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Mysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) online

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strength yields the following results, the percentage to the total popu-
lation being also shown in the case of those above 100,000. The
capital letters indicate the class of occupation as contained in the first
table above : —



Wokkaliga A ..
Holeya ... D
Lingayita ABC
Kuril ba ... D
Madiga D



Over 100,000.



1,341,849 .

- 520,493 •

483,159 •

• 349,037 •

• 239,575 .



.. 27-14


.. 10-51


.. 9-77


.. 7-06


.. 4-84



Beda

Brahmana
Golla
Banajiga ..
Wodda . .



217,128 .

183,541
128,995 •

114,735
107,203 .



4-39
371
2 60
2-32
2-16



Besta ...
Akkasale
Uppara



50,000 to 100,000.

D ... 99,897 I Xeyigara
D ... 98,181 I Agasa
D ... 89,123 I Tigala .



85,671
56,710



20,000 to 50,000.



Marata...
Kumbara
I'diga ..
I.ambani
Nayinda



44,446
40,809
39,937
39,137
37,296



Ganiga

Komati

Koracha

Xagarta

Kshatriya



35,8oS
29,054

24,494
22,964

21,795



Satani ...



10,000 to 20,000.
19,987 I Darji ..



10,664



Rachevar

Jogi
Badagi . . .



Meda
Domba
Lada
Goniga



A B D E

... E

D



5,000 to 10,000.

9,554 Xatuva

9,410

8,646



Kammara
.Mudali



1,000 to 5,000.

4,261 Bhat Raju .

2,500 I Da.sari ...

2,046 I Iruliga

1,426 ' Budabudike.



B ...


7,476


D ...


6,250


C ...


5,437


B .


■ 1,388


B .


■ 1,178


B .


• 1,156


E .


. 1,092



KSHATRIYA



227







Below


1,000.










Garudiga


E


.. 876




Giijarati


C






71


Mochi...


D


.. 746




Sudugadusidda ...


E






46


Sannyasi


B


.. 684




Baniya


C






41


I'ille ...


A


■• 559




Gondaliga


E






29


Gosayi


B


•• 424




Marvadi


C






21


Kanchugara ... D


•• 396




Pandaram


E






15


Jalagara


D


.. 258




Uriya


A






8


Bairagi


B


222




Karma


E






7


Monda


E


.. 189




Kayast


B






6


Xayar . . .


A


.. 117




Saniyar


E






3


Kanakkan


B


108




Multani


C






2


Sillekyata


E


• 93




Jat


C






I


The totals


of these gro


Lips may


be thus stated, showing


the


number


of castes under each and tl


le percenta


ge to the total Hindi


I popul


ation: —










Total




Per


cent


10 castes


of over 100, oc


)0




3,685,715




79-50




6 „


50,000 to I


DO.OOO




516,568




II


13




10 ,,


20,000 to 5


0,000




335.740




7-24




2 ,,


10,000 to 2


0,000




30,651







66




6 „


5,000 to 10


,000




46,773




I


00




8 „


1,000 to 5.(


XX) ...




15,047







32




24


l)elo\v 1, 00c


)




4,9^2







10





The classes contained in the first table of occupation are subdivided
into certain groups, and the different castes may be described in the
order in which they fall under these heads.

In the Agricultural class (A) the first group is called " military and
dominant," and comprises Kshatriya, Mahratta and Rachevar.

Kshatriya. — The total number is 21,824, composed principally of
12,287 Kshatriyas, 7,895 Rajputs, and 1,629 Rajapinde. Under the
first occur the following subdivisions, — Bais, Bintakiir, Bondili, Dhatri,
Govar, Kamsi, Kotari, Rajakula, Raju (Kanda, Kannada and Mopiir).
The Rajput tribes are, — Cham, Chandrabansi, Chhattri, Chavan,
Hindustani, Rajput Gauda, Rohila, Singh, Salar, Surajbansi, Thakih-
(Chandra, Dekal, Gaya, Gaharvariya and Nava), Talukhandiya and
Tamboli. Under Rajapinde are included Arasu, Bada Arasu, and
Komarapatta. There are also 1 2 Kodaga or Coorgs. The distribution
in the Districts is as follows : —





i










c;




^









3


t




bO







Caste.


n

c

n





3




S

3,740


I
I, .347


i

tn
1.205


•0 '
a


2


Kshatriya


2,455


783


898


1,450


410


Kajpiit ...


