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Mysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) online

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^'ishnuvardhalla \ II,
(junda Mahendra,
m. Lokamahiidevi -945
Amma II, \'ijaya-
ditya \'I, Raja
?klahendra -97°

Danarnava -973

(Interregnum of thirty

years. )

Saktivarma 1003-1015

\'imaladilya, m. Kun-

dava-mahadevi of

theChola family -1022

322 J /I STORY

ever after borne by tlic Chalukyas. The C'liinese pilgrim Iliuen
Tsiang has given interesting aeeounts of l)Olh Harshavardhana and
Pulikes'i, and of their times. Of l-*ulikcs'i's kingdom he says : —
"The disposition of the people is honest and simple; they are tall
of stature, and of a stern vindictive character. To their bene-
factors they are grateful, to their enemies relentless. If they are
insulted they will risk their life to avenge themselves. If they are
asked to help one in distress they will forget themselves in their
haste to render assistance. If they are going to seek revenge they
first give their enemy warning ; then, each being armed, they attack
each other with spears. When one turns to flee the other pursues
him, but they do not kill a man who is down (or submits). If a
general loses a battle they do not inflict punishment but present him
with woman's clothes, and so he is driven to seek death for himself.
The country provides for a band of champions to the number of several
hundreds. Each time they are about to engage in conflict they
intoxicate themselves with wine, and then one man with lance in hand
will meet ten thousand and challenge them in fight. If one of these
champions meets a man and kills him, the laws of the country do not
punish him. Every time they go forth they beat drums before them.
Moreover they inebriate many hundred heads of elephants, and taking
them out to fight, they themselves first drink their wine, and then, rushing
forward in mass, they trample everything down, so that no enemy can
stand before them. The king, in consequence of his possessing these
men and elephants, treats his neighbours with contempt. He is of the
Kshattriya caste and his name is Pulakes'i (Pu-lo-ki-she). His plans
and undertakings are widespread, and his beneficent actions are felt
over a great distance. His subjects obey him with perfect submission.
At the present time S'iladitya Maharaja has conquered the nations
from east to west and carried his arms to remote districts, but the
people of this country alone have not submitted to him. He has
gathered troops from the five Indies, and summoned the best leaders
from all countries, and himself gone at the head of his army to punish
and subdue this people, but he has not yet conquered their troops. So
much for their habits. The men are fond of learning'." ....

The city he calls Konkanapura, which he visited, may probably be
Kopana (now Kopal) in the extreme south-west of the Nizam's
dominions, or Kokanur close to it. Of its people he says : — "They
love learning, and esteem virtue and talent." Arab annals, moreover,
as pointed out by Dr. Fergusson," state that Pulikes'i exchanged
presents and letters with Khosru II of Persia, and the Persian

' Beal's Si-yit-ki, II, 256. 2 j j^ j_ s., XI, 155.


embassy is supposed to be represented in one of the paintings in the
Ajanta caves. The exact date of the end of his reign is not known,
and the history is not very clear until the accession of Vikramaditya.
Before him there were his brothers A'dityavarma and Chandraditya.
One inscription of the former is known, ^ but the latter is represented
only by grants made by his queen, Vijaya-mahadevi or Vijaya-bhatta-
rika.- She may therefore have been a widow at the time and regent
for a son who did not survive. I have also found a grant in
Goribidnur taluq by Ambera, a son or daughter of Satyas'raya/' It
seems certain that after the death of Pulikes'i II. the Pallavas attacked
and inflicted severe losses on the Chalukyas, driving them out of some
of their recently acquired possessions in the south.

