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and |)erf()rmers, 255. Mtisa/inans, 257 ; Christians, 259 ;
Uriian Population, 261 ; Character and dress of the people,
262.

Alphabetical list of castes ........ 266



History 271-453

Legendary Period : — Agastya, 272 ; Asuras and Rakshasas,
273; lluiluiyas, 274; Parasu Rama, 275; Rama, 276;
Kishkindha, 277 ; Pandavas, 279 ; Chandrahasa, 283 ; Jana-
mejaya, 285.

Historical Period : — Mauryas, 287 ; S'atavahanas, 292 ; Ka-
(lanihas, 295 ; Mahavalis, 300 ; Vaidumbas, 303 ; Pallavas, .
303 ; Nolambas, 307 ; Gangas, 308 ; Chaliikyas, 319 ; Rash-
trakutas, 324 ; Chalukyas, 327 ; Kalachuris, 331 ; Cholas,
m ; Hoysalas, 335 ; Vadavas, 342 ; \'ijayanagar, 344 ;
Palegars, 356 ; Hijapur, 357; Mughals, 361 ; Mysore Rajas,
361 ; Haidar Ali, 372 ; Tipu Sultan, 398 ; Restoration of
the Hindu Raj, 417 ; I'urnaiya Regent, 419 ; Krishna Raja
Wodeyar, 421 ; Rebellion in Nagar, 427 ; Deposition of the
Raja, 429 ; the Mysore Commission, 429 ; the Great Famine,
439 ; the Rendition, 441 ; the Representative Assemljly, 442;
Review of Policy of the Mysore Government, 445 ; Instrument
of Transfer, 450.



Religion 454-487

Serpent worship, 454 ; Tree worship, 455 ; M.-iri or Mara, 456 ;
Bhi'itas, 457 ; Animism, 457 ; Brahmanisnt, 458 ; Jainism,
460 ; Buddhism, 465 ; Hinduism, 468 : — Siva, 468 ; Sanka-
rachary?, 471 ; list of Sringeri gurus, 473 ; Ramanujacharya,
474 ; I larihara, 475 ; Lingayits, 476 ; Madhvacharya, 477 ;
Sritanis, 477. Islam, 479. Christianity, 480 ; Roman Cath-
olic Mission, 482 ; Protestant Missions, 484.



I,\\C.U\r,K AND LiTKRATURE 4SS-505

Kannada, 48S ; its Dialects, 4S9 ; I'eriods, 490 ; Written
Character, 491 ; Relationship, 492 ; Literature, 495 ; Early
Authors and their Works, 496 ; Modern Authors, 501 i,
Writing materials, 503 ; Muhammadan publications, 503 ;
European publications, 504.



CONTENTS



Art and Industry ....... 506-571

Fine Arts: — Stone Monuments, 506; Sculpture, 509; Anhilcc-
turf, — Buddhist, 510 ; Jain, 510 ; Dravidian, 512 ; Chalukyan,
513; Halebid, 514; Belur, 518; Sonianathpur, 519;
Malnad, 519; Saracenic, 520; Lingayit, 521. Engraving,
522 ; IVood-can'ing, 522 ; Inlaid work, 523. J/nsic, 523.

Industrial Arts : — Metallurgy ; Gold-mining, 524 ; (iold and
Silver, 528 ; Iron and Steel, 530 ; Brass and Copper, 535 ;
Manufactures, 535. Textile Faf)rics, 535 ; Cotton, 536 ;
Wool, 537 ; Carpets, 537 ; Silk, 538 ; Alills and Factories,
539; Dyes, 540; (loni, 541. Oil-J'ressi)ig, 541. Soap and
Candles, 544. Glass-mal^ini^, ^^i. Carpentry and Turning,
547. Sugar andjaggory, 547 ; Suf^ar Works, 550. Leather-
dressing, 552. Earth salt, 553. Coffee Works, 554 ; Brick
and Tile IVorks, 554 ; Paper-milh, 554.

Trades and Commerce, 555 ; Imports, 556 ; Exports, 558 ;

Joint-Stock Comjjanics, 560.

Wages and Prices : —Wages, 561 ; Prices, 562; as affected by
the seasons, 562.



