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Ganga dominion to the south and ^st, for he is said to have waged
sanguinary wars for the possession of Andari, A'lattur (perhaps the one
in Coimbatore district), Porulare, Pennagara (in Salem district), and
other places, and is described as ruler over the whole of Pannad and
Punnad, as if he had annexed them. He is also said to have wrested
Kaduvetti (Karveti-nagara, North Arcot district) from Jayasimha, the
king of Kanchi, and made the son of his own daughter the governor.
Two grants of his reign have been found, one of the third year^ and
the other of the thirty-fifth,'* both recording gifts to Brahmans.

His son was Mushkara or Mokkara, who married the daughter of the
Sindhu Raja. His son was S'rivikrama, who had two sons, Bhiivik-
rama and S'ivamara. Bhiivikrama, in a great battle at Vilanda, de-
feated the Pallava king Narasimhapotavarma II., trodden to death in
the charge of elephants, and subdued the whole of the Pallava
dominions, acquiring the title of S'rivallabha. According to the old
chronicle he and his brother made their residence at Mukunda,
apparently the present Mankunda, near Channapatna. The younger
brother, S'ivamara or Nava Kama, had under his guardianship the two
grandsons of the Pallava king, no doubt the one above mentioned.
Their father, therefore, may have been taken prisoner and died in
captivity. In a grant made in his thirty-fourth year,"* this king signs
himself s'ishta-priyak, beloved of the good.

rsiost of the (ianga grants omit mention of his son and pass on to
his grandson. From the only grant that gives an account of him,' the
reason appears to be that the son was engaged in distant expeditions in
which he was unfortunate and lost his life, or there may have been a
split in the family. He is called Prithuvipati and Prithuyas'as, but
these can hardly be his names. He gave protection to certain chiefs,
one of whom was a refugee from Amoghavarsha. He cut a piece of
bone out of his body from a wound received in the battle of Vaim-
balguli and sent it to the waters of the Ganges. He defeated the

' Col. Yule's Map of Ancient India (Dr. 'smi\.\\?,.4f/as 0/ .liicuiit Gcvj;.). I'adiyur
in Coimbatore district produced beryl (see Ind. Ant., V, 237).
- Itid. Ant., VII, 174. 3 ib. V, 138.

* Ep. Cam., Mysore I, Mil. 113. * Salem Manual, II, 369.



314 Iff STORY

IMiidya kinj^^ \'aragun;v in a battle at S'ri Purarnbiyam, (jr 'I'iru I'uram-
biyam (near Kumbhakonam), but lost his life in saving a friend. He
a{)pearsto have had a son Marasimha, of whom we hear no more.

S'ripurusha, whose name was Muttarasa, was the grandson (or
perhaps great grandson) of Sivamara, and had a long and prosperous
reign. His kingdom was called the S'ri-rajya. Numerous grants of his
time have been found, both on stone slabs and on copper plates, rang-
ing from the first to the fiftieth year of his reign.i He seems at some
time to have made Miinyapura (Manne in Nelamangalataluq) the royal
residence. He is stated to have again conquered Kaduvetti, which had
been recovered by the Pallavas, at the same time capturing the Pallava
umbrella and assuming the title of Permanadi, which he took away
from the king of Kanchi. This title is used of all subsequent Ganga
kings, sometimes alone, without any distinguishing name. He also rein-
stated the Bana kingdom by placing Hastimalla on the throne. He is
said, moreover, to have written a work on elephants called Gajas'astra.
His sons Sivamara and Duggamara appear as governors under him, also
one named Lokaditya, apparently the youngest.