1,857


947


990


1,611


364


1,668


166


92


Rajapinde


30


68


92


1,317





24


98 1




Total


4,342


1,798


1,980


6,668


1,711


2,897


1. 714 1


502



Q 2



128



ETHNOGRAPHY



'I'hc K.shalriyas and Rajputs arc prinf,ii)ally in the army and police.
The Rnjapinde includes the Arasu, t(; which belongs the Royal family
of Mysore, and other castes connected with the ruling house.

Marata, or Mahratta. — There are 44,446 of these, of whom over
10,600 are in each of the Bangalore and My.sore Districts, 4,640 in
Kolar, and about 3,000 in each of the other Districts. The sub-
divisions are said to be,— Khaniya, Baruva, Kine, Kshatrabhanu,
Lankekdra, Manga, Ravuta, Bhilsa and Kumari ; Kine and Bhusa
being more numerous than the others. Their principal occupation is
military service, especially as cavalry and rough riders. But the
majority have for some time past taken to cultivation and menial ser-
vice. The Mahrattas are commonly called Are by the Mysore people.

Rachevar. — Those belonging to the Agricultural class number 3,696,
including the subdivision of Telugu Rachevar, and 66 Ranagara. More
than a third are in Mysore District, 870 in Bangalore, half that number
in Hassan, Kolar, and Tumkur, with 10 in Shimoga. There are no
Rachevar in Chitaldroog, but it has 15 Ranagara. Both claim a royal
connection.

The second agricultural group is the most important one of Cul-
tivators, and contains 128,168 Lingayita, 1,342,882 Wokkaliga, and
56,710 Tigala, distributed as shown below, with 117 Nayar,^ nearly all
in the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore, and 559 Pille,^ mostly in
Mysore, Kolar, and Bangalore Districts.



Caste.


C

a

pa


c


E




a


Shimoga.
Kadur.


Chitaldroog.


Lingayita
Wokkaliga
Tigala


13,194

225,511

29,192


1,421

163,160

10,156


8,971

179,206

14,718


52,264

325,557
1,222


19,260

171,323
714


1

13,958 9,943 9,157

135,069 73,496, 69,560

197 491 20


Total


267,897


174,737202,895


379,043


191,297


149,224 83,930 78,737



The principal divisions of the Lingdyifa in this class are Gaudamane
58,487, Malava 795, and Panchachara Cauda 68,886 ; which include
the subdivisions Gauliga, Gurusthala, Nonaba and Sada.

Wokkaliga. — In addition to 163,502 returned simply by this name,
the following are the most important tribes: — Gangadikara 593,205,
Morasu 131,950 (besides Beral-koduva 8,066), Sada 106,407, Reddi
(Kodati, Peddakanti, Pakanati, Nerati, Kamme, Honne, and Hema),
84,653, Kunchatiga 84,504, Nonaba 63,803, Halepaika 15,570, Halu
14,778, Hallikara 13,492, Telugu 12,316, Vellala (Bellala and Tuluva)

' Including Achpille, Agamudi and Panan. "^ Including Kajjar and Vellala.



WOKKALIGA



229



9,842, Uppina Kojaga 9,842, Dasa 9,433, ]Musaku 8,754, Falya 4,116,
Roddugara 3,744, Lalagonda 1,959, Svalpa 899, Nadu 588, Aramudi
242, Kotegara 218, Yellamakapu 171, Konkaniga 159, Kanesalu 137,
Totagara 117, Velnati 26. The following subdivisions are not separately
returned : — A'di, Agni. Agramudi, Aladakapu, Angalika, Bachanige,
Badagar, Belagude, Belakuvadi, Bhogar, Chittala, Dasavantige,
(iadakanti, Gausanige or Gosangi, Ghaniya, Hosadevara, Kamawokkal,
Kannada, Karale, Kariga, Karu, Karukal, Kolama, Koluva, Konda-
kattc, Konga, Koratakapu, Kottadevarakapu, Kumbi, Kudika-wokkal,
Kulibedaga, Kunte, Malavaru, Mudali, Musaku, Muttu, Padayachin-
ayakan, Palayar, Palyakar, Palyagar-gauda, Pamar, Panasakapu,
Panned, Pelagunda, Pettigesalina, Puda, Punamale, Rayaroddugara,
Reddi (Anche, Arava, Bellala, Kammadi, Kapu, Kondi, Neita, Raju,
Tenugu, and Vadaga), Sime, Sirdevara, Sitabhaira, Sole, S'oshya,
Togata, Tuluva, ^'alasakapu, Valu, Vanta, ^'asudeva, Velama,
\'irabhadrakapu, \'ellala (Jahala, Lingakatti and Pandya), Yeda-
yellama, Yalanati, Yalavolu, Yelumaneyavaru.

