Mazzard seedlings, for standards, i
Ided in July and August, and left to lie dormant through the winter,
started in the spring following. Morello and Mahaleb seedlings,
arfs, are best bunded in August. They are somewhat more difficult
ke "take" than the Mazzard, and the operation is best performed wl
J stocks just begin to relax in growth.

Chestnut.

rhe chestnut is very successfully budded in the summer during
>wing period of the stock. The following illustrations show the size
d is cut, the cut in the stock, and the bud as inserted and tied : —

The slit or incision in the stock is made first ; then the bud is cut fr
9 budding stick, and immediately inserted into the slit or incision in
>ck, and tied tightly with soft cotton twine. In three weeks the strii
fcy be removed, and the buds left to lie dormant until spring, when
ps of the stocks are cut back in March to force the buds to start. G



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488 Budding.

operation is best performed in August, when the stook
and better still wnen they are just hardening the grow




FSe. la— A The stock showinjr the incision made to recdve the hud. B '
of same, and manner in which it is cut. c Bud inserted, showing me

of August. The chestnut is also budded successfully
as described for the fig.

CitroxL

See method of budding the orange ; it applies to the

Fig'.

The fig is perhaps the most diflScult tree to bud.

that exudes from the limb or bark seems to sour and p(

comes up from the sto<
bud from unitiDg, and
methods of budding i
peach, pear, &c., canno
Por the fig, the best
ring right around the e
figure at a (say) from
inch to an inch long,
bark is taken from a li:
same size, having the l
in the figure at b. Th

_ _ , , the cut in the stock, an

^- "^'^^^el^. ^"""^"^^ the soft cotton twine oi

to exclude the air. ]

ascending sap will unite with the sap of the bud. The

performed in August or September.

Lemon and Lime.

Lemon. — See method for budding the orange ; it i
Lime. — See method for budding the orange ; it a]

Olive.

Budding the olive by the ordinary methods is somi
methods herein given are the most simple and the n
plate bud is the one most largely used. This is one of




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Budding. 4Sl

1 methods of budding the olive, and can be operated on small and larj
ees. A cut is made on the stock, thus r|, and the flap drawn down. Tl
id is then out from the scion to be a little smaller than the space cut ;
16 stock ; it is then inserted, as shown in Fig. 21. The bud consists •
dy the bark and an eje. At every leaf there is a bud, and the bark beii
it around it, separates very easily from the wood. The flap is then turn<
), covering the bud entirely, aiid is tied tightly with good, soft cottc



f



Fig. 20. Fig. 21. Fig. 22.

FUr. 20.— A Incision (ordinary budding) in the stock, b Plate bad. c Bad inserted and tied.



Online LibraryAustralia. Dept. of Agriculture New South WalesThe agricultural gazette of New South Wales → online text (page 59 of 118)