He was succeeded by his son S'ivamara, surnamed Saigotta, and the
latter had a son, Marasimha, who made a grant in 797 as yuva-raja,
but is not again heard of. S'ivamara is said to have been the author of
Gajashtaka, a treatise on elephants, in which he improved upon his
father's system. Serious reverses befell the Ganga kingdom in this
reign. The Rashtrakutas had gained a great accession of po\ver, and
Nirupama or Dharavarsha is said to have defeated and imprisoned the
impetuous Ganga, who had never been conquered before. The next
king, Govinda or Prabhiitavarsha, on coming to the throne in about
784, released Ganga from his long and painful captivity, but had to
confine him again on account of his hostility.- As he is represented as
having defeated the combined royal army, commanded by Rashtrakuta,
Chalukya and Haihaya chiefs, at Murugundur (perhaps Mudugundur in
Mandya taluq), this attack may have led to his being again seized.
During the interregnum the Rashtrakutas appointed their own viceroys
to govern the Ganga territories. In 802 Dharavarsha's son Kambha or
Ranavaloka was the viceroy, and there are three inscriptions of his time.''
In 813 we find Chaki Raja in that office."* Eventually S'ivamara either
made his peace with Govinda or, as seems more likely, the latter was in
need of allies, for that monarch, assisted by the Pallava king Nandi-
varma, replaced him on the throne, the two binding the diadem on his
brow with their own hands. A long war now took place between the

> Mys. Ins. and Ep. Cam. - I mi. Ant., ^"I, 69 ; XI, 161.

* Ins. at Sr. Be/., No. 24 : the others unpublished. ■* Ind. Ant., XII, 18.







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GANG AS 315

Eastern Chalukyas and the allied Gangas and Rattas, in which 108
battles were fought in twelve years. S'ivamara's successor on the
throne was apparently his brother Vijayaditya.

With the accession of Rdchamalla Satyavakya the Gangas seem to
have taken a fresh start in power, and these names form titles of all the
subsequent kings. He is said to have recovered from the Rashtrakiitas
the whole of the territory which they had seized and held too long.
His yuva-raja in 870 was Butarasa, and he had a son Rana Vikramayya,
who may be the same. But the son that was his successor is called
Nitimarga, who had a prosperous reign, and there are numerous in-
scriptions of his time. His sister was married to Nolambadhiraja,
who was ruling under him. His son Ereyappa was apparently asso-
ciated with him in the government towards the close of his life. An
interesting sculptured bas-relief of his death-bed scene has been dis-
covered."^ Ereyappa is called Mahendrantaka, or death to Mahendra,
the Nolamba king.

Wixh Butuga considerable changes occurred in the Ganga dominions.
Ereyappa's eldest son Rachamalla was the proper heir to the throne.
But Butuga, another son, perhaps by a different mother, resolved to
possess himself of the crown, and defeated and slew Rachamalla. The
Rashtrakuta king Baddega or Amoghavarsha gave him his daughter in
marriage, and he appears to have secured the kingdom for his brother-in-
law Krishna or Kannara, though on Baddega's death it had been seized
by Lalliya. Kannara was soon after engaged in a war with the ("hola
king Rajaditya, when Butuga by some treachery killed the latter at a
place called Takkola, following it up by laying siege to the Chola
capital Tanjapuri (Tanjore) and burning Nalkote. For this important
service Kannara made over to him the Banavase Twelve Thousand
(Shimoga and North Kanara districts), in addition to his wife's
dowry, the Belvola Three Hundred, the Purigere Three Hundred,
the Kisukad Seventy, and the Baginad Seventy (all in Dharwar
and neighbouring districts).'- Butuga also subdued the Seven Malavas,
and putting up boundary stones, gave the country the name of
(ianga Malava. His elder sister Pambabbe, widow of Dorapayya,
died in 971, after leading an ascetic life for thirty years. His son
Marula Deva is said to have married a daughter of Kannara. But his
successor on the throne was his son Marasimha, called Nolambakulan-
taka, from his having slain all the Nolambas. By direction of Kannara
he made an expedition against Gurjjara or Gujarat, and is said to have
been a terror to the Chalukya prince Rajaditya. From several in-

' Ep. Cant., Mysore I, TX. 91. * Ibid. Ill, Iml. 41 : Ep. liui.. Ill, 175.



3i6 HISTORY

scriptions towards the end of this reign it appears that the ( langas had
then become feudatories of the Rashtrakutas.