The following statement, showing the location of the principal great
classes in the several Districts, is instructive : —










3


«>


c




,





Wokkaliga.


to
c




U5


c


>>






1
u.


2
IS

u


(langadikara


105,284


519


64,478


271,935


126,443


9,081


13,386


2,089


Morasii ...


46,505


84,263


997


21


138


22


4





Sada ...


3.367


4,556


8,891


3,078


4,194


39,669


14,664


27,988


Reddi


24,466


40,267


1,640


8,503


352


1,014


355


8,056


Kunchatiga


11,840


663


44,231


3,488


3,828


8,082


1,614


10,758


Nonaha ...


159





30.654


2,010


7,444


8,552


11,119


3,865


Halepaika
















12,576


2,994




Halu


3











6,818


238


7,719





IlaHikara


2,414


260


5,148


2,409


1 ,399


935


802


125



The Gangadikdra are the most numerous of the Wokkaligas, being
over 44 per cent, of the whole number, and purely Kannada. They are
found principally in the centre and south of the country, and represent
the subjects of the ancient province of Gangavadi, a Ninety-si.\ Thou-
sand country, which formed an important part of the Ganga empire. The
name Gangadikara is a contraction of Gangavadikara. At the present
day the Gangadikaras are followers some of Siva and some of \'ishnu.
Of the former some wear the iinga and others not. These sects
neither eat together nor intermarry. The guru of the Yishnu wor-
shippers is the head of the Sri-Vaishnava Brahmans, who lives at
Melukote. In addition to being cultivators, the Gangadikaras act as
farm labourers and as porters.



3 30 E THNOGRA PI/ V

The Morasu are Wokkaligas cliieflyof Kolar and Bangalore Districts.
They api)car to have been originally immigrants from a district called
Morasa-nad, to the east of this country, whose chiefs formed settlements
in the neighbourhood of Nandidroog. The section called Beral-koduva
(or finger-giving) had a strange custom, which, on account of its
cruelty, was put a stop to by Government. Every woman of the sect,
previous to piercing the ears of her eldest daughter preparatory to her
being lictrothed in marriage, had to suffer amputation of the ring and
little fingers of the right hand. This was performed, for a regulated
fee, by the blacksmith of the village, who chopped off the last joint of
each finger with a chisel. If the girl to be betrothed were motherless,
the mother of the boy to whom she was to be betrothed was bound to
submit to the mutilation unless she had already made the sacrifice.
The story invented to account for this barbarous custom is given in the
first edition. Since its prohibition the women content themselves with
putting on a gold or silver finger-stall or thimble, which is pulled off
instead of the end of the finger itself. The principal sanctuary of the
Morasu Wokkaligas is at Siti-betta in the Kolar taluq, where there is a
temple of Virabhadra.

Of the other large tribes of Wokkaligas, the Sada abound mostly in
the north and west. They include Jains and Lingayits, Vaishnavas,
and Saivas. Not improbably they all belonged to the first originally.
In the old days many of them acted in the Kandachar or native
militia. They are not only cultivators but sometimes trade in
grain. The Reddi are chiefly in the east and north, and have numerous
subdivisions. To some extent they seem to be of Telugu origin, and
have been supposed to represent the subjects of the ancient Rattavadi,
or kingdom of the Rattas.

The Nonaba, in like manner, are relics of the ancient province of
Nojambavadi or Nonambavadi, a Thirty-two Thousand country, situated
principally in the Tumkur and Chitaldroog Districts. It is in these
parts and the west that they are now located. At the present day they
are by faith Lingayits, the residence of their chief guru being at
Gandikere, near Chiknayakanhalli. The acknowledged head of the
Nonabas, though no more than an ordinary cultivator, is the present
descendant of an original Honnappa Gauda, and named after him : he
lives at Hosahalli, near Gubbi.

