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seventeen centuries, the details of which we may now proceed to fill in.

Kadambas. — The dommions of the Kadambas embraced all the
west of Mysore, together with Haiga (N. Kanara) and Tulava (S.
Kanara). Their original capital was Banavasi (Jayantii)ura or
Vaijayantipura), situated on the river Varada on the western frontier of
the Sorab taluq. It is mentioned by Ptolemy. Also in the Mahawanso,
which names it as one of the places to which a i/iero was sent in the
time of Asoka.

The origin of the Kadambas is thus related. Some years after
Parasu Rama had recovered Haiga and Tulava from the sea, Siva and



296 jiJsroR V

Parvati came to the Sahyddri mountains, the Western Ghats, in order
to look at this new country ; and in consequence of their pastimes a
boy was born under a kadamba tree, whence the name of the dynasty.
According to another version, he was born from the drops of sweat
which flowed from Siva's forehead to the root of the kadamba tree in
consequence of his exertion in conrjuering the asura Tripura. A more
realistic account, given in an inscription, is that a kadamba tree grew
in front of the family residence, and that by cultivation of it they
acquired its name and qualities.' In any case they appear to have
been an indigenous race.

The people of the country, being at the time without a monarch, had
recourse to the State elephant, which, being turned loose carrying a
wreath, presented it to the youth whose birth was so miraculous, and he
was consequently proclaimed king. He is variously styled Jayanta,
Trilochana Kadamba, and Trinetra Kadamba. The royal line thus
founded, in about the second century, continued independent till the
sixth century, and during this period they claim to have performed
many as'vamedhas or horse sacrifices, indications of supreme authority.
Their family deity was Madhukes'vara of Banavasi.

After Trinetra the kings in regular succession ascribed to this line
were Madhukesvara, Mallinatha and Chandravarma. The last had two
sons, named Chandravarma or Chandavarma and Purandara, the elder
of whom was the father of Mayiiravarma. Of these early kings it is
not improbable that the first Chandravarma may be the Chandrahasa
whose romantic story has already been given above (p. 282). The
second Chandravarma, again, may be the prince of that name who was
the progenitor of the Kodaga or Coorg race. Of him it is related that he
rescued from a forest fire a serpent named Manjista, which, entering his
mouth, took up its abode in his stomach. He was forced to wander
about, with his wife Pushpavati, in search of a cure, which was eventually
effected at Valabhi by a woman- whom he was obliged in return to
marry, and desert his wife, then with child. The truth probably is that
his kingdom was usurped by some Naga chief, such as we know were

' The tree itself is said to have been produced by a drop of nectar which fell upon
the earth from the churning slick, the Mandara mountain, at the churning of the
ocean. The tall and handsome trees bearing this name are species of naiiclea, of the
natural order ciuchoniacem, and grow in many parts of India. A spirit is said to be
distilled from the flowers. {See Wilson's Vishtm Piirana, Bk. v, ch. xxv.) In
Watt's Dictionary the tree is described as an aiithocephalus, belonging to tlie
riihiacea:, and the flowers are said to be sacred to Siva. According to the Phaniia-
cographia Iiidica it is the arbor generation is of the Mahratta Kunbis, and a branch
of it is brought into the house at the time of their marriage ceremonies.
* She was the attendant at the chatrani in which he lodged, and advised him to



KADAMBAS 297

special enemies of the Kadambas.^ According to the Kaveri Purana,
Chandravarma was a son of Siddhartha, king of Matsya (Virata's
capital, Hangal in Dharwar, one of the Kadamba chief cities). He
left his country, it is said, and went on a pilgrimage to all the holy
bathing-places, until Parvati appeared and offered him a boon, in con-
sequence of which he received a kingdom at the source of the Kaveri,
and a Sudra wife, from whom he, as a Kshatriya, should beget a valiant
race called Ugras. P'or the eleven sons he had l)y her the hundred
daughters of the king of Vidarbha (Berar) by Sudra mothers were
obtained as wives. Each of these bore more than a hundred sons,
who, to provide accommodation for their growing numbers, levelled the
hill slopes and settled over a district five yojanas in extent at the sources
of the Kaveri river in Coorg.