But the latter were now finally overcome by the Chalukyas, and
Marasimha's son Rachamalla, who succeeded, was independent. This
king's minister and general was Chamunda Raya, who caused the
colossal image of Gomata to be erected at S'ravana Belgola. The
king's younger brother Rakkasa was a governor in Coorg, and finally
succeeded to the throne. With Ganga Raja we come to the end of the
independent Ganga rule. The Cholas, advancing in overwhelming
force, invaded the Ganga territories, under the command of Rajendra
Chola, son of the reigning king Rajaraja, and in about 1004
captured Talakad and overran all the south and east of Mysore. The
(iangas, driven from their kingdom, took refuge with the Chalukyas
and with the Hoysalas, who were destined to succeed to their dominion
in Mysore, attaining to positions of the highest honour under both.

But the principal revival of their power as independent rulers was in
Orissa, or rather in Ganjam and Vizagapatam districts, in alliance with
the Cholas. ^^'e have already had occasion to mention the Kalinga
Gangas. Several of their earlier inscriptions have been found,^ mostly
issued from Kalinga-nagara (Ganjam district), and dated in the years of
the Ganga family {Gdfigeya-vafus'a-sa?>ivatsnra), an era not yet deter-
mined. The kings profess to be worshippers of the god Gokarna-svami
on the Mahendra mountain (in Ganjam district), and rulers over the
whole of Kalinga. Arranging the grants conjecturally, guided by the
years and relationships given, we obtain the following list : —

Anantavarma

Devendravarma 254

Rajendravarma

Anantavarma 304

Vajrahasta

On the other hand a very full and circumstantial genealogy of
Kalinga Gangas is given in a later grant'- of 11 18, in which quite
different names appear (except Vajrahasta), but of course it is possible
they may be the same kings under other titles. The line is here traced
from the god Vishnu through Yayati and Turvasu, who is said to have
obtained from the Ganga the son Gangeya who was the progenitor of
the Ganga kings {see above, p. 309). A list of sixteen kings follows,
whose names seem purely mythical, down to Kolahala, who is said to

' Lid. Ant., XIII, XIV, XVIII ; Ej>. Ltd., Ill, 17, 220. The grant of Devendra, son
of Rajendra, is in my possession, not yet published. The year 128 has been supposed
to be about 658 a.d. ; 254 about 774 (/. A., XIII, 274). - Lid. Ant., XVIII, 165.



Anantavarma








Devendravarma






51


Satyavarma






51


Indravarma


91.


1 28,


146


Rajendravarma








Devendravarma









GANG AS 317

have built the cily of Kolahala (Kolar) in the great Gangavacji country.
After his son Virochana and eighty more kings, not named and pro-
bably imaginary, had held Kolahala, there arose in that line \"irasimha,
who had five sons, Kamarnava, Danarnava, Ciunarnava, Marasimha, and
Vajrahasta. The first of these, giving the kingdom to his maternal
uncle, set out with his brothers to conquer the earth, and coming to the
Mahendra mountain, worshipped Gokarnasvami, and obtained the crest
of a bull and the symbols of sovereignty. He and his brothers subdued
Baladitya, who had grown sick of war, and took possession of the
(three) Kalingas. Giving Ambavadi to the third brother, S6da or Seda
to the fourth, and Kantaka to the fifth, Kamarnava, with his capital at
Jantavura, ruled over the Kalingas, nominating his brother Danarnava
as his successor. After these two, fifteen kings ruled, ending with
Vajrahasta V, who married Vinaya-mahadevi of the Vaidumba family.
His son was Rajaraja, who is said to have defeated the Dramilas,
wedded Rajasundari, daughter of the Chola king Rajendra Chola, and
saved the aged Vijayaditya from falling into the power of the Cholas, by
upholding his authority in the west. Rajaraja's son Anantavarma or
Chola-Ganga was anointed king of Trikalinga in 1078, and re-instated
the fallen lord of Utkala (Orissa) in the east, and the sinking lord of
Vengi in the west. Grants of his have been found dating in 1081,
1 1 18, and 1 135.'

