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evidence that in the 3rd and 4th centuries the (ianga kings were
extending their sway over Mysore, and this seems to have been accom-
panied by a gradual setting aside of the predominant Jain influence by
that of Brahmans. The Chola invasions of the nth century introduced
a large Tamil influence. In the east and north, wc may suppose that
under the Mauryas and the Pallavas, up to the 6th century. Buddhistic
influences would be chiefly at work, and settlers from the Telugu
countries attracted into Mysore. The progress of events as related in
the next chapter will suggest the circumstances under which the
population was probably recruited by Kongas, Reddis, Woddas and
other tribes.

As far back as the loth century we lind two great territorial divisions,
namely, Gangavadi, occupying the southern and central parts of the
country, and Nonambavadi the northern. The correspondence of
names shows that in the Gangadikara and Nonaba Wokkaligas, who
form, especially the first, so large a proportion of the agricultural class,
we have the descendants of the subjects of those provinces. The advent
of Muhammadan and Mahratta immigrants can without much difficulty
be assigned to the right time, and that of Europeans is well known.
The vicissitudes through which the country has passed will prepare us
to find a great admixture of castes and people. Accordingly, no fewer
than 112 different names of castes and 382 recognized subdivisions
occur in the last Census Report for 1891. The number of sub-
divisions actually returned, however, is stated to have been no less
than 864.



POPULATION

The first census was taken in 1 840-1 and the next in 1 85 1-2, since
which period annual returns were made up until 1871, when a census
more minute and exact was carried out. The latter indeed may
probably be considered the only real census obtained by actual enumer-
ation of the people ; the older khdneshunidri estimates having been
generally formed, it is believed, by multiplying the ascertained number
of families by a figure assumed to be the average number of memliers
composing each. Nevertheless the figures, so far as any are available,
are not without interest.



2l8



ETHNOGRAPHY



Year.


Hindus.


Muhammadanx.


Others.


Total.


I So I






1,969,493


1S04


2,094,359


77,395




2,171,754'


1832








3,500,000'^


1841








3,050,713


1851








3,426,458


1852








3,460,696


1854








3,501,283


1855








3,535,441


1S56


3,476,966


152,611




3,629,577


1S57


3,447,944


161,160


...


3,609,104^


1S58


3,557,110


181,817




3,738,927


1859


3.621, 723«


200,500*




3,822,223


i860








3,821,000


1863








3,872,209


1864








3,895,687


1865








4,013,601


1866








3,915,721 1 Famine


1867


3-724.I78


172,255


14,302


3,910,735/ years.


1868








3,909,121


1869


3>793,973


182,654


29,713


4,006,340


1870


3>839>679


189,272


27,815


4,108,607



The results of the regular census of 187 1 showed that the population
must have been under-estimated in the previous valuations.^ But so
far as these afford any data for calculation, the rate of increase in the
decade 1841-1851 was i2'3 per cent; in the 9 years 1851-1860
the rate was ii*5 percent; and in the decade 1860-1870 it was 7*5
per cent.



' Excluding Balam and the recently interchanged districts, the number was 202,261.
A considerable migration took place from the districts allotted to the Xizam into
Dodballapur and that neighbourhood, but nearly the whole of these persons gradually
returned after the cession of those provinces to the Company. Many families which
had emigrated to Baramahal in 1792, when it was ceded to the Company, now returned
to Mysore. About 200,000 persons also emigrated temporarily from the Mahratta
country into Mysore, to escape from the famine which prevailed there.

^ This is printed in the report as 4,500,000, a total which seems so manifestly
wrong that I have taken the liberty of altering the first figure.

'^ The decrease is explained as due to the omission of the island of Seringapatam.

* Approximate.

* Writing in 1804, Col. Wilks has the following remarks on the estimate of
population at that period : — " I am induced to suspect some error in one of the
computations, notwithstanding the frequency in Mysore of that most fatal source of
depopulation, the presence of a Mahratta army. The usurpation of Haidar All may
be considered as complete in 1760 ; at that time many of the districts were permanently
occupied by Mahratta troops. Gopal Rao Hari invaded Mysore in the same year.
It was again invaded by Bani \'isaji Pandit in 176 1 ; by Madhu Rao in 1765, 1767
and 1770 ; by Tryambak Rao in 1771 ; by Raghunatha Rao in 1774 ; by Hari Pant
Purkia in 1776 and 1786; and lately I have investigated on the spot and examined



CENSUS TOTALS



219



7'he following table shows the total male and female population, and
the total in each District, as found by the census of 187 1, compared
with the numbers of the previous estimate : —



District.'



