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situated, on his paying to Government half the produce of bark yielded
for five years ; and in 1881 the Baba Budan plantation was sold to Mr.
Sylk, a private planter, for Rs. 5,000.

The existing depression of the quinine trade holds out at present, it
is understood, little prospect of profit on the cultivation ; but the im-
portance and medicinal value of the products of cinchona are never
likely to diminish, and prices may again rise, though probably not to
former rates. Special arrangements are being made, in common with
other Indian Governments, for the manufacture and cheap distribution
of quinine to all classes (for the latter purpose using the agency of the
village post offices), a boon which should be highly appreciated in
the malarious and fever-stricken parts of the country.



VANILLA



171



Cinchona cultivation has since 1881 been entirely in private hands,
and the following are the statistics for 1893-4, the plants being mostly
scattered, in the midst of coffee or cardamom estates : —



Species.


District.


No. of
acres.


No. of plants.


Mature.


Immature.


C. succirubra (red bark) \


Mysore
Kadur


24
224


8,860
124,255


12,873
43.450




Total ...


248 133,115


56,323


C. officinalis, var. condaminea (Loxa
or crown bark ; pale bark) ... ]


Mysore
Hassan
Kadur


I
36
34


75

8,000

14,464


1,141
. 5.003




Total ...


71 22,539 6,144



Yanilla/ — In a climate like that of Bangalore there is no difficulty
whatever in cultivating the vanilla aroniatica, as it grows luxuriantly
without artificial assistance, provided that a suitable position is selected
for the plantation. The least expensive and perhaps the most
favourable site which can be selected for the purpose is an old mango
tope, because the mango-trees in that stage are not too dense in foliage,
and are better adapted to produce the checkered shade so essential to
the healthy development of the vanilla plants. Like all succulents,
this plant detests excessive moisture ; swampy situations should there-
fore be avoided. A light vegetable soil intermixed with sand is an
agreeable compost, and cocoa-nut fibre is perhaps the best manure that
can be applied. Ordinary-sized cuttings generally produce flowers
three years after they are rooted, but large cuttings consisting of four
or more nodes will produce flowers two years after they are rooted.
The vanilla should be planted round the base of the mango-trees,
small beds of the soil recommended having been previously prepared,
and as the plants grow they should be trained round the stem and along
the principal limbs of the trees for their future support.

In South America an indigenous insect fertilizes the vanilla flowers

' rVom notes by Mr. Cameron, Superintendent of the Lai Bagh.



172



FLORA



accidentally, and thus secures the fruit, but in this country no such
insect has yet made its appearance. We must therefore adopt our
own means to fecundate the flowers. The process is simple when
once acquired. The organs of reproduction (unlike the ordinary state
of things) are disposed in a peculiar form, as if to prevent natural
fecundation, and until this takes place by artifice, or chance as
explained, the beans which comprise the economic product of vanilla
will not be obtained.

Cocoa. — The chocolate-nut tree, theobroma cocoa, is indigenous to
South America and the W. Indies, where it has been cultivated for
various uses for many generations. The tree is an evergreen, which
grows from sixteen to twenty-five feet high. The leaves are entire,
smooth, and very glossy in appearance ; the flowers, which are diminu-
tive, are borne on the stem and principal limbs of the tree ; hence the
rare and curious appearance which the capsules present suspended from
the bare stem. The trees in the Government Gardens have produced
fruit freely. The peculiarities of the cultivation consist in the applica-
tion of dense shade, moderate moisture, and decomposed vegetable
soil, chiefly. Salt is also an indispensable ingredient in a compost for
chocolate trees.

Rhea. — The Rhea plant or China grass of commerce is the boehmeria
nivea. The fibre produced from the bark of this plant is very strong
and delicate, but the difficulty of preparing it by machinery continues
to obstruct its utility on an extensive scale. There are three species
of boehmeria in the Lai Bagh, and the climate of Mysore seems to
facilitate their growth. The young shoots which produce the fibre
grow more regular and free under half shade than when fully exposed
to the sun's rays. The species nivea is quite established here, but
never produces seed. It possesses the great advantage, however, that
it can be helped by man ; so that its naturalization in most parts of
India is almost certain.