The total of the years assigned to the reigns of these kings comes to
about 350, which, deducted from 1078, the date of Chola-Ganga's
accession, brings us to 728, and this is near about the period estimated
for the later of the early kings previously mentioned. It is also the
period in the annals of the Mysore Gangas where we find a break in
the list, filled up by an alleged Prithuvipati, a word merely meaning
king, who had a son Marasimha, of whom nothing more is heard.
Putting these coincidences together, we are tempted to suppose that
Kamarnava, with his brother Marasimha and the others, who gave up
their kingdom in Mysore to a relative and went forth from Kolar to
found another in Kalinga, where a branch of the family had already
been ruling for centuries, may possibly have been sons of the missing
king who died in battle.

Two inscriptions in Chiknayakanhalli taUui i"^'*""-''" to Chola-Ganga as
the Odu-rayindra, or great king of Orissa, and state that he was born in
the Hejjaji Twelve of the Kadanur Seventy (both in ])od Ballapur
talu(i). The Ganga kings of Orissa or Kalinga, also called Gajapatis or
elephant lords, beginning with Chola-Ganga, held the sovereignty of
that country down to 1534, soon after which it fell a prey to the Muham-
madans. Of these kings Ananga Bhima Deva (i 175-1202) was a great

' Loc. cii.



3i8 ///STORY

ruler, and made a survey of his whole kingdom, measuring it with reeds.
He also built the present temple of Jaganndth. Another king of
interest was Purushottama Deva (1479-1504). He sought in marriage
the daughter of the king of Kanchi, famed for her beauty. But on the
ground of his performing the ofifice of sweeper to Jagannath his suit
was rejected. He therefore attacked Kanchi, and was at first repulsed.
At length he captured it, and took the princess prisoner, whom he
vowed in revenge should be married to a sweeper. The minister
charged with the execution of this order kept the girl in concealment
until the festival of Jagannath, at which the king was accustomed to
sweep the ground before the god ; and while he was engaged in that
act placed her beside him, and they were married. The reign of
Pratapa Rudra (1504-153 2) is remarkable for the reformation of the
Vaishnava religion by the preaching of Chaitanya, w^hose views the
king finally adopted; and Buddhism, to which he had previously
inclined, was banished the country. Pratapa Rudra is said to have
extended his conquests southwards as far as Cape Comorin, and his
name occurs in many local traditions in the east of Mysore. We also
find that his son Virabhadra was invested with the government of Male
Bennur (Davangere taluq) by Krishna Raya of Vijayanagar.

Certain other references to kings of the same connection may here
be pointed out. The existence of constant intercourse between
Kalinga and Ceylon from the earliest times is well known, and we find
a Chola-Ganga from Kalinga ruling in Ceylon in 1196.^ There
was also a line of Chola-Gangas in the east of Mysore in the thirteenth
century. But it is not a little singular that we find a Karnataka dynasty
set up in distant Nepal, apparently in 1097, which may have been of
Ganga origin. The founder, Nanya Deva (perhaps Nanniya Deva),
came from the south. He was succeeded by Ganga Deva and four
others, the last of whom removed the capital to Katmandu, where the
line came to an end.~

Not yet, however, have we done with the Gangas, for at about the
time that their Orissa sovereignty came to an end, or the first part of the
sixteenth century, a Ganga Raja returned to the scene of their former
dominion, and established a principality at S'ivasamudram, the island
at the Falls of the Kaveri, not far from Talakad. Ganga Raja, after a
prosperous reign, was succeeded by his son Nandi Raja, who, to atone
for some ceremonial offence, leaped into the cataract at Gagana Chukki
on horseback with his wife. His son, Ganga Raja II, enlarged the
city greatly, and lived with much splendour. His two daughters were
married, one to the chief of Kilimale, near Satyagala, the other to the
chief of Nagarakere, near Maddur. These marriages were very

' Rhys Davids, Nitinisiiiata Orienialia. * Sec Ins. front N'epal, Ijy Dr. G. Biihler.