Vikramaditya restored the power of the Chalukyas. Riding to
battle on his splendid charger Chitrakantha, he was victorious over
Pandya, Ch61a, Kerala, and Kalabhra (perhaps the Kalabhurvas or
Kalachuryas), all of whom may have aided the Pallavas in their late
hostilities. But his greatest achievement was the capture of Kanchi
and forcing the Pallava king, " who had never bowed to any other
man,"' to kiss his feet with his crown. \'inayaditya, his son, captured
and destroyed the army of Trairajya Pallava, the king of Kanchi, was
served by the Pallava, Kalabhra, Kerala, Haihaya, Vila, Malava, Chola
and Pandya kings, as well as by the A'luvas and Gangas ; and levying
tribute from the rulers of Kavera, Parasika, Simhala (Ceylon) and other
islands, churned the king of all the north and seized the Pali dhvaja."*
His son Vijayaditya completed the conquests of the two preceding
reigns, both in the south and the north, and in addition to the Pali
dhvaja gained the Ganga and "V'amuna dhvajas, which had been
possessions of the Guptas. His son Vikramaditya II gained an
important victory in the Tundaka province (Tonda-mandala) over the
I'allava king Nandipotavarma, whom he put to flight and, capturing all
the royal insignia, made a triumphal entry into Kanchi, which he
refrained from plundering, but presented gifts of gold to the Raja-
simhes'vara and other temples. He then, after withering up Pandya,
Chola, Kerala, Kalabhra and other kings, set up a pillar of victory on
the shore of the southern ocean. His queen, Lokamahadevi, of the
Haihaya family, caused a temple at Pattadkal to be erected in com-
memoration of his having three times defeated the Pallavas. His son
Kirtivarma II, while yet yuvaraja under his father, obtained permis-
sion to make another expedition against the Pallava king, whom he

> hid. Ant., XI, 66. ^ //'. VII. 163 : Mil, 273. ^ to. VIII, 89 ; IX, 304.

■* An arrangement of flags which seems m lui\r I'een a recognized Jaina symhul of
supreme sovereignty [see Iiid. Ant., XI\', 1041.

\ 2


drove to take refuge in a liill fort, and dispersing his army, plundered
his treasures.

While the Western Chalukyas had thus been engaged at a distance,
in the direction of Kanchi, in destroying the power of the Pallavas,
their other old enemies, the Rashtrakiitas, nearer home, had been
watching for the opportunity to free themselves. In this they were
successful, under the kings Dantidurga and Krishna. The Western
Chalukyas for about two centuries from this time disappear from view.
Kings of their line named Kirtivarma, Tailapa, Bhi'ma and Ayyana, who
is said to have married a daughter of the Rashtrakiita king Krishna, are
named as rulin;^ in succession, but the accounts are doubtful.

Rashtrakutas. — Meanwhile our attention must be directed to the
power which superseded them and which played an important part in
Mysore during their eclipse, as testified by inscriptions throughout the
northern and midland parts. ^ This was the Rashtrakutas or Rattas,
connected perhaps with the Rajput Rathors, and supposed to be
represented by the modern Reddis. They may have existed in the
Dekhan from very early times. Their territory at the period of which
we are writing is often referred to as Rattavadi, and their capital, at
first Mayurakhandi (Morkhand in Nasik district) was, early in the ninth
century, at Manyakheta (Malkhed in the Nizam's Dominions, about
ninety miles west by south of Haidarabad). The earliest decided
mention of them describes Indra, the son of Krishna, as overcome by
the early Chalukya king, Jayasimha, and coins supposed to belong to
this Krishna have been found on the Bombay side. Then we have a
Govinda repulsed by Pulikes'i I. But the connected list of kmgs is as
follows'" : — •

Dantivarma I j Krishna II, Kannara,

Indra I Akalavarsha, S'ubhatunga 8S4-913

Govinda I | Jagattunga, Prabhutavarsha,

Karka or Kakka I 1 Pratapavaloka

Indra II Indra III, Nityavarsha,

Dantidurga, Dantivarma I, m. Vijamba 9 1 5-9 1 7

Khadgavaloka 754 Govinda V, Prabhutavarsha,

Krishna I, Kannara, Akalavarsha, Suvarnavarsha 91S-9.33

S'ubhatunga Baddiga, Amoghavarsha,

Dhruva, Nirupama, Dharavarsha m. Kundakadevi

(jQvinda III, Prabhutavarsha, Krishna III, Kannara,

Jagattunga, Atis'aya-dhavala, Akalavarsha 939-968

m. Gamundabbe 7S2-814 , Khottiga, Nityavarsha 96S-971

Sarva, Nripatunga, Amoghavarsha j Kakka II, Kakkala

815-877 I Amoghavarsha, Nripatunga 972-973

' Their inscriptions are often on cruciform stones, very artistic in appearance, and
quite different from any others. The upper arm is deeply bevelled, and a larr'e
plough engraved from one end to the other of the cross tree. - cf. Ep. Ind., Ill, 54,


These kings very commonly had the title \'allabha, taken from the
Chalukyas. In its Prakrit form of Ballaha, which is often used alone
in their inscriptions in ^lysore, without any name, it furnishes the key
by which to identify the powerful dynasty called Balhards by Arab
travellers of the tenth century, and described by them as ruling from
Mankir (Manyakheta).