The following are other plants whose experimental cultivation has been
more or less successful, some of them being permanently established: —



Acrocarpus fraxini- Shingle-tree

folius
Agave rigida
Artiplex nummularia
Artocarpus cannoni



Artocarpus incisa ...
Bambusa vulgaris . . .
Barringtonia speci-
osa



Sisal hemp
Salt bush
Copper-coloured

foliage
Seedless breadfruit
Golden bamboo
Ornamental tree



Brassica chinensis...
Broussonettia papy-

rifera
Bursaria spinosa ...
Ccesalpinia coriaria
Carissa edulis
Castonospermum

australe
Castilloa elastica ...



Shantung cabbage
Paper mulberry

tree
Ornamental tree
Divi-divi tree
(Edible berry)
ISIoreton - bay

chestnut
Central American

rubber



EXOTICS



173



Ceratonia siliqua . .
Clausena wampi ..
Cola acuminata' ..
Colvillea racemosa



Carob-bean tree
Wampi (fruit)
Kola nut
Ornamental tree



Couroupita guianensis Cannon-ball tree
Crescentia alata . . . Calabash tree
Cyphomandra be- Tree tomato

tacea
Dipsacus fullonum Fullers' teazel
Erythroxylon coca Yields cocoaine
Euchlaena luxurians Buffalo grass
Fagopyrum esculen- Buckwheat

turn
Grevillea robusta . . .
Gynocardia odorata



lugra



Hyoscyamus niger
Lagunaria patersonii
Landolphia kirkii...
Landolphia watsoni
Malachea capitata



Silver oak
Yields chauhr

oil
Henbane
Foliage tree
Yields caoutchouc
Yields caoutchouc
Yields fibre



Manihot glaziovii ... Ceara-rubber tree
Mentha viridis ... Spearmint
Millingtonia portensis Indian cork tree



Monstera deliciosa
Opuntia ficus indica
Panicum sarmento-

sum
Paritium elatum ...
Parmentiera cerifera
Phcenix dactylifera
Pithecolobium saman Rain tree



Climbing aroid
Malta prickly-pear
Mauritius grass

Cuba bast
Candle tree
Date-palm



Poinciana regia
Rubia tinctorum* . . .
Rubus idceus
Smilax sarsaparilla
Stillingia sebifera . . ,
Trapa bispinosa ...

Tristania conferta...
Vangueria edulus ...
Vitis martini



Gold-mohur tree
Madder plant
Raspberry
Yields sarsaparilla
Chinese tallow tree
Zinghara nut,

water chestnut
Timber tree
Fruit tree
Cochin-China vine



Experiments have also been made with several varieties of cotton and
potatoes. Varieties of cocoa-nut have been imported from Colombo
in Ceylon ; also trial has been made of various kinds of grape vines,
loquat and bhere fruit (zizyphus jujuba).

It may be useful here to give the following list of plants whose
cultivation has been attempted without any permanent success at
Bangalore : —



Acacia decurrens . . .


Black wattle


Durio zibethinus ...


Durian


Arracacia eseulenta


Arracacha


Eucalyptus globu-


Blue gum


Avena elatior


Common pat


lus - '




Camellia theifera ...


Tea plant


Garcinia mangos-


Mangosteen


Caryophyllus aro-


Clove tree


tana*




maticus




Glycine hispida ...


Soy bean


Cassia obovata


Tinnevelly .senna


Helianthus annuus


Russian sunflower


Castania vulgaris . . .


Spanish chestnut


Humulus lupulus ...


I lop vine


Catalpa speciosa ...


Californian timber


Myristica fragrans


Nutmeg tree




tree


Platanus orientalis


Oriental plane


Cephojlis ipecacu-


Ipecacuanha


Symphytum asperri-


Prickly comfrey


anha




mum




Cyperus esculentus


Ground almond.


Ullucus tuberosus


Tuber




rush-nut


1 Withavia (Puneeria)


Cheese-maker


Cyperus pangorei...


Sedge


1 coagulans





' Botanically not far removed from the indigenous kendalc mara (sterculia urens).

- The plant which yields Indian madder has been found wild in Kankanhalli and
other parts.