Mayiiravarma seems to have restored the authority of the Kadambas,
and is sometimes represented as the founder of the line. He was
the son of whom Chandravarma's wife was delivered at Valabhi after
she had been deserted. The following is the legend of the manner in
which he acquired the throne : — One night some robbers got into the
house of a Brahman at Valabhi, and at the same time a peacock in the
yard screamed. They then overheard the Brahman laughing and
telling his wife the story of the peacock. He said that a Brahman of
Banavasi once performed various penances with the view of becoming
a king, but a voice from heaven informed him that he was destined to
be born again as a peacock, and whoever should eat the head of the
peacock would be king. On this he went to Benares to die, and was
re-born as the peacock now in the yard. Hearing this the robbers
made off with the peacock, but immediately fell disputing as to who
.should have the head. To decide the matter they resolved to ask the
woman staying in the chatram to cook the bird for them, and see to
whom she gave the head. But while she was getting the meal ready,
her little son suddenly snatched U]) the head and ate it. Being thus
clearly indicated as heir to the throne, the robbers conveyed him and
his mother to Banavasi, and had just arrived at the outskirts of the
town when they met the State elephant carrying a wreath, which it at

worshi]) llic gocldcss Kdlika and the efl'igy of a scrpcnl carved on a slone at the l)ack
of her temple. On liis doing so another serpent apj^eared out of an ant-hill, and
tried to persuade Manjista to come forth, ])ut without success. The woman, over-
hearing the dispute between the two, speedily possessed herself of certain plants they
had threatened to use against each other, — vishaiitardi and .wr/rt///*///, growing at
liie foot of an ant-hill, and ahiiidra hart, a creeper spreading over the as7ui////a tree.
Manjista was expelleil and died by virtue of the juice of the former, and the other
serpent was got rid of by that of the latter.
' Sec Ind. AitL, XIV, 13.



298 n/sroR Y

once ])rcsciitcd to the boy. Mis origin being revealed, he was forth-
with recognized as king of Banavasi, under the name of Mayuravarma,
from mayi/ra, i)eacock. He there obtained "the sword of sharpness,
the shoes of swiftness, and the garment of invisibility." He is said to
have rescued Sasiprabhe, the wife of Raja Vallabha, prince of Kalyana,
from a Yaksha named Kandarpa Bhilshana, living in Gomanta-guhe,
who had carried her off. He received in consequence a large accession of
territory, together with the Kalyana princess S'as'ankamudre in marriage.

He is also stated to have introduced Brahman colonists from
Ahichchatra (in Rohilkand), and distributed the country below the
Ghats into sixty-four portions, which he bestowed upon them. In the
reign of his son Kshetravarma, Chandrangada or Trinetra, these Ikah-
mans attempted to leave the province, but they were brought back ;
and in order to prevent a repetition of the attempt were compelled to
leave unshorn a lock of hair on the forehead as a distinguishing mark.
From these are descended the Haiga or Havika Erahmans of the north-
west of Mysore. They would appear on this occasion to have been
settled by Mukanna, that is, Trinetra, above the Ghats, at Sthana-
gundiir (Talgunda in Shikarpur talu([). During his reign, a kinsman
named Chandrasena ruled the south of Tulava, and the Brahmans were
spread into those parts. Lokaditya or Lokadipya, the son of Chandra-
sena, married Kanakavati, the sister of Trinetra, and had by her a
daughter, whom Hubasiga, the king of the mountain Chandalas, sought
as a wife for his son. In pretended compliance, he was invited to
Tripura and there treacherously murdered. The authority of the
Kadambas was extended in consequence above those Ghats, and the
Brahmans followed this accession of territory. Lokadipya is said to
have reigned fifty years.