CHALUKYAS 319

unhappy, for the pride of the ladies gave their husbands constant dis-
gust, and they were continually upbraided for not living in equal
splendour with their father-in-law. They therefore united to attack
Sivasamudra and humble (ianga Raja. The siege had lasted twelve
years without their having been able to penetrate to the island, when they
found means to corrupt the Dalavayi, or minister, of Ganga Raja. This
traitor removed the guards from the only ford, and thus permitted the
enemy to surprise the place, while he endeavoured to engage his
master's attention at a game of chess. The shouts of the soldiery at
length reaching their ears, the prince started up from the game. The
Dalavayi, who wished him to fall alive into the hands of his sons-in-law,
endeavoured to persuade him that the noise arose merely from children
at play, but the Raja, having drawn his sword, first killed all his women
and children, and then, rushing into the midst of his enemies, fought
until he procured an honourable death. The sons-in-law, on seeing
this, were struck with horror, and immediately threw themselves into
the cataract at (xagana Chukki ; and their example was followed by their
wives, whose arrogance had been the cause of such disasters.

Jagadeva Rayal of Channapatna, and S'riranga Raja of Talakad, the
two most powerful of the neighbouring Palegars, then came and
removed all the people and wealth of the place.

Chalukyas. — This powerful line of kings was in the ascendant
throughout the north-west of Mysore, and the Bombay and Haidarabad
districts beyond, from the fifth to the eighth century, and from the
latter part of the tenth to that of the twelfth. Their first appearance
south of the Nerbudda was in the fourth century, previous to which
they are said to have had fifty-nine predecessors on the throne of
Ayodhya, but of these nothing is known. On their entering the
Dekhan they overcame the Rashtrakutas, but the Pallavas effectually
opposed them and the invader was slain, as previously related. His
successor, however, defeated the Pallavas and then formed an alliance
with them, confirmed by his marriage with a Pallava princess. In the
sixth century, Pulikes'i, whose chief city was apparently Indukanta
(supposed to be Ajanta or some neighbouring place), wrested Vatapi
(the modern Badami in Bijapur district) from the Pallavas and made it
his capital. His son Ki'rtivarma subdued the Mauryas (descendants of
the ancient Mauryas of Pataliputra), ruling in the Konkan, and the
Kadambas of Banavasi. Another son, Mangales'a, conquered the
Kalachuryas. The A'lupas or A'luvas, who ruled in Tulava or South
Kanara, were also at some time overcome,^ and the next king, Pulikes'i
H, came into contact with the Gangas, possibly in the time of Mush-

^ There are inscriptions of theirs at Kig in the Western IJhats in Koppa taluq,
and at Mansjalore.



320 mSTOR Y

kara, as there appears to Iiave been a Jain temple erected in his name
at Puligere (Lakshmes'vara in ] )har\var district). In about 617 the
Chalukyas separated into two branches, of which the Eastern Chalukyas
made Vengi (near El lore in the Oodavari district), taken from the
Pallavas,and subsequently Rajamahendri, their capital, while the Western
Chalukyas, with whom Mysore is chiefly concerned, continued to rule
from Vatapi and eventually from Kalyana (in the Nizam's Dominions,
about 100 miles west by north of Haidarabad).

The Chalukyas were of the Soma-vams'a or lunar line, and the
Manavya-gotra. They claim to be sons of Hariii, nourished by the
seven mothers. The boar was the principal emblem on their signet,
obtained from Bhagavan Narayana (Vishnu), but their insignia included
a peacock fan, an ankus'a or elephant goad, a golden sceptre, and
other symbols. The ^Vestern Chalukyas are styled the Satyds raya
kula, from the name of the first king of this branch. The titles on
their inscriptions, which are very numerous in Mysore, especially in
the north-west, are nearly invariably as follows — Saftiastabhuvands'raya,
Sri-prithvi-vallabha, Mahdrdjddhirdja, Parames'vara, Parama-bhattd-
raka, Satyds ray a-kula-tilakci, Chdlukydbharana.

Although the above details are very circumstantial, the account of
the origin of the Chalukyas is evidendy puranic,i and the real source
from which they sprang is far from clear. The name Chalukya bears a
suggestive resemblance to the Greek name Seleukeia, and if the Pallavas
were really of Parthian connection, as their name would imply, we
have a plausible explanation of the inveterate hatred which inscriptions
admit to have existed between the two, and their prolonged struggles
may have been but a sequel of the contests between Seleucidffi and
Arsacidte on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates.