Bangalore
Kolar ...
Tumkur
Mysore
Hassan
Shimoga
Kadur ...
Chitaklroog

Total



Estimated Population of

1869-1870.



Actual Number as per General
Census of 1871.



Increase
'percent.



Male.*;.



356,241
274,859
251,029
400,537
320,373
234,167

137,593
203,069



Females.



303.162
251,601
245.034
362,922
272,428
196,053
124,229
175,310



Total.



659.403!
526,460
496,063

763,459
592,801
430,220
261,822
378,379



Males.



Females. Total.



414,543
309,685

315.440
467,562

328,324
258,446

170,337
271,587



413,811
309,269

316,799
475,625
340,093
240,530
163,588
259,773



828,354
618,954
632,239
943,187
668,417
498,976
333,925
531,360



2,177,8681,930,7394,108,60712,535,9242,519,4885,055,412



25-6
17-6
27-5
307
12-8
i6-o
27-6
40-4

23-0



Since the general census of November 1871 a general census has
been taken on two occasions, one on the night of the 17th February
rSSi, and the other on the night of the 26th February 1891, syn-
chronous with the general census of all India on those dates. The
results of the three may be exhibited as follows : —



Year.


Males. Females.

;


Total.


Difference
per cent.


No. per
square mile.


' 1871
1881
1891


2,535,924 2,519,488
2,085,842 2,100,346

2,483,451 2,460,153

1


5,055,412
4,186,188
4,943,604


- I7'i9
+ 18-09


172-5
142-8
168-6



the traces of the merciless ravages committed in 1 791 and 1792 by I'arasuram Bhao.
In consequence of these incessant calamities, many districts formerly well-peopled do
nt)t exhibit the vestige of a human being ; and Chitaldroog District in particular may
be considered as deprived of the great mass of its inhabitants.

The word valsH is applied to the inhabitants of a district who, deserting their homes
on the approach of a hostile predatory force such as that of the Mahrattas, migrate
en masse to another part of the country or to inaccessible woods and hills until the
departure of the enemy. And no testimony could be more emphatic to a state of
habitual misery than the existence, in all the languages of the south, of this single
term to describe what cannot be expressed in any European language but by a long
circumlocution."

' The limits of the several Districts have i)een subject to alterations since, and do
not therefore exactly coincide with the existing limits, though the names are the
.same.



220 ETIINOGRAPJIY

The decrease which took place in the decennial period 187 1 to 1881
was due to the great famime of 1877 and 1878. (The present popula-
tion is somewhat greater than that of Ireland — 4,704,750 in 1891.)

The distribution of the population by districts is as follows : —



District.


Approximate
Area.


Males.


Females.


Total.


No. per
square
mile.


Percentage
to total.


Bangalore ...


3,081


399.486


403.508


802,994


260


16-24


Kolar


3.433


297.655


293.375


591,030


175


11-96


Ti'imkur


4,367


291.133


289,653


580,786


133


11-75


jMy.sore


5,078


580,737


601,077


1,181,814


232


23-90


Has.san


2,603


255.044


259,908


514.952


197


10-42


Shimoga


4,048


275.884


252,097


527.981


130


10-68


Kadur


2,685


173,922


156,141


330,063


123


6-67


Chitaldroog...

.


4,010


209,590


204,394


413.984


103


8-38



The classification of the people according to the main heads of
religious belief gives the following results : —



Class.


Males.


Females.


Total.


1 Percentage.

1


Hindus

Jains

Muhammadans
Christians ...
Others (Parsi, Sikh, Brahmo)


2,324,499
7,116

131.473
20,306

57


2,314,605

6,162

121,500

17,829

57


4,639,104

13,278

252,973

38,135

114


93 '84
-27

5-II
•77


Total


2,483,451


2,460,153


4,943,604


1



Compared with the similar table for 187 1 it appears that Hindus have
diminished by 1-25 per cent., while Muhammadans have increased by
•98, and Christians by '27, which together exactly make up the
difference. It should however be taken into account that the total
population in the same period fell by 2-5 per cent.