These traditions no doubt include much that is entitled to credit.
But a fine stone inscription at Talgunda gives a different version, which
seems to refer to the same period, or to a time when the Pallavas were
supreme from west to east. In it we are informed that a Brahman
named Mayilras'arma of the Kadamba family, who are described as very
devout Brahmans, went with his guru Viras'arma to the Pallava capital
(Kanchi) to study, ^^'hile there a sharp quarrel arose between him and
the Pallavas, and he became so enraged that he resolved, although a
Brahman, to become a Kshatriya in order to revenge himself. Arming
himself and overcoming the Pallava guards at the frontier, he escaped
to the inaccessible forests at Sriparvata (in Karnul district, near
the junction of the Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers), and there attained
such power that he levied tribute from the great Bana and other sur-
rounding kings. The Pallavas thereupon led an army against him, but



KADAMBAS 299

he swooped down upon them Hke a hawk nnd completely defeated them.
They therefore resolved to make peace with him, and invested him with
a territory extending from the Amara ocean to the borders of the
Premara country.^ His son was Kangavarma, whose son was
Bhagiratha, sole ruler of the Kadamba territories. His son was
Raghuparthiva, whose brother was Kakustha or Kakusthavarma. The
latter was a powerful ruler, and his daughters were given in marriage to
the Gupta and other kings. His son was S'antivarma.

The two last names occur in other inscriptions, but the rest are new.
Several more early Kadamba inscriptions are available, but unfortunately
they are dated only in the year of the reign, or by the ancient system
of the seasons, and the succession of the kings cannot on this account
be definitely determined. One series gives us Krishnavarma ; his son
Yishnuvarma, by the daughter of Kaikeya ; his son Simhavarma ; and
his son Krishnavarma.- Another gives us Krishnavarma and his son
Devavarma.'' We have also Mandhatrivarma, whose grant was com-
posed by Damodara-datta,"' and there is a separate rock inscription by
Damodara.^ We havealso the series Kakustha or Kakusthavarma, his son
S'antivarma ; his son Mriges'avarma ; his three sons Ravivarma, Bhanu-
varma, and Sivaratha ; and the son of the first of these, Harivarma."

All these records, relating to at least sixteen generations, undoubtedly
belong to some time between the third and sixth centuries. One stone
inscri])tion in Prakrit, immediately following a grant by Satakarni, and
another in Sanskrit, are engraved in small Cave characters. The re-
mainder, all in Sanskrit, are engraved in bold characters called box-
headed, which in certain specimens present a very elegant appearance.
Many of the grants are to Jains, but a few are to Brahmans, one to an
Atharvani Brahman.

The historical facts deduced from them are that the Kadambas claim
to be lords of ^'aijayanti or Banavasi, though certain grants are issued
from Triparvata, from Palasika (Halsi in Belgaum district), and from
Uchchas'ringi. Like the Satakarni who preceded them at Banavasi,
they are stated to be of the Manavya gotra and sons of Hariti. Their
crest was a lion, and they bore the monkey flag. They seem to have
had enemies in a Naga race, represented later probably by the Sindas
of Erambarige (Yelburga in the Nizam's Dominions),' and Krishna-

' rerhaps the I'ranidra kingili)in of Malwa in Central India is meant. Anianirnava,
the other limit, is difllcult to determine, unless it means the Western Ocean.

- Grant at Halehid, Heliir taluq. =* Ind. Ant., VII, t,^.

■• Grant at Kudagere, Shikarpur taluq. * Iiid. Ant., XXI, 93. ^ il>., \l, 22ff.

' These deduce their genealogy from Sinda, king of the Sindhu country, who was
horn in Ahichchhatra, and married a Kadamha princess. Fleet, A'aii. Pyn., 97.
.Vd'6' also .£■/. Ind., Ill, 231.