Administration ........ 572-798

Under the early Hindu Rulers, 572 ; the Village Twelve, 574 ;

Revenue System, 576.

Under the Yijayanagar Sovereigns, 578 ; Civil and Military
departments, 579 ; Milage officers, 579 ; Land rent, 582 ;
Customs and taxes, 583 ; Establishments, 586 ; Justice, 587 ;
Heads of Departments, 587 ; Police, 588. Carnatic Bijapur,
588 ; Sira, 589.

Under the Rajas of Mysore, &c., 590 ; Departments formed
by Chikka Deva Kaja, 590 ; his revenue regulations, 591 ;
new taxes, 592. Bednur, 593 ; Sivappa Nayak's shist and
prahar patti, 594. Haidar AH, 595. Tipu Sultan, 595 ;
new system, 595 ; military regulations, 596 ; fleet, 596 ;
commercial regulations, 597 ; regulations of revenue, 599 ;
police, 599.

Under Purnaiya, 1799-1810. — Settlement of Palegars and the
Army, 600 ; land assessment, 602 ; civil departments, 604 ;
justice, 605 ; revenue, 607 ; Court of Adalal, 610.

Under Krishna Raja Wodeyar, 1811-1831. — Land Revenue,
611; revenue iirDCL'diuc, bi2; rusunis, 615 ; rates of
kandayam, 616 ; land tenures, 617 ; village rent, 620 ; Sayar,
622 ; in Nagar, 624 ; in Ashtagram, 625 ; in Bangalore, 627 ;
JVutch Bah, 627. Justice: — Civil, 629; Criminal, 631 ;
punishments, 633 ; jails, 637 ; police, 637.



xviii CONTENTS

Under the Mysore Commission.

Non-Regulation System, 1831-1855, 639 ; Land Revenue,
640 ; revenue officers and settlement, 643 ; Najjar, 647 ;
Manjarabad, 652 ; Snyar, 653 ; remissions in Nagar, 657 ; in
Ashtagram, 658 ; in Bangalore, 659 ; in Chitaldroog, 660.
Justice, 661 ; Courts, 662 ; procedure, 663 ; appeals, 664 ;
Panchayats, 666 ; fees and fines, 667 ; apas penchayats, 669 ;
Criminal Justice, 671.

Transition Period, 1856-1862, 674 ; new departments, 675 ;
revision of Mohatarfa, 676 ; the Commission re-organized,
677 ; Justice, 679 ; Police, 680; Jails, 681. Revenue, 681 ;
Finance, 6S2 ; Military, 682.

Regulation System, 1863-1881, 683. Civil Departments:—
Revenue and Finance, 683 ; State Revenue, 685 ; Land
tenures, 686 ; Inam tenures, 690 ; Revenue Survey and Settle-
ment, 692 ; Inam settlement, 696 ; Muzrayi settlement, 700 ;
Land Revenue, 701 ; Coffee halat, 702 ; Forests, 706 ; Abkari,
708; Sdyar, 711 ; Mohatarfa, 712; Salt, 713 ; Stamps, 714 ;
Anche or Post Office, 7H > Local Fiends, 714 ; Municipal
Funds, 715 ; State Expenditure, 718. — Law and Justice: —
Legislation, 721 ; Courts, 723 ; System of Judicature, 724 ;
Civil Justice, 726 ; Registration, 726 ; Criminal Justice, 727 ;
Prisons, 72S ; Police, 730. — Public Works, 7^2, ; Railway,
744. — Public Instruction, 745. — Medical, 753. Military
Departments, 75S ; British Subsidiary Force, 758 ; Mysore
Local Force, 759 ; Silahdars, 760 ; Barr, 762 ; Bangalore
Rifle Volunteers, 762.



Since tlie Rendition in 1881.

