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Nightingale.

Practice in weaving and loo*-!- fixing




TS

1490
N68



Textile Record Bud Book No. 3



PRACTICE

IN

Weaving *#> Loom-fixing

A COMPLETE MANUAL FOR THE WEAVE-ROOM



D. B. NIGHTINGALE,

Master Weaver




PUBLISHED BYTHE TEXTILE RECORD

425 WALNUT ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA.



Price, ..... 75 Cents.



PHILADELPHIA



TEXTILE SCHOOL

ESTABLISHED 1884

Oldest in America. Most Com-
plete in the World

Instruction given in Designing, Weaving, Carding, Spinning,
Chemistry, Dyeing and Finishing in

Cotton, Wool, Worsted and Silk

The School is equipped for the practical work in
the above departments, with a complete line of
the most modern and up-to date machinery
for every branch. Care and manage-
ment of the Power Loom given Spe-
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School year begins October and extends to June. Evening Classes
in session October to April.

For Illustrated Year Book and other information, address j

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BROAD AND PINE STS. PHILADELPHIA



PRACTICE)

IN

Weaving and Loom-Fixing,



A Complete Manual for the
Weave Room.

With full detailed instructions respecting the

Construction and Operation

of Woolen and Worsted Looms, including

necessary calculations.

By B. D. NIGHTINGALE,

Weaving Master.

Published by

THE TEXTILE RECORD,

425 Walnut Street, Philadelphia.

1887.



Price, 7" 5 Cents.



UNIFORM WITH THIS BOOK.

Textile Record Hana book No. 1, Practice in \v ool Carding, by Joseph

Brown, Price, 50 cents.
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Worsteds, by F. H. Gi eene, Price, 50 cents.
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Price, $3.00 a year.

OOPYRIQHTED 1887,
BY CHARLES HEBER CLARK.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.
MAKING THE LOOM READY.

PREPARATORY OPERATIONS THE BOXES FITTING THE
PINS THE SHAFT THE PICKING PLATES THE PICK-
ING-BARS SETTING AND FASTENING THE SHOE

MAKING CONNECTIONS THE SWEEP-STICK AND STRAP

THE CRANK-SHAFT 5

CHAPTER II.
LATHE AND SHUTTLE-BOXES.

THE CRANII-ARM OF THE LATHE SETTING THE LATHE
FIXING THE SHUTTLE-BOXES AND FITTING THE
SHUTTLES BENDING THE BOX-ROD PICKERS AND

PICKER-RACES . . . 17

CHAPTER III.
THE SHUTTLE.

SHUTTLE TROUBLES AND THEIR REMEDIES PICKER-RACE
AND SHUTTLE-BOX CAUSES OF DIFFICULTIES BEND-
ING THE REED PUTTING IN THE PICKERS AND
PICKER-STICKS THE BUNTER THE PACKING ON THE
SPINDLE THE PROTECTOR A TIGHT SPRING ON THE
ROD THE KNOCK-OFF LEVER THE SHIPPER AND
FORK 24

CHAPTER IV.
HEAD-MOTIONS.

THE PUMP MOTION METHOD OF FIXING IT SETTING THE

STUDS AND CHAIN CYLINDER CRANK HARNESS-WIRE

AND STRAP CONNECTIONS THE FINGER-JACK LOOM
SETTING UP THE HEAD HOOKS AND FINGERS STICK-
ING OF THE SLIDE THE SHED CAUSES OF MISPICKS
THE HORIZONTAL MOTION MODERN IMPROVED
HEAD-MOTIONS 37

CHAPTER V.
THE BOX-MOTION.
THE OLD CAM-MOTION THE FORKS SETTING RATCHET

AND PLATE THE FRICTION-BAND TIMING THE

STARTING OF THE BOXES REGULATING THE STRAPS

WORN FINGERS FRICTION OF THE CHAIN-CYLIN-
DER PUTTING ON THE CYLINDER SETTING THE
CYLINDER-GEAR BOXES MISSING LEVERS RUNNING
THE FILLING-CHAIN THE FANCY BOX-MOTION . . 57

3



CHAPTER VI.

STARTING A WARP. Pa s e

SETTING A WARP READY CONDITION OF THE HAR-
NESSESREPAIRING HARNESSES HOOKS NUTS ON
THE HEDDLE-WIRES RULE FOR THE NUMBER OF
HEDDLES DRAFT DRAWING IN THE WARP THE
RIGHT KIND OF REEDS IMPERFECT REEDS REED-
ING THE WARP FINDING THE WIDTH MEASURING
LEASE-RODS 73

CHAPTER VII.
WARP MATTERS.