300 JUSTOR Y

vaniKi, fiUhcr of Dcvavarnia, claims to be in possession of a heritage
not to l)e attained by the Nrigas. Hut their great rivals were the
Pallavas. We have seen evidence of this in the Talgunda inscription
above, and from an independent stone inscription of Krishnavarma it
appears that in one severe battle with the Pallavas his army was so
completely destroyed that he gave up his life to save his honour. The
sister of a Kadamba king, Krishnavarma, was (according to (langa
grants) married to the Ganga king Madhava II. Mriges'avarma claims
to have uprooted the lofty Ganga family and to be a fire of destruction
to the Pallavas. Ravivarma, again, slew Vishnuvarma, probably a
Palla\a, and uprooted Chandadanda, lord of Kanchi, and thence a
I'allava, thereby establishing himself at Palasika.

The Kadambas lost their independence on being conquered by the
Chalukyas under Kirtivarnia, whose reign began in 566. But they
continued to act as viceroys and governors under the Chalukya and
other dynasties, and the name does not disappear from history till the
rise of Vijayanagar in 1336. Among the later inscriptions, one at
Kargudari (Hangal taluq)\ dating in 1 108, gives the following traditional
list of the kings, each being the son of his predecessor. After seventy-
seven ancestors, of whom we know no more, there came Mayuravarma,
Krishna (add varma to each), Naga, Vishnu, Mriga, Satya, Vijaya,
Jaya, Naga, S'anti, Kirtti, A'ditya, Chattaya, Jaya. The last had
five sons, Taila and S'antivarma being the most important. The
latter's son was Taila, whose son was Tailama, whose sons were Kirtti
and Kama. But though this includes some of the genuine names, and
allowing for kings often having more than one name, the list as a
whole is of doubtful credit, except in the last stages. There is no
question, however, that the Kadambas became more prominent at the
end of the eleventh century, when their alliance seems to have been
sought by the Chalukya Vikrama in his plans against his brother, and
on his success they were advanced in honour. A separate branch had
its capital at Gopaka or (ioa, but all the Kadambas were absorbed
into the conquests of the founders of the Vijayanagar empire.

Mahavalis. — The Mahavali kings were of great antiquity, and,
according to their inscriptions, ruled over a seven and a half lakh
country, containing 12,000 villages, situated in the west of the Andhra
or Telugu country. They were in possession of the east of Mysore,
where several of their inscriptions are found, especially in Mulbagal
taluq, and their kingdom was evidently to the east and north of the
Palar river. They claim to be descended from Bali or Maha Bali, and
his son Bana, whence they are also styled the Bdna kings. According

' /;/(/. Ant., X, 249.



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MA£[|VVJALIS




MA HA VA LIS 301

to Hindu mythology Bali was an Asura emperor, who through his
devotion and penance defeated Indra, humbled the gods and extended
his authority over the three worlds. In order to restrain him, Vishnu,
who was appealed to by the gods for protection, assumed his fifth
incarnation, the form of the Brahman dwarf, the vdmana avatdra, and
appearing before Bali, asked for only three paces of ground as a boon,
which was granted. As the water conveying the gift fell into his hand,
the dwarfs form expanded till it filled the world ; and Vishnu, now
manifesting himself, deprived Bali in two strides of heaven and earth,
but on account of the virtues the latter possessed, left Pdtdla or the
infernal regions still in his dominion.

The ancient ruined city of Mahdbalipura or Mdmallapura, generally
known as the Seven Pagodas, situated on the east coast, thirty miles
south of Madras, was perhaps their original capital. According to
legend' it was founded by Bali. His son was Bdndsura, who is repre-
sented as a giant with a thousand hands ; Aniruddha, the son (or grand-
son) of Krishna, came to Bdna's court in disguise and seduced his
daughter ; which produced a war, in the course of which Aniruddha
was taken prisoner and brought to Mahdbalipur : upon which Krishna
came in person from his capital Dvdraka and laid siege to the place.
Siva guarded the gates and fought for Bdndsura, who worshipped him
with his thousand hands, but Krishna found means to overthrow .Siva,
and having taken the city, cut off Banasura's hands, e.xcept two, with
which he obliged him to do homage. He continued in subjection to
Krishna till his death, after which a long period ensued in which no
mention is anywhere made of this place. It seems to have been
subsequently destroyed by an inundation of the sea. The inscriptions
now found there appear to be all Pallava, of about the seventh century,
or Chola, of later date than that.-