■■' Eucalyptus saligna, rostrata, marginata and citriodora are established in the
gardens and furnish seed.

* Grafting it on the gamboge tree (Garcinia morella) seems to have been successful
in Jamaica.



'74



FAUNA
FERyE NATURE



Nothing less than a separate treatise, and that a voluminous one,
could do justice to the marvellous wealth of the animal kingdom in a
province under the tropics marked by so many varied natural features
as Mysore. An attempt has been made to present a list of the main
representatives, with the Kannada names, where they could be ascer-
tained. A few notes on the localities frequented by particular animals
will be found in Vol. II.

Mammals — Mammalia.'

Primates.

CercopithecidLC — Monkeys — Koti.

Macacus silenus ... Singalika, karkodaga ... The lion-tailed monkey

Macacus sinicus ... Koti, manga, kodaga ... The common monkey of the

country
Semnopithecus entellus Musu, musuva, musuku*... The langur, or Hanuman

monkey
Semnopithecus priamus Koncla-musuku, konda- The Madras langur
mosava



Semnopithecus johni. . .
Leimiridic — Lemurs.
Loris gracilis ... Nala, adavi manushya

Carnivora.

Felidcc—Q.2X tribe— i9,fM«.

Felis tigris ... ... Huli, heb-huli ...



Felis pardus ...

Felis bengalensis
Felis chaus
Cyntelurus jubata



Kiraba, ibbandi, dod-ibba

Hulibekku,bottinabekku

Kadu bekku

Chirite, sivangi, chircha . . .



The Nilgiri langur



The slender loris



The tiger^

The leopard or panther,* com-
monly called cheeta
The leopard cat
The wild or jungle cat
The hunting leopard, the
proper cheeta

Blanford's work on \\\& Fauna



' The classification and names are taken from W. T
of Briiish India, and the vernacular names have been revised.

■■' It seems doubtful if this monkey is found in the South, and the names may
belong to S. priamus.

3 There are said to be two varieties, — the heb-hiili, or large royal tiger, found in
the large jungle ; and the Imli, which is much smaller and is more destructive to
human life, frequenting inhabited parts of the country. It has the black stripes
closer together over the hind quarters.

■* The black variety is occasionally met with.



MAMMALIA



175



Viven-idiE — Civets.
Viverricula malaccensis

Paradoxurus niger
Herpestes mungo
Herpestes smithi

Hyccnidce — Hyenas — Ki>
Hysena striata

Canidie — Dog tril)e — Nay
Canis pallipes...
Canis aureus ...
Cyon deccanensis
Vulpes l)engalensis ...

Mus/e/idu-— Weasels.
Mellivora indica
Lutra vulgaris

Ursidcv — Bears — Karadi.
Mclursus ursinus



Punagina bekku, javadi

bekku
Kira bekku, kaljbu bekku
Munguli, mungasi, kira .

aim.
Kirabu, katte kiraba

'i.

Tola

Nari, ballu, gulla nari ...
Sil nayi ...

Kempu nari, channangi
nari



Nir-nayi ...
Karadi . . .



Insectivora.

Soricid(C — Shrews — Sitiui Hi. '

Crocidura crerulea ... Sund ili, sond ili
Crocidura perroteti ... Mug-ili ...

Chiroptera.

Pteropodidie — -Frugivorous bats — Bdval.

Pteropis edwardsi ... Togal bavali, toval or

tole hakki
Cynopterus marginatus

Kh iiioloph idic — Insectivorous bats — Kan-kappate.

Rhinolophus luctus ... ...

Rhinolophus affinis ...

Hipposiderus speoris...

Ilipposiderus bicolor...
Nycterida:.

Megaderma lyra
/ \spertilionid(C.

Vesperugo mordax

Vesperugo circumdatus

Vesperugo aliranuis ...

Vesperugo kuhli

Nyctecegus dormeri ...

Nyctecegus kuhli
Eiiihallonuridic.

Taphozous melanopogon

Taphozous longimanus

Taphozous saccokisncus ...■'...