Hindus. — Under the term Hindu have been included all natives of
this part of India who do not properly come under one of the other
headings. The Hindus are nominally divided into four castes, which
are entirely separate from each other, and between whom no connection
by marriage or otherwise is permitted. The distinction is complete in
every sense, hereditary and personal, and it is impossible for any
member of these castes to be other than what his birth made him,
unless indeed he should transgress some law binding on his particular
caste beyond the possibility of pardon or expiation. In such a case the



CASTE 221

punishment is expulsion from the community or loss of caste, when the
unfortunate individual becomes contemptible in the eyes of all, and his
place henceforth is amongst the lowest Pariahs, the dregs of Hindu
society. Even the most despised caste would decline to admit him on
terms of social equality, even though he had been originally one of the
heaven-born Brahmans. The first or highest caste is the Brahman or
priestly class ; the second the Kshatriya or military class ; the third is
the Vaisya class, composed of husbandmen and merchants ; and the
fourth is that of the Siidras, and comprehends artisans, labourers and
agriculturists.^ Besides these there are many castes unrecognized by
the four grand divisions, whose manners and customs are governed by
laws of their own, and who are as exclusive in their way as any of the
four above mentioned.

Caste," originally called vartja, colour, but now more usually Jdti,
I)irth, was doul)tless at first a distinction of race based on difference of
complexion, and intended to prevent degeneration from intermixture
of the fair-skinned Aryan conquerors with the dark-skinned earlier
settlers, or the black aboriginal tribes. The tradition of the common
origin of the four pure castes or tribes from the head, arms, thighs, and
feet of Brahma, points to them collectively as forming eventually one
nation, each class distinguished from the others by reason of its
occupation, which was probably hereditary. But numerous other
mixed castes were always found among the great body of the popula-
tion. The statements in Manu suffice to show that endless ramifica-
tions had taken place in his time through intermarriages of different
castes, and he assigns separate names to an enormous number of new
castes that sprang from these connections. " Indeed, it is evident that
some of the lowest castes, perhaps many, were in part derived from the
highest," says Mr. Sherring, who also writes :— " Had the creation of
new castes continued to be made in succeeding ages with the same
ease and rapidity as they were in these earlier times, it is plain that the
caste system would have destroyed itself, in two ways, — first, by the
multiplication of new castes throughout the land, and, secondly, by the
intermarriages of all the castes. The increased strictures imposed upon
the castes, especially upon the primary ones, and the prohibition of
irregular marriages — that is, of marriages of members of one caste with

' Strong opposition was manifested on the part of certain classes in the census of
1891 to be graded among Sudras, accompanied with strenuous efforts to be included
among Brahmans.

- From casta, Portuguese for race or breed. According to a passage in the Maha
Hharata, the colour of Brahmans is white, of Kshatriyas red, of \'aisyas yellow, of
Sudras black.



3 2 2 E THNO GRAPH Y

mcnihcTs of another, — gave in later years strength and vitality to a
system which otherwise must soon have become extinguished. At
what epoch this fundamental change in its constitution was made is not
known." '

In Mysore the various castes are probably as numerous as in any
other part of India of equal extent. The natives of the Province, by a
fanciful arrangement, recognize loi as the limit to the total number,
but in the enumerators' forms of the recent census it was found that 864
castes had been returned, more than double the number given in 1871.
Some of these, though returned in different localities under different
names, doubtless belonged originally to the same stock. A few families
or individuals probably separated from the main body, and having
removed to another part of the country, either adopted a new name or
were given one by their neighbours. There is every reason to believe
that in some similar manner the number of castes is even now con-
stantly increasing. Disputes arise, and the caste divides into two
factions, each headed by some influential man or family ; they refuse
to associate with each other or to intermarry, and unless in a short
time some common interest compels the parties to re-unite, a separate
caste or sub-division is permanently formed, which adopts some
peculiarity of its own to distinguish it from the original.

The agricultural, artisan and trading communities are termed patjas
or professions, which are eighteen in number. These paiias are divided
into two factions, called Bala-gai and Yeda-gai, or right and left hands.
A large number of castes belong to one or other of these divisions.
All Brahmans, Kshatriyas, and most of the Siidras are considered
neutral. Although the right- and left-hand factions are said to include
only eighteen trades, there are many castes which adhere to one side
or the other, but their numbers do not seem to be taken into
account.

The following are the castes composing the two factions : —



A'4


^ht-hand Faction.


Left-hand Faction.




Banajiga ...

Wokkaliga

Ganiga


Traders.
... Cultivators.
... Oilmen who yoke
only one bullock


Panchala, com
Badagi ...
Kanchugara


prising : —
... Carpenters.
... Copper or
smiths.


brass




to the mill.


Kammara


Iron smiths.




Rangare . .
Lada


. . . Dyers.