The oldest Mahdvali inscrii)tion bearing a date is one professing to
be of 339 A.i)., found by mc at Mudiyanur (Mulbagal taluq).' But
from the one which contains the fullest genealogy of the line, jiublished
by the Rev. T. Foulkes,'* there were several generations before that.
As aids towards fixing the period of the kings we have the statements
that the early Kadamba outlaw of S'riparvata levied tribute from
the great Bdna; that the first Ganga king, assigned to the second
century, conquered the Bdna country ; that the Chalukya king
Vikramdditya I., ruling in the seventh century, subdued Rdjamalla
of the Mahdmalla family ; that the Chola king, \'ira Ndrdyana,

' See Captain Carr's Sez'cit Paij^odas, 13 ; Asiatic Kescarcfies, I, 156.

■' Hultzsch, So. Imi. Ins., I, ift'. ^ /,„f_ _./„/._^ x\", 172.

* lb., XIII, 6 ; Ep. Itid., Ill, 74.



30 2 IIISTOR Y

ui)rooted llic Banas about tlic end of the ninth century ; but that they
were replaced soon after by the Oangas in the person of Hastimalla.'
The genealogy as derived from inscriptions is as follows : —

Bali, Mahdbali ; his son
Bana, in whose hnc was Iwrn
Banadhiraja.

After he and many other Bana kings had passed away, there were : —

Xandivarma, Jayanandivarma,

Vijayaditya I.

Malladeva Nandivarma, Jagadekamalla, Vadhuvalla1:)ha.

Bana Vidyadhara.

Prabhumeru.

Vikramaditya I.

Vija)'aditya II.

Vikramaditya II, Vijayabahu.

Each of these eight kings was the son of his predecessor. The
Mudiyanur inscription is of the twenty-third year of No. 3.
Stone inscriptions exist in Mysore of Nos. 4 and 5. There are
also inscriptions of a Bejeyitta Banarasa, one dating in 899. He
may be identified with Vijayaditya II. Vikramaditya II. is said
to have been the friend of Krishna Raja, no doubt the Rashtra-
kuta king, ruling in about 940 to 956. Then an inscription dating in
971 presents to us Sambayya, who, though invested with all the
Mahavali titles, was ruling as a governor subordinate to the Pallavas.
The line must therefore have lost its independence in the latter half of
the tenth century. Extracts are given by Mr. Foulkes- from literature
indicating a recognition of the power of the Bana kings in the thirteenth
and fifteenth centuries. Moreover, at the end of this latter period, in-
scriptions at Srivilliputtur in Tinnivelly district show that two kings named
Sundara Tol and Muttarasa Tirumala, calling themselves ■Mahavali
Banadhiraja even obtained possession of the Pandya throne. Except
these and the Salem inscriptions, which are in Grantha and Tamil
characters, all the other inscriptions of this line are in the ancient
Kannada characters and in the Sanskrit and Kannada languages.
Some of their later inscriptions indicate Paduvipuri as their capital,
which may possibly be identified with Padavidu in North Arcot
district, south of Vellore, where there are extensive ruins, the ancient
city having been destroyed apparently by a volcanic eruption. Their
crest was the recumbent bull Nandi, and they had a black flag.

' See Iiid. Aiit., XIII, 6, 187. '•' Loc. cit.



PALLA FAS :yOs

Yaidumbas. — Inscriptions of these kings are met with in Chintaniani
taliuj. The Kah'nga Ganga king \'ajrahastu \'. married a Vaidumba
princess ; and the Chela king Parantaka subdued a Vaidumba king.