The Halepaika, inhabiting the north-west, are of interest, and have
already been described above (p. 212). The Halu Wokkaligas are most
numerous in Kadur and Hassan Districts. As their name implies,
they combine the keeping of cows or buffaloes and sale of milk (M/u)
with other agricultural pursuits. The Hallikara are also largely engaged



TIG ALA



:3i



with cattle, and the breed of their name is the best in the Amrit Malial.
The Lalagonda, principally confined to Bangalore District, are not only
farmers, but hirers-out of bullocks, gardeners, builders of mud walls and
traders in straw, etc. The Vellalas are the most numerous class of
Wokkaligas in the Civil and Military Station of I^angalore.

There do not appear to be any peculiarities deserving of notice in
regard to the numerous other classes of Wokkaligas, who are only
distinguishable by name. And as in each successive census a good
many designations returned in the previous one do not recur, it is
evident that some classes are known by more than one name, and
probably use different ones on different occasions.

Tigala. — These arc skilful kitchen and market gardeners, mostly of
Tamil origin, though they have long lost the use of that language. In
addition to those called simply by the tribe-name, the following
principal divisions are noted : — Ulli, Vanne, Pajli, Reddi, Arava, and
Tota, as well as the subdivisions Agra Vannia, Agni, Brahmarishi,
Dharmarajukapu, Enneri, (lauda. Hale Tigaja, Halli, Kandapajli,
Kannada, Pandya, Raja, Samba, Vannikula, and Yanadi. Nearly a
half are in the Bangalore District, most of the remainder being in
Tumkur and Kolar.

The next agricultural group is Forest and other Hill tribes, number-
ing altogether 67,040. The following are the classes included under
this head, with their distribution :—










3


,


c


a




t


Caste.


Banga


■5


a

3

H






'.c




2


Lambani


. 1 3,3.5


751


2,977


1,084


2,846


14,127


8,794


5.243


Koracha )
Korama i


. I 5.246


3.414


2,470


4,169


1.437


4.398


2,059


1. 301


Kail Kuruba


1 219


147


1.450


400


45





8





Irujiga ...


1,042


22


67




I


"







The Lambani, or I>ambadi, also called Sukali and Brinjari, have the
following subdivisions : — Banjari, Bhiitya, Dhiimavatpada, Khetavat,
Ramavatpada, and Sabavat. They are a gipsy tribe that wander about
in gangs, accompanied by large herds of bullocks, especially in the
hilly and forest tracts where there are few good roads, engaged in the
transport of grain and other produce. They first prominently came to
notice towards the end of the last century, during the Mahralta and
Mysore wars, when immense numbers of them were employed by the
armies of both sides as foragers and transporters of supplies required



2 3 2 ETHNOGRAPH Y

for the tr()oi)s. ' Of late years many of them have been employed as
labourers on coffee-estates, and some have even partially abandoned
their vagrant life, and settled, at least for a time, in villages of their
own. These, called Thandas, are composed of clusters of their usual
rude wicker huts, pitched on waste ground in wild places. The women
bring in bundles of firewood from the jungles for sale in the towns.

The Lambdnis speak a mixed dialect, called Kutni, largely composed
of Hindi and Mahratti corruptions. In a police report regarding these
people, the late Dr. Shortt stated, " that their social system is unique,
and that they are guided exclusively by their own laws and customs ;
that each community is governed by a priest, who exacts and receives
implicit obedience, and who exercises, under the cloak of rehgion and
supernatural agency, the undisputed power of life and death over them.
They maintain the closest secrecy regarding their customs, and would
sooner forfeit life than divulge them. Infanticide, human sacrifice,
witchcraft and sorcery prevail among the different communities, who
can recognize one another by masonic signs."

The women are distinguished by a curious and picturesque dress,
completely different from that worn by any other class. It consists of
a sort of tartan petticoat, with a stomacher over the bosom, and a
mantle, often elaborately embroidered, which covers the head and
upper part of the body. The hair is worn in ringlets or plaits, hanging
down each side of the face, decorated with small shells, and terminating
in tassels. The arms and ankles are profusely covered with trinkets
made of bone, brass, and other rude materials. The men wear tight
cotton breeches, reaching a little below the knee, with a waist-band
ending in red silk tassels, and on the head a small red or white
turban.