LIFTING IN THE WARP HOOKING UP THE HARNESS-
DRAWING IN THE SELVAC.KS THE BEAM-FRICTION
DIFFICULTIES WITH BEAMS TYING-IN THE WARP
FASTENING THE REED HANDLING THE CHAIN
PUTTING ON THE LINKS POINTS ABOUT LINKS
BUILDING FILLING-CHAINS PINS OF THE BARS SIZE
OF THE SHED EXAMINING THE HARNESS .... 84

CHAPTER VIII.
SHUTTLES, TEMPLES, AND BELTS.

GOOD AND BAD SHUTTLES SHELLACING SHUTTLES
POINTS OF SHUTTLES MEETING IN THE SHED IN-
JURY DONE BY SHUTTLES TEMPLES THE USE OF
HOOKS STRAPS THE DUTCHER AND OTHER TEMPLES
SETTING THE TEMPLE METHOD OF PUTTING ON

TEMPLES THE BELT ON THE LOOM OILING THE
BELT PUTTING ON THE BELT LACING BELT-SLIP-
PING 95

CHAPTER IX.
IN THE WEAVE- ROOM.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF OVERSEERS SUPPLIES
FOR THE WEAVE-ROOM, AND THEIR COST EXAMI-
NATIONS PERCHING, AND HOW TO DO IT RIGHT
TICKETING AND MEASURING SEWING-IN BOOKS FOR
THE WEAVE- ROOM A GOOD FORM SUGGESTED . . 1 09

CHAPTER X.

CALCULATIONS.

CALCULATIONS FOR WOOLF.N YARNS RUNS AND CUTS-
FULL EXPLANATIONS METHODS WITH WORSTED
YARNS TABLE OF RUNS, CUTS, YARDS, AND GRAINS
WEICJHT IN A YARD OF WARP FILLING CALCULA-
TIONS TO FIND RUNS FROM OUNCES POUNDS
NEEDED FOR CUTS PERCENTAGES OF YARNS SIZES
OF PULLEYS PERCENTAGES OF WOOL, ETC. . . . I2O

4



CHAPTER I.

MAKING THE LOOM READY.

PREPARATORY OPERATIONS THE BOXES FITTING THE PINS
THE SHAFT THE PICKING PLATES THE PICKING-BARS
SETTING AND FASTENING THE SHOE MAKING CONNEC-
TIONS THE SWEEPSTICK AND STRAP THE CRANK-SHAFT.

Fastening the boxes. If I were to begin
the overhauling of a loom, I should strip it of
everything but the two principal shafts, and
those I would lift out of the boxes. Fixers
have always been troubled with the boxes get-
ting loose, and the difficulty that we experience
in reaching them to tighten them up makes
adjustment of a loose box a job that any fixer
dreads. So that now, while everything is out
of the loom, it is a good time to make them per-
manently fast. On the new Cromptom looms
the rib that is cast on the frame helps to keep
them in their place; but the old looms are
always a trouble if the boxes are not well fixed.

Take the box out, and lay a straight edge on
the inside. If the middle rib is higher than the
outside ones, two of the best bolts you can find
will not keep it from rocking on the frame ; and



unless you have one or two unsightly pieces of
picking-stick to brace it down, the chances are
that you will have to crawl under the loom very
often to tighten the box and bark your knuckles.
File across the ribs until your straight-edge
shows them to be even, care being taken lest
you get them slanting from either side.

Fitting the pin. In putting the box on,
take time enough to fit a good pin through both
box and frame, and in such a manner as to draw
the box down, so that it fits snug on the top of
the frame. This is often carelessly done, and
the pin, when holding the box up too high, pre-
vents it from obtaining a bearing on the top of
the frame as well as the side. If this is the case,
you cannot keep it tight, no matter how hard
you tighten up the bolts. Do the job well,
taking time enough for it, and you will save
yourself much disagreeable duty.

Having fitted the box to the frame, so that it
has an even bearing on both top and side of the
frame, the bolts snugly tightened will hold the
box so that it cannot rock or start.