Pallavas. — The Pallavas were a powerful dynasty who succeeded to
the dominions of the Andhrabhritya or S'atavahana family throughout
the region in which the Telugu language prevails. They seem at first
to have had a chief city at Vatapi (Badami in Bijapur district), from
which they were expelled by the Chalukyas in the fifth century, and
also at Vengi, between the Krishna and the Godavari, which was taken
from them by the Chalukyas in the seventh century, liut from an early
part of their history their capital was Kanchi (Conjeveram, near
Madras^. Their grants are also issued from Palakkada and Dasana-
pura, the latter name being perhaps a translation of the former. This
place has not been identified, but may be the Palakka of the Samudra
Gupta inscription at Allahabad. Trichinopoly seems to be the southern-
most point in which Pallava inscriptions have been found. Stone inscrip-
tions in the Kolar, Chitaldroog, Tumkur and Bangalore Districts bear
evidence that the Pallavas in the ninth and tenth centuries exercised
dominion throughout the north and east of Mysore. Here they frequently
had the cognomen No!amba,and their territory came to be known as
Nolambavadi or Nonambavadi, a Thirty-two Thousand province, the
subjects of which are represented by the Nonabas of the present day.

The origin of the Pallavas is uncertain, though they profess in some
grants to be of the Bharadvaja gotra. They are mentioned in the Puranas
along with the Haihayas, S'akas, Yavanas, &c., as Pahlavas, which would
imply a Persian source. But Professor ^Veber says^ : — " As the name of
a people this word Pahlav became early foreign to the Persians, learned
reminiscences excepted : in the Pahlav texts themselves, for instance, it
does not occur. The period when it passed over to the Indians, there-
fore, would have to be fixed for about the second to the fourth century
A.I)., and we should have to understand by it, not directly the Persians,
who are called Parasikas rather, but specially Arsacidan Parthians.-'
Pallava may possibly be derived from Parthava (Parthian).

According to tradition, from Salivahana, that is S'atavdhana, who
ruled at Pratishthana (now Paithan, on the Godavari), were descended
Madhavavarma, Kulaketana, Nilakantha, and Mukunti Pallava. The
last appears as the founder of the Pallava line, and is said to have been

> JltsL Iiid. Lit., 1 88.

- The I'arthians revolted from the Seleucidiv al)out li.c. 150. uinler a cliief named
Arsakes (Askh), who founded an independent monarchy. The I'arthians sub-
sequently overran the provinces east of the Euphrates, and about H.c. 130 overthrew
the kinjjdom of Baclria, so that their empire extended from the Euphrates to the
Indus, and from the Indian Ocean to the Paropamisus, or even to the 0.\us. The



304



JIISTOR Y



a son of Mahadcva (Siva) by a girl of the mountain tribe called
Chcnsuars (( 'hensabara).' He is also stated to have introduced
Brahmans into his country in the third century.

Trilochana, Trinetra, or Trinayana Pallava, was ruling in the fourth
century when jayasimha, surnamed Vijayaditya, of the Cahlukya
family, invaded his territories. But the latter lost his life in the attempt,
and his (jueen, then pregnant, fled and took refuge with a Brahman
named \'ishnu Somayaji, in whose house she gave birth to a son named
Rajasimha. On attaining to man's estate the latter renewed the contest
with the Pallavas, in which he was finally successful, and eventually
married a princess of that race.'^

Resorting to inscriptions, one at Nasik says that Satakarni, son of
(iotami, destroyed the Pahlavas, with the Sakas and Yavanasf and one at
Junagadh that a Pallava named Suvis'akha, son of Kulaipa, was minister
to the Kshatrapa Rudradaman.^ But in the east we obtain the names
of several series of Pallava kings, whose period seems sufficiently
certain, although their exact dates are for the most part not known,
nor in several cases their relationship and order : —



Chandavarma, ? Chandadanda 300

Nandivarma

Skandavarma to

Buddhavarma

S'ivaskandavarma 400

Skandavarma 4°°

Viravarma

Skantlavarma to

Simhavarma

Vishnugopavarma S°°

Simhavishnu

Ugradanda, Lokaditya



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