It appears'- that the Lambanis here have twenty-six clans, and claim
a descent from one Chada, who left five sons, Mula, M6ta, Nathad,
Jogda, and Bhimda. Chavan, one of the three sons of Miila, had six
sons, each of whom originated a clan. At some remote period a
Brahman from Ajmir married a girl of Chavan's family, and gave rise
to the Vadtya clan, who still wear the sacred thread. A IMahratta from
Jotpur, in northern India, also allied himself with Rathol, Chavan's
brother, and founded the Khamdat clan. There are no descendants
of ]\I6ta here, but those of Nathad are called INIirasikat, Paradi or
Vagri, and live by catching wild birds. The Jogdas are Jogis. The

^ A correspondent from the British camp at that time terms them " the worthy and
inoffensive Brinjaris." — Cal. Gaz. II, 318. But they are often credited with inborn
thieving and marauding propensities.

- According to the last Cen.sus Report (1891).



KORACHA 233

lihimdas are itinerant blacksmiths, known as Bail Kammar. There is
even a class of Lambani outcastes, called Dhalya, who are drummers
and live separately. They principally trade in bullocks. The
Lambanis acknowledge the Gosayis as their gurus, and reverence
Krishna ; also Basava, as representing the cattle that Krishna tended.
But their principal object of worship is Banashankari, the goddess of
forests.

The Koracha and Korama have already been referred to above
(p. 214). Although virtually the same people, the follow-ing sub-
divisions are separately noted. For Korachas : Aggada, Dabbe,
(longadi, Kannada, Telugu, Uppu, Uru. For Koramas : — Bettale,
Gantu, Gazula, Kannada, Setti, Satubeda, Uppu, ^^'ldda, Yddava,
Yantumule. For Koravas : — Maval, Palchankoti, Uppu. They
wander about with large droves of cattle and asses, conveying salt and
grain from one market to another. They carry with them the frame-
work of a rude description of hut, and while one part of the tribe
proceeds with the baggage animals, the others settle for a time in some
convenient spot, where they erect their huts and employ themselves in
making mats and baskets, begging and stealing, until their proximity
becomes a nuisance to the villagers and they are compelled to move
on. They are described as thieves and robbers from childhood, and
are frequently associated with Brinjaris and other vagrants in burglaries,
dacoities, and acts of violence, often escaping detection owing to their
complete arrangements for obtaining information. They speak Telugu
and Tamil, and are said to have a peculiar gipsy language of their
own, with a system of signals which enables them to converse with the
initiated unobserved. They have no idols to which they pay particular
homage, and only invoke Tirupati \'enkatramana when in distress,
vowing small offerings of money to the temple should they escape.

The men tie up their hair in a large bunch or chignon on one side
of the top of the head, in precisely the same manner as we find the
men's hair arranged on most of the old sculptured stones of the
country. The women wear an immense number of strings of small
white and red beads and shells round the neck and falling over the
bosom.

I'he Kadu Kuruba and Jenu Kuruba have already come under
notice (above, p. 213), also the Iruliga, who are much like the latter;
and certain other forest and hill tribes have likewise been referred to.

We now pass to the Professional class (B), which, under the groups
of Priests, Devotees, and Temple-servants, includes 277,086 persons,
distributed as follows, 183,451 being Brahmana, 62,918 Lingayita,
19,987 Satani, 8,132 Jaina, and 2,508 various devotees.



234



ETHNOGRAPHY



Sect.


i

1




Tumkur.





c


Shimoga.


u

3

a


t

2
Is


Hrahmana


29,882


23,930


17,099


43,013


17,151


29,379


17,072


6,015


Lingayila


6,577


3,347


8,544


11,990


8,965


9,620


7,094


7,885


Sdtaiii


3,742


1,937


3,801


4,480


3,660


682


989


696


Jaina


359


876


1,526


1,928


1,246


422


1,264


416


Dasari, &c.


381


629


413


302


167


232


220


«63





Pancha Drdvida.