Form of Administration, 763 ; Council, 763 ; Representative
Assembly, 763. Administration of the I^and, 764 ; Topo-
graphical Survey, 764 ; Revenue Survey and Settlement,

764 ; Liam settlement, 764. Protection, 765 ; Legislation,

765 ; Police, 766 ; Criminal Justice, 768 ; Prisons, 769 ;
Civil Justice, 770; Registration, 771 ; Municipal Administra-
tion, 771 ; Military, 772. Production a)ul Distribution, TJt,;
Agriculture, 773 ; Weather and crops, 773 ; Forests, 773 ;
Mines and Quarries, 774 '■< Manufacture and Trade, 774 ;
Public Works, 775 ; Railways, 777 ; Post-office, 779.
Revenue and Finance, 779 ; Provincial Funds, 779 ; Revenue,
780 ; Expenditure, 785 ; Local Funds, 786 ; Agricultural
Banks, 787 ; Savings Banks, 787 ; State Life Insurance, 787.
Vital Statistics and IMedical Services, 788 ; Births and Deaths,
7S8 ; Medical Relief, 789. Instruction, 791. Archeologj-,
796. Miscellaneous, 797 ; Muzrayi, 797.



CONTENTS



XIX



Appendix ......•••

Coins, Weights and Measures : — Coins, 799 ; Lead coins, 799 ;
Cold coins, 801; Silver coins, 805; Copper coins, 807;
Accounts, 80S. Weights, 809. Measures : — Grain Measures,
810 ; Land Measures, 810 ; Measures of Time : — Eras, 811 ;
Years, 812.

Addenda et Corrigenda ........



PAGE
799-813



8IS



Index



819



LIST OF MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.



Map of Mysore

Geological Sections ....

a. In ahout Lalilude 15° N.

b. ., ,, 13° N.
P'roni Jalar]:iat to Shikarpur .

Geological Map of Southern India
Physical and Industrial Map of Mysore
Sketch Map of Mysore in about 450

750 .
1050 .

1625 .
Map of Peninsular India to illustrate the His
Specimens of Mysore Coins .

Plate i. Lead and Ciold coins
„ ii. Gold, Silver, and Copper coins



Pocket in cover
P- 13



lory of My



36
62
168
300
314
335
357
368

799
802
807



MYSORE



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

The State of Mysore^ occupies a position physically well defined, in
the South of India ; and has been termed a rocky triangle, a not inapt
description. It is a table-land, situated in the angle where the Eastern
and Western Ghat ranges converge into the group of the Nilgiri Hills.
West, south and east, therefore, it is enclosed by chains of mountains,
on whose shoulders the plateau which constitutes the country rests. On
the west the boundary approaches at one part to within lo miles of the
sea, but in general preserves a distance of from 30 to 50 miles from the
coast : on the east the nearest point is not less than 120 miles. The
southern extremity is 250 miles from Cape Comorin. The northern
frontier is an exceedingly irregular line, ranging from 100 miles south
of the river Krishna on the west to 1 50 on the east.

The country extends between the parallels of 11° 38' and 15° 2'
north latitude, and between the meridians of 74° 42' and 78° 36' east
longitude, embracing an area of 29,305 square miles, as determined by
the Surveyor-General of India from the recent survey on the one-inch
scale. (It is therefore nearly equal to Scotland, whose area is 29,785
square miles.) The greatest length north and south is about 230
miles, east and west about 290.

* The name is that of the capital, properly Maisiir, for Mahish/ir, — from iiiahisha,
fians. for buffalo, reduced in Kan. to iiiaisa, and lirit, Kan. for town or country, —
which commemorates the destruction of Mahishasura, a minotaur or buffalo-headed
monster, by Chamundi or Mahishasura-mardani, the form under which the consort
of Siva is worshipped as the tutelary goddess of the Mysore royal family.

Except in a passage in the Mahawanso, where it is called Mahisha-mandala, the
designation of the country throughout Hindu literature is Karnata or Karnataka (for
derivation see chapter on Language), which properly applied to the countrj' above the
( jhats. But the Muhammadans included in the name their conquests below the Ghats
as well, and the English, going a step further, erroneously restricted it to the low-
country. Hence Carnatic and Canara now designate, in European works of
geography, regions which never bore those names ; w hile Mysore, the proper
Karnataka or Carnatic, is not so called.

B



2 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPJIY

It is surrounded Ijy llic Madras Presidency on all sides, except on
part of the west, where the Bombay Presidency northwards and Coorg
southwards form thq boundaries. The Madras Districts bordering on it
are Bellary and Anantapur on the north ; Kadapa, North Arcot and
Salem on the east ; Coimbatore, Nilgiris and Malabar on the south ;
South Canara on the west. The Bombay Districts of Dharwar on the
north and North Canara on the west complete the circle. Coorg
intervenes between the adjacent parts of South Canara and Malabar on
the south-west.