Set-screws. Before putting the boxes on
the frame, look after the set-screws or cap-bolts.
On a loom that has been run any length of time
they are usually found worn out. It takes but
a very short time to spoil the set-screws in the
bottom shaft boxes, if they are allowed to rattle



around loose until you have been compelled to
tighten them up to keep the shaft in its bearings.
While you are at it, fit in good set-screws. Let
them screw in rather tight. You cannot screw
them in with your fingers, perhaps ; but when
they are in, you can take a large wrench and put
your muscle to it, and the caps will stay there.

The shaft. We will next turn our attention
to the shaft. The big gear should have no
worn-out teeth in it. They always come where
the pick begins, or the protector strikes. If
they are worn at all, I should cut a new key-
way one-quarter of the way around the hub.
The gear should fit to perfection. We want the
picking shaft to stay in its place when we get
through with it, and we cannot afford to leave
the gear-wheel running out of true on the shaft.

So, if not perfectly true, get it fixed, and,
when it is keyed on, see to it that the key fits
snugly the whole length of the key-way.

The advantages of a perfect-fitting key are
that there is no danger of the hub being split in
driving it in. A light riveting hammer will
drive it in, and it will stay for good when it gets
there. And, not the least important, you do
not have to waste several hours of precious time
to get it out when you want to.

The picking plates, Next look after the
picking plates. If they have ever been loose,



the key-way will be found ragged, and almost
useless. Either cut a wider key-way, or turn
the shaft over and cut a new one on the opposite
side. Be sure that each plate is fastened on the
shaft exactly like the others and spare no pains
to get this result, or else trouble will follow, and
be likely to continue for a while, too.

While the plates are loose, see if the grooves
for the picking-roll-extension are not worn too
badly on the edges. If they are, it is very
important that they be fixed, either by planing
or filing, while you have a chance. If the grooves
in the plate, and the ribs on the extension, are
not square on the edges, the bolts are broken
sometimes at the rate of two or three in a day.
The usual treatment is to put the biggest bolt
that it is possible to get in through the plate,
and if that breaks, to do the same thing over.
The right way is to fix the grooves and the
extension, and then it does not take much of a
bolt to keep them fast. Therefore it pays to
make a good job while the plates are off.

Before putting on the plates put a good collar
on the shaft, on the gear end, to prevent end-
play. It is very important to do this, for it
saves the gear more than anything you can do,
by keeping it tight in its place and preventing
it from slipping with the pinion-gear. Having
done this, slide the picking-plates on, but do not



drive the key tight until the picking bars are in
place, so that you can try the roll on the shoe,
and make it strike the latter in the right place.

The picking bars. Before putting the pick-
ing-bars in place, have them straight. Little
attention is paid to this matter sometimes, and
a bar is put in while twisted and bent, and then
the fixer wonders why he cannot get as good
pick on one side of the loom as he does on the
other, or why it is that one side takes a sweep-
stick 19 inches long, and the other side one of
1 7 inches. A good pick, or at least a trustworthy
one, cannot be obtained unless the picking-bar
is straight.

Setting the shoe. In setting the shoe we
come to a task that often puzzles fixers of long
experience, and the rules, as laid down by differ-
ent authorities, are seldom alike. Some assert
that 7*/ inches is the right place; while others
cannot run a loom successfully short of 8 inches
from the socket. Every man has an idea, and
possibly a good one, too ; but I do not believe
in doing much measuring for the sake of follow-
ing some rule that I have read of. It is far less
important than studying out the principle and
being guided by that. Any fixer will find this
out, if he ever gets hold of a kind of loom where
the picking-shaft is farther from the back-girth
upon which the socket rests, than it is on the



Crompton or Knowles looms. It will then be
found that the 7^ inch rule is not the thing.
In that case we are obliged either to try until
we get it right, or to learn the principle upon
which the picking-shoe is constructed, and work
from such knowledge.

The distance of 7^ inches is, in my opinion,
too far back to set a shoe on a Crompton loom.
The pick loses its force at the point where it is
most needed. The shoe is so constructed that
from the bottom the incline is about one-half as
steep, for about half the distance travelled by the
roll, as it is from the middle of that distance to
the top; so that when the roll strikes the shoe
at the bottom, the speed of the picking-stick is
comparatively slow at first, getting swifter and
stronger as the roll reaches the steeper parts,
until the point is attained where the shuttle
leaves the box. Now, if we set the shoe back,
the relation to the shoe, of the circle described
by the picking roll, is changed completely, and,
if anything, it gives more power at the begin-
ning of the stroke than it does at the last, and
you borrow power by lowering the lug-strap.