' Properly siiudil ili.



gabl)ildyi



The civet cat

The tree cat or toddy cat

The mungoose

The ruddy mungoose

The striped hya-na

The Indian wolf
The jackal
The Indian wild dog
The Indian fox



The Indian ratel
The common otter

The Indian bear



The musk rat or shrew
Pigmy rat or shrew



Tlie Indian fruit bat or flying

fox
The short-nosed fruit bat

The great horse-shoe bat
The allied horse-shoe bat
Schneider's leaf-nosed bat
The bicoloured leaf-nosed bat

The Indian vampire bat

The grizzled bat

The black bat

The Indian pipistrelle

The white-bordered liat

Dormer's bat

The common yellow bat

The black-bearded sheath-
tailed bat

The long-armed shealh-tailed
bat

The pouch - bearing sheath -
tailed bat



176



FAUNA



Rodentia.

Sciurtdiv — Squirrels — Uiliite.

Pteromys oral... ... Haruva bekku ...

Sciurus indiciis ... Kes-alilu, kcmp - alilu,

kend-alilu

Sciurus macrurus

Sciurus palmarum ... Alilu, anilu, udule

Sciurus tristriatus ... Kad-a]ilu...
Muridcz — Rats and mice — Hi.

Gerbillus indicus ... Bila ili ...



Mus rattus


. Ili


Mus decumanus


Kemp ili


Mus musculus...


. Chitt ili


Mus buduga ...


. Bail ili


Mus platythrix


. Kal ili


Mus mettada ...


. Toda


Nesocia bengalensis ..


. Bail ili


Nesocia bandicota


Heggana


Golunda cUiotti


. Golandi



Hystricidcc — Porcupines — JMiil-handi.

Hystrix leucura ... Mul-handi, edu, eyya

Leporidct — Hares — Mola.

Lepus nigrocollis ... Mola

Ungulata.

Elephantidii: — Elephants — A'ne.
Elephas maximus ... A'ne

BovidiE — Ox tribe — Yettzt, hasava.

Bos gaurus ... ... Kad kona, kate

Hemitragus hylocrius* Kad adu
Boselaphus tragocame- Kad kudure
lus

A ntelopida — An telopes — Ch igari.
Tetraceros quadricornis Konda-guri
Antilope cervicupra ... Chigari, hulle ...



Gazella bennelti



S'ank hulle



Cei-z'idic — Deer ix'ihe^/inke.
Cervulus muntjac ... Kad-kuri



Cervus unicolor
Cervus axis
Tragulus meminna
Siiidcc — Hogs — Handi.
Sus cristatus ...



Kadave, kada
Saraga, duppi
Kur-pandi

Kad handi



The ijrown flying squirrel
The large Indian squirrel

The grizzled Indian .squirrel
The common striped squirrel
The jungle striped squirrel

The Indian gerl)ille, or ante-
lope rat

The common Indian rat

The brown rat

The common house-mouse

The Indian field-mouse

The brown spiny mouse

The soft-furred field-rat

The Indian mole-rat

The bandicoot rat

The Indian bush - rat (the
coffee-rat)

The porcupine

The black-naped hare



The Indian elephant

The bison, or gaur

The Nilgiri wild goat (ibex)

The nilgai, or blue bull



The four-horned antelope
The Indian antelope, or black

buck
The Indian gazelle, or ravine

deer

The barking deer, or jungle

sheep
The sambar deer
The spotted deer
The Indian mouse-deer

The Indian wild boar



Edentata.

Alanidii; — Ant-eaters.

Manis pentadactyla ... Chip handi ... ... The Indian pangolin.

' There is some doubt whether ibex and nilgai are actually found in Mysore, but
they are met with on the borders.



GAME LAW 177

The most destructive to life are tigers, and panthers or cheetas.
The following figures for the years 1890 to 1892 show the extent of
loss, and what has been done to counteract the ravages of the larger
animals, so far as the matter has come under official notice.

In 1889-90, there were four persons killed by tigers, two by panthers,
and six by other animals ; while of cattle, 1,150 were killed by tigers,
2,246 by panthers, 7 by bears, 2,695 by wolves, 362 by hyaenas, and
225 by other animals.