The general elevation rises from about 2,000 feet above the sea level
along the northern and southern frontiers to about 3,000 feet along the
central water-parting, which separates the basin of the Krishna from
that of the Kaveri and divides the country into two nearly equal parts.
But the surface is far from preserving the even character suggested by
the designation of table-land. For the face of the country is every-
where undulating, much broken up by lines of rocky hills or lofty
mountains, and scored in all parts by Jidlas or deep ravines. There is
probably not a square mile in the whole superficies absolutely flat or
level, the slope of the ground ranging from 10 to 20 feet per mile in the
more level portions, and as high as 60 and 80 feet elsewhere.

The country is longitudinally intersected by single or aggregated
chains of hills, running chiefly north and south, or in a direction nearly
parallel to the two coasts. They lie at uncertain and unequal distances
from each other, and accordingly form sometimes wide and sometimes
narrow valleys. Isolated peaks of massy rock, termed by Europeans
droogs} rearing their heads to 4,000 or 5,000 feet above the level of the
sea, stand forth like sentinels on every hand ; mostly crowned with the
remains of fortifications, whose position, with the advantage of an
unfailing supply of water at the summit, rendered them wellnigh
impregnable strongholds. Besides these, clusters or piles of naked
rocks, composed of immense rounded boulders, are frequent ; large
fragments being often delicately poised, like logging stones, upon some
projecting point ; appearing as if a touch would overturn them, and yet
sometimes supporting a shrine or mandapa.

Natural divisions. — Mysore naturally divides itself into two separate
regions, each of which has well-marked and distinctive features.

Of these the Malnad,^ or hill country, lies to the west, and is confined
to the tracts bordering or resting on the ^^'estern Ghats. It is a land of
magnificent hill and forest, presenting alternations of the most diversified

* Properly diir-ga, a Sanskrit word meaning difficult of access, and denoting
hill-fort.

* Kan. Male, hill ; iiddti, district, region.



NATURAL DIVISIOXS 3

and charming scenery. A fertile soil and perennial streams clothe the
valleys with verdant cultivation. The sheltered hillsides are beautiful
with waving woods, which give shade to numerous plantations of coffee.
Higher up are swelling downs and grassy slopes, dotted over with park-
like groups of trees. Above all, the gigantic mountains rear their
towering crests in every fantastic form of peak. Human dwellings are
few and far between A cottage here and there, picturescjuely situated
on the rising ground bordering the rice-ficlds, and hidden amid planta-
tions of areca palm and plantain, marks the homestead of a farmer and
his family. Towns there are none, and villages of even a dozen houses
rare. The incessant rain of the monsoon months confines the people
to their own farms. Hence each householder surrounds himself with all
he needs, and succeeds in making himself to a great extent independent
of the external world. The conditions of this isolated life are insupport-
able to immigrants from the plains.

But by far the greater portion of the Province, or all to the east and
north of a line from (say) Shikarpur to Periyapatna, continued along
the southern border to the Biligirirangan hills, belongs to the division
of Maidan, Bail shime, or open country. Although much of the in-
termediate region partakes of the characteristics of both, the transition
from the Malnad to the Maidan is in some places very marked. Dense
forests, which shut in the view on ever}' hand, give place to wide-
spreading plains : the solitary farm to clustering villages and populous
towns. Man meets with man, the roads are covered with traffic, and the
mind feels relief in the sympathy of numbers.

The means of water-supply and the prevailing cultivation give the
character to the various parts of the open country. The level plains of
alluvial black soil, as in the north, growing cotton or millet ; the districts
irrigated by channels drawn from rivers, as in the south and west, dis-
playing the bright hues of sugar-cane and rice-fields ; the lands under
tanks, filled with gardens of cocoa and arcca palms ; the higher-lying
undulating tracts of red soil, as in the east, yielding ragi and the
conmion associated crops ; the stony and wide-spreading pasture
grounds, as in the central parts, covered with coarse grass and relieved
by shady groves of trees. The aspect changes with the seasons, and
what in the dry and cold months, when the fields are lying fallow,
appears a dreary and monotonous prospect, speedily assumes under the
first operations of the plough the grateful hues of tillage ; which, under
the influence of seasonable rains, give place in succession to the bright
verdure of the tender blade, the universal green of the growing crops,
and the browner tints of the ripening grain. The scene meanwhile is
full of life, with husbandmen, their families and cattle engaged in the

B 2



4 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

labours of the field. These arc prolonged in slacking and threshing
until the cold season again sets in and the country once more assumes a
parched and dusty aspect.