... Mahratta traders.


Kal-kutiga
Akasale...


Stone-masons
... (Goldsmiths.


, and


Gujarati ...


... Gujarat merchants.









» Hindu Tribes and Castes, Intro, xvii. Gotamiputra Satakarni, who reigned in
the second century, is said, in an inscription at Nasik, to have prevented the mi.xing
of the four castes {varna). — Arch. Siirv. W. Ind., iv., 109.







PANAS


223


Kaniati


Lalxjurers.




Bheri


A class of Xagarta


Jaina


... Jain traders.






traders.


Kuril ha


Shepherds.




Devanga


Weavers.


Kumliara ...


Potters.




Hegganiga


Oilmen who yoke


Agasa


... Washermen.






two bullocks to


Besta


I'ishermen or


Pa-




the mill.




lanquiii l)earers.


(jolla or Dhanapala


Cowherds who


Padmasdle


... A class of weavers.




transport money.


Nayinda ...


Barbers.




Beda


Hunters.


Up]iara


Salt-makers.




Yakula


Cultivators.


Chitragara


Painters.




Pa]li or Tigala


Market gardeners.


Golla


. . . Cowherds.




Madiga, the lowest


eft -hand caste.


Holeya, the


lowest right-hand caste.









The Banajigas and Linga Banajigas are the foremen of the right-
hand faction. They say that all the eighteen pauas or professions
enumerated above belong to them, and that the nine pa/jas of the left-
hand are separate. The Panchalas and Nagartas, who are at the head
of the left-hand faction, contend that the eighteen paiias are equally
divided between the two factions, and that the nine above enumerated
belong to them. In the main it is evidently a struggle for precedence
between the artisans and the traders, or between followers of the old-
established handicrafts and innovators who brought in the exchange of
commodities with other parts, supported by producers and ministers to
luxury. It has been found impossible to obtain a uniform, authentic,
and complete list of the castes composing each faction, but the state-
ment above is only doubtful in the case of one or two of the inter-
mediate castes, and perhaps Komatis should take the place of Jains,
and Toreya that of Yakula. The works referred to as authorities are
Sahyddri Khanda and Ellcsa-vijaya, both said to be of the time of the
rise of Vijayanagur in the fourteenth century, but the information has
not been found in the former, and the latter work is not forthcoming.

The origin of the distinction between the two divisions is founded
on fable,' and is said to have taken place at Conjeveram, where the
goddess Kali placed certain castes on her right hand and others on
her left. The two parties have ever since disputed as to the relative
honour accorded to each side. The division appears to be of compara-
tively modern origin, as no mention of it has been found in any ancient
work.- It is, moreover, confined entirely to the south of India. Each



' There is also a right- and left-hand division of Sakti worshijipers, the rites of the
former being principally magical, of the latter bloody and licentious. But there
.seems to be no connection between the cases.

- There is indeed a doubtful passage in the Mahawaitso which may be sujijioscd to
refer to it, and if so, the institution would seem to be of great antiipiity. When the
Pandya princess was sent from Madura to Ceylon, in response to an embassy from



224 ETJfNOGRAPHY

parly insists on ils exclusive rights to certain privileges on all public
festivals and ceremonies, and it not unfrequently happens that one side
usurps the supposed and jealously guarded rights of the other. On
such occasions a faction fight is almost sure to ensue. Cases are
recorded where the carrying of an umbrella, or wearing particular
coloured flowers in the turban, has given rise to severe outbreaks
accompanied by bloodshed. The opposition between the two divisions
is still kept up, but apparently not with the same bitterness as in former
times. In fact some of the castes seem in the late census to have been
averse to own themselves as belonging to either hand, preferring to
admit adhesion only to the eighteen pana or the nine pana, while over
100,000 made no return at all in the matter. The figures actually
obtained were, 1,693,461 as belonging to the eighteen pana (the right-
hand), and 503,439 as belonging to the nine pana (the left-hand).

The right-hand claim the exclusive privilege of having twelve pillars
in the panda I or shed under which their marriage ceremonies are
performed (allowing to the left only eleven) ; of riding on horse-
back in processions, and of carrying a flag painted with the figure of
Hanuman.i

The two factions are also styled Desa and Pete (in some places
Nadu). The reason given is that Linga Banajigas, who are at the head
of the right-hand division, not being original natives of the place, were
called Desavalas or outsiders, and the others Pete or Naduvalas.