In 1 890- 1, there were one person killed by an elephant, two by
tigers, one by a bear, and four by other animals ; of cattle, tigers killed
1,263, panthers 2,554, bears 49, wolves 1,823, hyrenas 109, and other
animals 289.

In 1 89 1-2, there were one person killed by an elephant, one by a
panther, three by hyajnas, and nine by other animals ; of cattle, 2,055
were killed by tigers, 3.621 by panthers, 2,439 by wolves, 242 by
hy?enas, and 375 by other animals.

The regular rewards offered for the destruction of wild beasts are
Rs. 40 for a tiger or panther, and up to Rs. 10 for a hyaena. Elephants
are too valuable to be destroyed, but a special reward is sometimes
offered for the destruction of a rogue elephant that has become
dangerous to life.

The amounts paid in rewards in the above years were as follows : —

Rs. 3,728 in 1889-90, namely, Rs. 1,416 for 40 tigers, Rs. 2,164 fo'"
124 panthers, Rs. 12 for 4 hyaenas, and Rs. 136 for 587 other animals.

Rs. 3,573 in 1890-1, namely, Rs. 1,453 for 39 tigers, Rs. 1,946 for
115 panthers, Rs. 18 for 4 hyoenas, and Rs. 156 for 700 other animals.

Rs. 4,194 in 1891-2, namely, Rs. 100 for i elephant, Rs. 1,528 for
48 tigers, Rs. 2,303 for 148 panthers, Rs. 15 for 3 hyaenas, and Rs. 24S
for 1,389 other animals, including wild pig, rabid dogs, etc.

A comparison of these statistics with those for 1874 and 1875, given
in the first edition, indicates a decrease on the whole in the deaths of
human beings from wild beasts, but an increase in those of cattle. The
former may be due either to an actual diminution in the number of
wild beasts or to better means being now available for the treatment of
wounded persons : the latter may be due to more complete returns.
The figures relating to animals for whose destruction rewards were
given, point to a decrease in the number of larger animals destroyed
and an increase in that of smaller and commoner ones.

The necessity for a Ciame Law has been pressed upon the (Govern-
ment by both planters and sportsmen, principally to prevent the
indiscriminate destruction of useful species. A draft Regulation has
accordingly been framed and is under consideration, but it is not

N



178 FAUNA

intended to create n. nionoijoly in animals in a state of nature fur the
benefit whether of Government or of sportsmen. In the term "Game"
it includes antelope, ibex, jungle-sheep, sambhar and all other descrip-
tions of deer, bison, hares, jungle-fowl, spur-fowl, pea-fowl, partridge,
quail, snipe, woodcock, bustard, florican, duck and teal, with such
other animals or birds as may be added. The pursuit or killing may
be prohibited of any other animals or birds whose destruction may be
considered unsportsmanlike. The killing, capture, and pursuit in large
numbers of any particular kinds of wild animals or birds for the sake
of their skins or plumage for commercial purposes will be restricted by
a system of licenses, or prohibited altogether either for a certain time
or within a certain area. Fishing in any stream or lake will in like
manner be controlled, together with the poisoning of the water, the
use of explosive or deleterious substances therein, and the capture of
fish by fixed engines and nets of a mesh below a certain size. A
season in the year may be fixed in any local area for the killing or
capture of game or fish ; or it may be prohibited altogether in any local
area for five years ; or absolutely as regards mature females or young of
either sex of any descriptions of game. An exception is made in the
case of an owner or occupier of land, who may kill, capture or pursue,
within the limits of his land, game doing damage to any growing
crop.

Elephants are too valuable to be destroyed, and a special license is
required to kill one, which is only permitted when an animal endangers
human life or proves destructive to the crops. At the same time the
Keddah department was (1873) formed for the capture of elephants.
Previous to this the animals were sometimes caught in pits. The pits were
about twenty feet deep, and covered with a light network of bamboos,
over which was spread a covering of leaves and earth. The earth dug
out was carried to some distance. These pits never succeeded during the
first year, but in the second year, when they had become overgrown
with grass, the elephants were often deceived by them. When an
elephant was caught, rubbish v^^as thrown into the pit, which he trod
down and gradually formed a path to the top. He was then seized by
the tame elephants, without whose aid it would be impossible to secure
a full-grown wild elephant, and at the same time ropes were thrown
over him by the Kurubas. An elephant who was less than eight
months old, when thus snared, could seldom be reared in captivity, and
a tusker of any size had never been entrapped. In a graphic descrip-
tion of the rude manner in which the pitfall system was managed, Mr.
G. P. Sanderson says : — " The atrocious cruelties to which elephants
were subjected by it are too horrible to think of."'