28


Karnataka or Kannada


■ 94,329


- 133


A'ndhra or Telugu


• 33,672


... 2,067


Dravida or Tamil


■ 32,853




Maharashtra or Mahratta


. 20,087




Gurjara or Gujarati


2



Brahmana. — The Brahmans throughout India, with a few excep-
tions, belong, according to original location or language, either to the
Pancha Gauda (the five tribes north of the Krishna), or to the Pancha
Dravida (the five tribes south of that river). The following are the
subdivisions, together with the numbers in Mysore pertaining to each
.so far as can be gathered from the census returns of 1891 : —

Pancha Gaitda.
Kanyakubja (N.W.P. ) ...

Sarasvata (Punjab)

Gauda (Delhi and Bengal)

Maithila (Behar)

Utkala (Ori.ssa)

These seldom intermarry, and though the tribes living here have
long been intermixed, they generally retain in their families the
language of the country from whence they originally came.

The Brahmans are farther subdivided into a number of gotras, the
original progenitors of which were seven principal rishis or sages,
namely, Bhrigu, Angiras, Atri, Vis'vamitra, Kasyapa, Vas'ishtha, and
Agastya. In the unlimited ramifications of g6tras which have branched
out from the parent stems, the line of descent is exhibited in the
pravara or pedigree, and a man and woman of the same gotra and
pravara never marry together. The connection of the gotra is entirely
in the male line, a woman on marriage being affiliated to the husband's
g6tra. The following are the strongest gotras in Mysore, or those con-
taining over 1,000 in each: —



Bharadvaja ..


• 25,950


Kaus'ika ...


• 9,893


Vadhula


2,788


Kasyapa


• 24,151


Kaundinya


• 9,074


S'andilya ...


2,495


Vis'vamitra ..


■ 11,771


Harita ... .


. 8,471


Maudgalva


2,252


Vas'ishtha .


■ 11,592


Gautama ...


• 5,897


Maunabhargava


1,920


S'rivatsa


. 10,480


Jamadagni...


• 3,294


Gargyayana


1,162


A'lreya


• 10,307


A'ngirasa ... .


■• 2,929


S'athamarshana


1,050



BRAHMANS



235



Altogether sixty-nine g6tras are represented here, the remamder, in
alphabetical order, being : — Achyuta, Agastya, Ambarisha, As'valayana,
Badarayana, Barhaspatya, Ch6pagayana, Devaraja, Dhananjaya, Galava,
Gauda Sarasvata, Ghritasams'a, Havikarma, Kalakaus'ika, Kamakayana,
Kanva, Kapi, Katyayana, Kosala, Kundali, Kutsa, L6hita, Maitreya,
Mandavya, Maunjyayana, Mitravasu, Mohana, Nistudhana, Paras'ara,
Parthiva, Paulastya, Paurakutsa, Piitamanasa, Rajendra, Rathi'tara,
Salankayana, Salavatsa, Sankalika, Sankarshana, Sankhyayana,
Sankriti, Santasa, S'aunaka, Svatantrakapi, Upamanyu, Vadhryas'va,
Vaikhanasa, Vais'ampayana, Vamana, Vishnuvardhana, Vyasa.

Kshatriyas, and others who are not Brahmans, may properly assume
the gotra of \k\€\x purohita, or family priest and domestic chaplain, who
is of course a Brahman. But certain classes who are ambitious of
being reckoned as Brahmans, have invented gotras for themselves of
apocryphal origin.

In addition to the gotra, there is the s'dkka, or particular branch or
school of the Veda which each Brahman professes to follow in the per-
formance of his sacrifices and rites. Classified on this basis 91,638 are
Rig-vedis, 77,972 Yajur-vedis, and 12,776 Sama-vedis. Therearenone
apparently who acknowledge adhesion to the Atharva veda. Some
classes that are not Brahmans boldly proclaim themselves followers of
a fifth veda. '

All the Brahmans here, moreover, belong to one of three main
sects : — Smarta, Madhva, and S'rivaishnava. The following is their
distribution, the totals being 129,550, 32,070, and 20,764 respectively : —



Sect.


Bangalore.


Kolar.


3

3
H


«5

3


t
X

11,842


n

E
15


Kadur.


2
2




Smarta


18,939


14,802


12,430



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