River systems. — l"hc drainage of the country, with a slight exception,
finds its way to the Bay of Bengal, and is divisible into three great river
systems ; that of the Krishna on the north, the Kaveri on the south, the
two Pennars, and the Palar on the east. The only streams flowing to
the Arabian Sea are those of certain taluc^s in the north-west, which,
uniting in the Sharavati, hurl themselves down the Ghats in the mag-
nificent falls of Gersoppa; and some minor streams of Nagar and Man
jarabad, which flow into the Gargita and the Netravati.^

A line drawn east from BalLilrayan-durga to Nandidurga (Xundy-
droog) and thence south to Anekal, with one from Devaraydurga north
to Pavugada, will indicate approximately the watershed separating the
three main river-basins. From the north of this ridge flow the Tunga
and the Bhadra, rising in the Western Gliats and uniting in the Tunga-
bhadra, which, with its tributary the Hagari or Vedavati, joins the
Krishna beyond the limits of IMysore in Srisaila near Karnul. From
the south of the line, the Hemavati (with its affluent the Yagachi), the
Lokapavani, Shimsha, and Arkavati flow into the Kaveri, which, rising
in Coorg and taking a south-easterly course through the country, re-
ceives also on the right bank the Lakshmantirtha, the Gundal, the
Kabbani and the Honnu Hole before quitting the territory. From the
east of the line, m the immediate neighbourhood of Nandidurga, spring
three main streams, forming a system which Lassen has designated " die
Tripotamie des Dekhans," namely, the Uttara Pinakini or Northern
Pennar (with its tributaries the Chitravati and Papaghni), which dis-
charges into the sea at Nellore ; the Dakshina Pinakini or Southern
Pennar,- which ends its course at Cuddalore ; and between them the
Palar, whose mouth is at Sadras. A continuation of the east and west
line through Nandidurga to Sunnakal will mark the water-parting be-
tween the first and the other two ; which, again, are divided by a line
passing from Jangamkote to Bowringpet and the Betarayan hills.

More accurately described, the axial line or " great divide " which
forms as it were the backbone of the country, starts from the north of
Ballalrayandurga and runs east-by-north to near Aldur. Thence it
makes a bend, first, northwards up to the western extremity of the Baba

* The course of each river is described in detail in Vol. II.

- Its name below the Ghats appears to be Poni-ar or Ponn-dr, golden river, dr
being the Tamil for river. It would be very convenient were geographers to agree
upon restricting the name Penna to the northern stream and that of Ponna to the
southern. The former is also called Penner (written Pennair), Jrii being the Telugu
for river.



RIVER SYSTEMS 5

Budan range and then south-east, passing between Belur and Halebid,
down to Sige Gudda in the north of the Hassan taluk. From this
point it strikes across the map in an east north-east direction, rounding
the southern extremities of the HarnhalU and Hagalvadi hills, up to
near Kortagiri, where it encounters the great meridional chain of
mountains. Following the range south, past Devaraydurga to near
Dodbele, it resumes an east-north-easterly course to Nandidurga and
continues the same to the frontier near Sunnakal. Geographically it
lies between the parallels of 13° 10' and 13° 25'.

A line projected north from the west of Kortagiri up through Pavu-
gada to the frontier, and one south from Nandidurga by Bangalore to
Anekal, mark pretty nearly the limits of the respective river-basins in
the transverse direction. This water-parting falls between the meridians
of 77' 10' and 77" 30'.

The basin of the Sharavati, which runs to Honavar on the Canara
coast, occupies the west of the Shimoga District. It may be defined
by a line drawn from Kodachddri south-east to Kavaledurga, thence
north-east by Humcha to Masarur, and west-north-west by Anantapur
and Ikkeri to Talguppa. The streams between Kodachddri, Kavale-
durga and the Agumbi ghat westwards, run down to Kondapur ; and
those of western Manjarabad, to Mangalore.