Indra II is said to have married a Chalukya princess, but Danti-
durga, who died without issue, and Krishna I, his maternal uncle, who
therefore came to the throne after him, were successful in overcoming
the Chalukyas and establishing the supremacy of the Rashtrakiitas.
The beautiful Kailasa temple of Elura was probably erected by
Krishna. Dhruva, Dhora, Dharavarsha or Nirupama, though the
younger son, superseded his brother Govinda and was a brave and
warlike prince. He humbled the Pallava king of Kanchi and took
from him a tribute of elephants. He also defeated and imprisoned
the impetuous Ganga, who had never been conquered before. In the
north he drove the king of the ^'atsas into the desert of Marvad.
Govinda or Prabhutavarsha, his son, was one of the most powerful
kings of his line. He conquered the Keralas, Malavas, S'autas,
Gurjaras and the kings of Chitrakuta (in Bandalkhand) and took away
from his enemies (the Chalukyas) the emblems of the (ianga and
Yamuna. He released Ganga from his long and painful captivity, but
had to imprison him again on account of his hostility, and took tribute
from Dantiga, the ruler of Kanchi. On this latter expedition, in 804,
he halted at the tb'tha of Rames'vara, on an island in the Tungabhadra
(Kuruva, about five miles south of Honnali), and had some sport with
wild boars there. The kings of Anga, Vanga, Magadha, Malava and
\'engi did homage to him, and the latter, probably the Eastern Chalukya
king Vijayaditya Narendramrigaraja, was compelled to build the walls of
his fortress, apparently at Manyakheta. The newly acquired province
of Lata (in Gujarat) he gave to his younger brother Indra. Eventually
Govinda once more released the Ganga king (Sivamara), and in con-
junction with the Pallava king Nandivarma, replaced him on his throne.

During the time the Ganga king was a prisoner, Mysore was governed
by viceroys appointed by the Rashtrakiitas. The first of whom we
have any record is Kambharasa, Kambhaiya, or S'aucha Kambha,
surnamed Ranavaloka, who was apparently the son of Dharavarsha
and brother of Govinda. Of his time there are three inscriptions,^ one
dated in 802. At a later date, 813, we have Chaki Raja as viceroy,-
whose sister was married to a Chalukya prince named Vas'ovarma.

1 At Mattakere (Heggadadevankolc laliuj), Manne (Xelamangala taluq), and
S'ravana Belgola (No. 24). - Ind. Jut., XII, 18.

326 J [[STORY

Nripatunga or z\moghavarslia, his son, succeeded to the throne. He
defeated the Chalukyas, who made peace with him at VinguvulH. He
presented the Konkan to Kapardi of the Silahara family, and after a
prolonged reign of over sixty years, voluntarily retired from the throne.
The celebrated Jinasenacharya, author of the A'di Purana, was his
preceptor. Nripatunga evidently took a great interest in the Kannada
country and literature, for to him we owe the Kavirajamarga, the
earliest known work on metrical composition in that language. It is
written in Kannacla verse, and in it he gives a glowing account of the
country and of the culture of the people, as the following quotations
will show : — " The region which extends from the Kaveri to the
(jodavari is the country in which Kannatja is spoken, the most
beautiful land in the circle of the earth. . . , Apt are the people of that
land in speaking as if accustomed to verse, and in understanding it
when spoken : clever in truth are they, for they are ripely skilled in
the usages of poetry without giving themselves up to its study. Not only
students but others are all skilful in their speech, and know how to
teach wisdom to young children and words to the deaf"