You then have a pick that jerks the shuttle
full speed at the start, making it easy to fly out
on the slightest provocation, and sometimes
without any provocation at all. Furthermore,
the lower the lug-strap is set, the nearer you get



to the wrong end of the lever, and it takes an
immeasurable amount of increased power to
throw the shuttle a loss every way.

To move the shoe too far forward is to go to
the other extreme from setting it too far back ;
the only difference being that you cannot run
the loom at all if the shoe is set directly under
the shaft. Therefore, to get the best results, I
think 7^ inches is the right place to set the shoe
on the Crompton loom; and I state this measure-
ment, not on account of the inches it takes, but
to show that if you should set other things right,
and then put your shoe where it would do the
most good, you would find it about 7^ from the
socket.

Fastening the shoe. Having become satis-
fied that this is the place where we want the
shoe, then measure every time, and in putting
our picking-bar in place make the shoe fast
enough to stay where you put it. If it is a new
shoe, file it a little inside. Most fixers put the
shoe on, if it will go on, without filing, and a
bur in the corner gets all the strain of the tight-
ened set-screw. When working, the bur soon
gets crushed and the shoe is loosened. If it be
filed square and true inside, so that the ribs rest
solid on the bar, you have a bearing which will
hold better than an over-tightened set-screw,
^nd you seldom burst the shoe in fastening.



Fastening the picking-arm. On the same
principle I would fasten the picking-arm. I
have often found home-made picking-arms with
no rib around the edges, on the inside. No
part of this would touch the bar but the middle,
which in fact should never touch at all, and you
could turn the set-screw as tight as possible and
then rock the picking-arm on the bar. It only
runs but a short time before it is loose; and as
the fixer dislikes to take it to the bench to make
a good job of it, he gets under the loom, tightens
it up, perhaps several times a day, until he gets
sufficiently disgusted. Then he takes it to the
bench and finds the bar worn so that no picking-
arm, however perfect, will fit on the bar and
have a true and solid bearing. It is run in this
way for years, and, times without number, some
one has to fix that picking-arm. On the new
style looms, especially, careful attention should
be paid to this matter. If the inside of the pick-
ing-dog is not filed carefully, to square it, the
bearing on which the loose picking-arm works
soon gets cracked and broken.

Making connections. Having got every-
thing on the bar, put it in place and proceed to
make the connections. The picking-ann-stud
should be in good shape if you do not want to
be fixing it every little while. I would not put
a stud on unless there is a good enough thread



on it to permit of the nut being screwed up very
tight. If the stud should get loose for a few
minutes, when you go to fix it you will find it
spoiled. It should never get loose; and it will
not if it has a square, solid bearing on the pick-
ing-arm.

The pin in the Stud. A very insignificant
but troublesome thing is the pin in the stud. It
is too small an affair to be worthy of much care,
so the fixer twists a piece of wire in the hole to
serve for a pin and, of course, it cannot come out.
He cannot get it out sometimes when he wants
to put a new sweep-stick on in place of that
which this same crooked piece of wire has spoiled,
by gouging out the stud-hole of the stick.

I regard it as a matter of great importance to
look after these so-called little things, and when
I put a stud on, I cut a leather washer that will
fit tight on the stud, and then drive a tight,
straight pin in the stud. If it fits the hole all
right, it will not come out ; but if it is too taper-
ing it cannot get a bearing excepting at its
thickest part and of course will come out. Fit
it in right. This will not take long, and it will
save you many times the labor expended because
the job will last, to say nothing of the sweep-
sticks saved.

The sweep-stick, The sweep-stick should
always have a rivet or bolt in the end to keep it



from splitting ; and the prudent fixer or overseer
will see that this is done and a supply of them
already prepared before they are needed.

The sweep-strap, For a sweep-strap, which
is the next thing we will put on, various kinds
of material are used. I do not have a very high
regard for rotten belting for this purpose. Nor
are the canvas sweep-straps without their faults.
The canvas straps, if everything is in the best of
order, are the most desirable ; but frequently
they break the screws in the stirrup-strap until
the picking stick is so full of screws that you
are compelled to take it off for want of room to
put in another screw. Some fixers put the
stirrup-strap on the side of the picking-stick. It
is a slovenly and undesirable way of doing it.
If the screws are breaking it is the fault of the
loom. They will not break if other things are
running all right. It generally occurs when the
pick is such as to compel you to put the lug-
strap too far down, and that is never necessary.
If power enough cannot be obtained, overhaul
the picking-motion and make things right ; and
if other things in connection with the picking-
motion are doing their work properly you can
raise your sweep connections on a level and
there will be plenty of power. Do not punch
your sweep-strap full of holes; one hole is
enough.