The succession of the Early and Western Chalukya kings, during the
period of their first ascendancy, is as follows- : —

Chandraditya, 655

Mkramaditya I, Ranarasika 655-680
Vinayaditya, Rajas' raya 6S0-696



fayasimha, ? A'ijayaditya

Rajasimha, Ranaraga, ? Mshnuvaidhana

Pulikes'i I, Satyas'raya, Ranavikrama 550

Kirtivarma I, Ranaparakrama 566-597

Mangales'a, Ranavikranta 597-60S

Pulikes'i II, Satyas'raya 609-642

\'dityavarma



Mjayaditya, Samastabhuvanas'raya

696-733
^'ikramaditya II 733-746

Kirtivarma II, Xripasimha 746-757



Jayasimha is said to have defeated and destroyed Indra, the son of
Ivrishna, the Rashtrakilta or Ratta king. He himself, however, was

> They are stated to have nuraculously sprung from the moisture or water in the
lollowed pahn {chuliika, chitlaka) of Hariti's hand. According to another account
Vom the libation to the gods poured from his goblet {chitlka, chuluka, chaluka), by
■ lariti. These stories seem evidently invented from the name.

- Cf.Ep. Iiid., Ill, 2.



CHALUKYAS 321

slain in an encounter with Trilochana Pallava. His queen, then
pregnant, fled and took refuge with a Brahman called Vishnu Somayaji,
in whose house she gave birth to Rajasimha. On growing up to man's
estate he renewed the contest with the Pallavas, in which he was
successful, and married a princess of that race. Pulikes'i was the
most powerful of the early kings and performed the horse sacrifice.
His eldest son, Kirtivarma I, subdued the Nalas, of whom we know
MO more, the Mauryas ajid the Kadambas. Mangales'a, his younger
brother conquered the island called Revati-dvipa, and the Matangas :
also the Kalachurya king Buddha, son of Sankaragana, the spoils
taken from whom he gave to the temple of Makutes'vara, near
Badami. He attempted to establish his own son in the succession,
but Satyas'raya or I'ulikes'i H, the elder son of Kirtivarma, obtained
the throne.

Pulikes'i's younger brother ^"ishnuvardhana, surnamed Kubja, on the
capture of Ax'ngi from the Pallavas, there founded the sei)arate line of
Eastern Chalukyas, who remained in i)ower in the V'engi and Raja-
mahendri country till the eleventh century, when they were absorbed
into the Chola family.^

Satyas'raya or Pulikes'i H. the first of the Western Chalukya line,
was a great concjueror and subdued all the neighbouring nations. His
most notable victory was over Harshavardhana or S'iladitya, king of
Kanyakubja or Kanoj, the most powerful monarch in northern India.
By this conquest he obtained the title of Parames'vara or supreme lord,

' For convenience of further reference the list of Eastern Chalukyas is here inserted,
as given by Dr. Fleet {In({. An/., XX, 283), who has gone very fully into details in
the preceding articles : —



Kuhja \'ishnuvardhana I

615-633
Jayasimha -663

Indra Bhattaraka (seven

days) 663

Vishnuvardhana II -672
Mangi \'uvaraja -696
Jayasinilia II -7^9

Kokkili (six months) 709
N'ishnuvardhana III -746
\'ijaya(Utya Hhallaraka

-764
Vishnuvardhana I\' -799
\'ijayaditya II, Nar-

endramrigaraja -843
Kali \'ishnuvardhana \'
-S44



Gunaka \'ijayaditya III
-888
Chalukya Bhima I -918
Kollahhiganda \'i-

jayaditya I\' (six

months) m. Me-

1am ha
Anima I, \'ishnu-

vardhanaX'I, I\.;ija

Mahendra
Beta Vijayaditya \'

(fifteen days)
Tadapa (one month) 925
Vikramaditya II

(eleven months) - 926

Bhima II (eight months)

-927



918

925
925



Yuddhamalla -934

Chalukya Bhima III,



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