In the recent census of 1891 the old caste gradation has been set
aside in favour of classifications according to occupation, and, as
regards Hindus, according to the numerical importance of the castes.
The results of the former are given under the following prescribed
heads : —

Class of Occupation
A Agricultural
B Professional
C Commercial
D Artisan and Village menial
E Vagrant minor Artisans and Performers, &c.

Races and nationalities

Others, not stated ...

The following is a different return of occupations based on sources of
livelihood. Of the total number set down as thus supporting them-
selves the actual workers or bread-winners form only 34 '2 7 per cent,
the remainder being dependants, chiefly women and children : —

king \'ijaya soliciting her hand in marriage, she is said (according to one version) to
have been accompanied by a thousand members of the eighteen castes and five dif-
ferent classes of workmen. ' For caste insignia, see Ind. Ant. iv, 345.



Numbers


Percentage


1,665,442


33 "69


290,704


5-88


470,570


9-52


i>877.94i


37-99


344.055


6-96


291,168


5-89


3.724


0-07



OCCUPATIONS



225



Class of Occupation


Males


Females


Total


PercentaKC


Government


122,327 .


.. 113,838 .


236,165


... 477


Pasture and Agricul-










ture


1,685,445 ■


.. 1,630,55s .


.. 3,316,003


... 67-07


Personal service


55.182 .


54,157 •


•• 109,339


... 2 '2 1


I'reparation of ma-










terial sulxstances .


221,819 •


212,610 .


■■ 434,429


... 878


Commerce, Transport










and Storage


90,094 .


87,284 .


•• 177,378


- 3-58


Professions ...


40,187 .


39,825 .


80,012


.. i-6i


Indefinite and Inde-










pendent


268,397 .


321,881 .


• 590,278


.. 1 1 -92



Analysis of the preceding table into the various prescribed orders
supplies the following further information. The actual number of
separate occupations is 634. To the percentage of each on the
population of the State has been added, for comparison, the percentage
of similar occupations in British India : — ■





Total


Percen


age in




Total


Percentage in






Mysore


India






Mysore


India


Government —








Metals and








Administra-








Precio u s








tion


213.751 •


• 4-32 -.


1-95


Stones . . .


73,602..


• 1-49 ••


133


Defence


22,233..


• 0-45 ..


0-23


Glass and








Service of








Earthen -








other States


181 .


• " -


o-i8


ware
Wood and


27,421 .


• 0-55..


0-S2


I'asture and








Cane


33.I77 -


. 0-67...


1-50


Agriculture —








Gums, Drugs








Live Stock


23,106 .


. 0-47..


1-27


and Dyes


2,843..


0-06...


0-14


Agriculture 3,292,897 .


.66-61..


5979


Leather


24,459 ••


• 0-49...


I-I4


Personal Ser-








Commerce,








vice —








Transport and








Domestic &








Storage —








Sanitary ...


109,339 ■■


. 2-21 ...


3'9i


Commerce
Transport


160,967 ..


3-26...


1-63


l'rc]>aration of








and Storage


16,411 ..


• 0-33...


I 38


Materials —








Professions —








Food and








Learned and








Drink ..


62,819..


. 1-27...


5-07


Artistic ...


76,980..


1-56...


1-97


Light and








Sport and








Fuel


23,188..


. 0-47...


1-23


Amuse-








Buildings ...


30,508 ..


. 0-62 ..


0-50


ments


3.032..


006...


005


Vehiclesand








Indefinite and








Vessels ...


862..


0-02 ...


0-05


Independent —








Supplemen -








U nskilled








tary articles


10,057..


. 0-20...


0-40


Labour . . .


493.67S..


9-99...


8-87


Textile Fa-








Undefined


2,826..


o-o6 ...


0-54


brics and








Independent








Dress


145.493 ••


2-94...


4-39


of work ...


93,774


. I -90 . . .
Q


1-66



226



E THNOGRAPHY



A supplementary table shows the nuinl)ers of those who combine with
their hereditary occupations a certain amount of land cultivation : —





No


Per cent


novernnient


8,333


... 247


Pasture .ind Agri-






ciillure


317


I "O


Personal service ...


3,583


... IO-6


Preparation of ma-






terials


13,100


... 38-9



No Per cent

Commerce .. ... 2,138 ... 6"i

I'rofessions 1,706 ... 4'8

Indefinite and Inde-
pendent 4,657 ... I3'9



Total ... 33,834



The classification of the main Hindu castes according to numerical



Online LibraryB. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) RiceMysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) → online text (page 27 of 98)