ELEPHANT KEDDAHS 179

The Keddah department, established by him, was highly successful
in its first operations, which resulted in the capture of fifty-five elephants
in June 1874. Only nine died, and a profit of. Rs. 22,000 was made
on the affair. The site of the keddahs was near the Biligirirangan hills
in Chamrajnagar taluq, and Mr. Sanderson's account of what was at
that time a novel adventure was given in the first edition.' Shortly
afterwards he was transferred to Dacca in Bengal for elephant-catching
in the Chittagong and (iaro hills, where he was equally successful. On
his return to Mysore, in June 1876, the great famine was setting in,
and instead of catching elephants he was engaged in forming grazing
blocks in the border forests for the starving cattle that flocked thither
for pasture. Meanwhile the keddahs in Mysore remained in abeyance,
and Mr. Sanderson, after a furlough, was again employed in Bengal.
But capture by pitfalls was resorted to in 1886, under proper direction,
in the Kakank6te and Begur forests, and the District Forest Officer got
fifty-two elephants there in this manner in the next five years, when the
system was absolutely stopped on the extension of keddahs to that
part. Of those caught thirty-five survived, and a profit of Rs. 1 5,000
was made on the whole. Still, during the periods that the keddahs had
been unused, elephants multiplied and became so daring as to ravage
crops even close to towns. Mr. Sanderson's services were therefore
again applied for, and in 1889 he was placed at the disposal of Mysore
for five and a half years. To facilitate operations, twelve trained
Kumki elephants were purchased from the Pheelkhana at Dacca, and
seventeen more were imported from Burma in 1890. These twenty-
nine cost over a lakh. With the exception of a few that died, they
have become acclimatized to Mysore, and are in a healthy and service-
able condition.

In a fortnight from Mr. Sanderson's arrival, in July 1889, he
captured a herd of fifty-one in the old keddahs constructed by him in
1877. Intimation was then received of the proposed visit of H.R.H.
l^rince Albert A'ictor, and it was desired to make a second catch, if
possible, for his entertainment in November. The interesting account
of how the capture of thirty-seven elephants was effected on that occa-
sion has been contributed by Mr. Sanderson to Mr. Rees' book.-
Keddahs were next formed near Kakankote in 1890, and an extensive
use of the telephone was introduced by Mr. Sanderson, for rapid com-
munication from his base camp with the watch-houses at the keddah
gates and various points in the jungles, the whole being connected with

1 A full description of this and other operations will be found in his book called
*' Thirteen \'ears among the Wild Heasts of India." •

- "The Duke of Clarence and Avondale in Southern India,"' chap. iv.

N 2



i8o FAUNA

the telegraph station :il llunsur, whence messages could Ije sent all
over India. Altogether, in two drives in 1889-90, and three drives in
1890-1, there were 159 elephants caught, and the greater number were
sold at Nanjangud, Palghat, and Tellicherry. Excluding the large
initial outlay for Kumki elephants and trained hands from the north,
with special charges connected with the Royal visit, the expenditure
was fairly covered by the receipts, while the stockades, with live and
dead stock, remained for future use at a moderate cost for up-keep. In
1 89 1 -2 there were two drives, resulting in the capture of seventy-five
elephants. Sales were effected at Paschimavahini and at Haidarabad in
addition to the places before mentioned. That the expenditure was
much in excess of the receipts was greatly owing to cost of additional
telephone materials and instruments. In May, 1892, Mr. Sanderson
died. Since then Mr. K. Shamiengar, for a short time his assistant,
has been in charge of the keddahs. In two drives in 1892-3^ and two
drives in 1893-4 he was successful in capturing 120 elephants, of which



Online LibraryB. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) RiceMysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) → online text (page 22 of 98)