14



In making our sweep connections, now that
we have had everything off the loom, I should
have the picking-stick-stud in the centre of the
slot; and then fasten it temporarily until I could
try the rolls on the shoe. You can now move
the picking-plates so that the roll strikes the
shoe all right, and then make them fast. This
done, try the sweep. The picking-roll should
touch the shoe at the bottom, and give enough
sweep to bring the picking-stick to within one
inch of the bunter. If it does this, make the
connections fast and you will not have to move
them much when you come to start the loom.

The crank-shaft. We will now fasten every-
thing in connection with the bottom shaft and
we are ready for the crank-shaft. The boxes
should be given the same thorough overhauling
that we gave the bottom shaft-boxes. In gear-
ing them together turn the picking-ball so that
it just begins to move the shoe and then gear
the two shafts together with the crank not quite
on the top, or, inclined one tooth toward the
lathe. We may have to move it, but we will
try the lathe first and see if we are right.

The picking motion on the Knowles loom is
practically the same as on the Crompton, and
the rules for running the latter, apply to the
Knowles. In point of construction it is not
excelled by any loom made. The same, in fact,



may be said of any picking-motion where a shoe
is used ; the only difference being in the length
of the shoe-shaft and the distance from the back
of the loom.

When a Knowles loom is sent from the shop
you will find that the sweep-stick is in two parts,
and bolted together midway. It is a convenient
arrangement and can be used on any loom to
advantage.

There are other slight changes on the Knowles
picking motion, and, taken as a whole, it is a
most excellent arrangement.



CHAPTER II.

LATHE AND SHUTTLE BOXES.
CRANK-ARM OF THE LATHE SETTING THE LATHE FIXING

THE SHUTTLE-BOXES AND FITTING THE SHUTTLES BEND-
ING THE BOX-ROD PICKERS AND PICKER-RACKS.

Crank-arms of the lathe. In beginning
work on the lathe we will first put on the crank-
arms. The strap that goes on the crank,
whether it be of iron or leather, should not be
tight. It is very easy to make a loom run hard
if this is too tight, more e pecially with an iron
strap. The thickness of the crank-arm should
equal the diameter of the crank. If it does not,
when the bolts are tightened up the band or
strap squeezes the crank so hard as to make it
almost impossible to move the loom by hand.
This applies to new looms mostly.

Setting the lathe. Having put the crank-
arms on, we will next set the lathe. The race-
board should be five-eighths of an inch below
the breast-beam, and leveled before fastening.
The middle sword should be the last to be fast-
ened, and should pull down on the lathe. To
accomplish this, tighten up the bolts on the bot-

17



torn just enough to hold what it gets. Then
olace a block of wood on the race and strike
with a loom-weight. One or two blows will sag
the lathe down enough to hold, when the bolt
should be tightened up as hard as possible, so
that the jar of the loom will not let the sword
slip up.

Shuttle-boxes. We can now find plenty to
do on the shuttle-boxes, whether they are new
or old. If new ones they should be taken out
and filed, as the corners and edges are usually
found to be rough and sharp. Do this job
thoroughly, and do not be in too much of a
hurry, as you will never have a better chance to
put the boxes in proper shape. I find it a very
advantageous thing to file the sides of the mouth
of each box, the lower half the most, as it will let
the shuttle touch the top of the side, before it
will the bottom, and prevent filling-cutting.

Have a shuttle handyl to try in the box while
you are filing, and you can get each box so that
the side of the shuttle below the eye cannot
touch the lower part of the box-side at all, and
you will find that it prevents filling-cutting at that
spot very effectually. File the edges of the long
slot in the back of the box through which the
picker slides. File the sharp edge off only, and
do not neglect it, for the shuttle is liable to be
damaged if this is not done, and then it causes

18



the shuttle to bind tighter than is natural, and
the fixer wonders why he cannot get spring


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Online LibraryB. D NightingalePractice in weaving and loom-fixing. A complete manual for the weave room.. → online text (page 1 of 7)