The following statement contains an estimate of the total length,
within the Province, of the main rivers with their principal tributaries ;
and the total area of the catchment basin under each river-system
within the same limits : —



River System


Total Length of Rivers


Total Area of Basins






Miles.


Sq


uare Miles.


Krishna




611




11,031


Kriveri ...




646




9,486


N. I'ennar




167




2,280


S. I'ennar




32




1,541


Palar ...




47




1,036


Sharavati and west coast rivers


103




1,881



Owing to either rocky or shallow beds, none of the Mysore rivers is

navigable,^ but timber floats are carried down the Tunga, the Bhadra,



' From the following statement in Buchanan it appears that Ilaiilar attempted to
estal)lish navigation on the Tunga. " From Mangalore Haidar brought to Shimoga
many carpenters, and built a number of lighters of about eight tons burthen. They
are strong and flat-bottomed ; but, as the greater part of them have been allowed to
remain on the bank where they were built, I doubt not that they were found very
u.seless. The attempt is, however, no impeachment on the sagacity of Haidar, who



6 nrVSTCAT. GEOGRAPirY

and the Kahhani at ccrlaiii seasons. Most of the streams are fordable
during the dry months, or can be crossed by rude bridges formed of
logs or stones thrown across from boulder to boulder. During floods,
and when freshes come down, traffic over the streams is often suspended
until the water subsides. But throughout the rainy season they are
generally crossed at the appointed ferries by rafts, basket boats, canoes,
or ferry boats. Men also sometimes get over supporting themselves on
earthen pots.

The teppa or raft is formed of bamboos lashed together, and merely
affords an unsteady footing, the water washing freely through. The
harigblu or coracle is a circular basket of stout wicker-work, composed
of interlaced bamboo laths and covered with buffalo hides. It is 8 or
lo feet in diameter, with sides 3 or 4 feet high.^ A smaller one, which
holds only two people, is used for crossing some jungle streams. The
db7ii or canoe is a dug-out, or hollowed log pointed at the two ends.
The sd/igda, or regular ferry boat," is formed of two canoes secured
together, with a platform or deck fastened upon them, and has sides
turning on hinges which, let down, form a gangway for loading and un-
loading. All these craft are propelled by a long bamboo pole, and are
dependent for their course upon the currents. But paddles are some-
times used with the canoe.

Though useless for purposes of navigation, the main streams, espec-
ially the Kc4veri and its tributaries, support an extensive system of
irrigation by means of channels drawn from immense dams, called
anicuts,'' which retain the upper waters at a high level and permit only
the overflow to pass down stream. These works are of great antiquity,

having been educated in a place remote from every kind of navigation, could have no
idea of what boats could perform, nor of what obstacles would prevent their utility.
To attempt dragging anything up such a torrent as the Tunga would be vain ; but,
after having seen the boats, and known that some of them have been actually navigated
down the river, I have no doubt of its being practicable to carry down floats ; and on
these perhaps many bulky articles of commerce might be transported."

' Herodotus notices, as one of the most remarkable things he had seen at Babylon,
boats of a construction so exactly similar, that the description of one would precisely
answer for the other, with the single difference of substituting willow for bamboo.
These boats carried the produce of Armenia, and " the parts above Assyria," down
the Euphrates to Babylon ; and each boat along with its cargo carried a few asses for
the purpose of conveying the returns by a shorter overland route. Boats of the
description noticed by Herodotus, although apparently unknown in Greece at that
period, were in after ages commonly used in Italy on the Po ; and in Britain in the
time of Caesar. Boats of the same materials but of different shape are used at this
time in South Wales, and the north-west of Ireland ; in the former country they are
named corracle, in the latter corraigh. — Wilks, i, 257.

- The mention of aaryyapa occurs in the Periplus.

•' From Kan. ane kattc, both meaning dam, dyke, or embankment.



HYDROGRAPHY 7

the large Talkad anicut, the lowest down on the Kaveri, having been
constructed a thousand years ago ; while the most recent, with few
exceptions, are not less than three centuries old. " The dreams which
revealed to favoured mortals the plans of these ingenious works (says
A\'ilks) have each their appropriate legend, which is related with rever-



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