Krishna or Kannara II, Akalavarsha, married a Haihaya princess
belonging to the Kalachuri family, daughter of the king of Chedi.
He seems to have been engaged in constant wars with the Eastern
Chalukyas. Of his son Jagattunga Prabhiitavarsha, there is an inscrip-
tion in Chellakere taluq, undated, in which a Pallavadhiraja is repre-
sented as governor under him. Of the succeeding kings, Govinda
had an elder brother, Amoghavarsha, from whom he seems to have
usurped the crown. Govinda was so liberal with his donations that he
w^as called Suvarnavarsha (raining gold). Owing to failure of heirs he
was succeeded by his uncle Baddiga, and he by his son Krishna HI
Kannara or Akalavarsha. It was the latter who was assisted by the
Ganga king Biituga, his brother-in-law, in securing the throne, as
previou.sly related. He, too, by the aid of Biituga, was victorious over
the Cholas,and in return for this service made over the north-western
parts of Mysore and districts beyond to the Ganga king.^ It is not
clear that some of these had not been occupied by the Gangas
before, and several formed the dowry assigned to his bride. The
dominions of the Rashtrakutas were in this reign at their utmost
extension, the Chola territories in the south and Gujarat in the north
being in their power. Krishna Raja's daughter was married to a son of
Butuga. But the relations between the Rattas and Gangas must have
changed in the time of Nityavarsha, the brother who next came to the
throne, as there are inscriptions of the Ganga king Marasimha Nolamba-
' See A'takur Inscription, Mandya taluq No. 41, Ep. Cam., Mysore I.


kulantaka in which he appears as a feudatory of Nityavarsha. But
the Ratta supremacy was now drawing to a close. In 973 Kakka or
Kakkala was defeated, and probably slain, by Taila of the Western
Chalukya family, and the Rashtrakuta empire came to an end. Taila
married Kakkala's daughter, but the last representative of the
Rdshtrakutas was Indra, a grandson of Krishna III, who died at
S'ravana Belgola in 982.1

Chalukyas {continued). — We left the Chalukyas, on their being
superseded by the Rashtrakiitas, in order to follow the history of the
latter dynasty. Its downfall, however, restored the supremacy of the
Chalukyas, and we may resume the annals relating to this line of
kings. It was in the time of Kirtivarma II that the Chalukyas lost
their power. He may have been succeeded by another Kirtivarma, but
this is doufjtful. The names of the subsequent kings of the intervening
period are more reliable, namely, Taila, Vikramaditya, Bhima, Ayyana
(who married a daughter of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna), and
Vikramaditya IV (who married Bontha-devi, daughter v.f Lakshmana,
of the Chedi or Kalachurya family). One Chalukya, named Jayasimha,
fled to Anhalvara in Gujarat, the court of Bh6ja Raja, the last of the
Sauras. Here his son Miila Raja married the daughter of Bh6ja
Raja, and in 931 succeeded the latter on the throne, the Salic law
being set aside in his favour. He ruled at Anhalvara for fifty-eight
years, and his descendants occupied the throne of that country with
great glory till 1145.

Meanwhile Tailapa, the son of Vikramaditya above mentioned,
defeated the Rashtrakiitas in the person of the king Kakkala, and
retrieved the Chalukya fortunes. He succeeded to the throne in 973,
and transmitted to his posterity a kingdom which increased in
splendour and prosperity under each succeeding reign for nearly 200
years. The following is a list of the kings for this period' : —

Tailapa, Ni'irmadi Taila II,

A'havamalla 973^997

Satyas'raya, Irivahedeiiga 997-1009

\'ikraniadilya \ , Triljhuvana-

nialla 1009-1018

Jayasimha II, Jagadekamalla 101S-1042
Somes'vara I, Trailokyamalla,

Vikramaditya \T, Trililiuvana-

malla, I'ermadi 1076-1126

Somes'vara III, Bhuluka-

malla 1126 113S

Jagadekamalla, I'erma 1138-I150

Tailapa, Nurmadi Taila III,

Trailokyamalla 1150-11S2

A'havamalla 1042-1068 , Somes'vara I\', Trihhuvaiia-

Somes'vara II, Bhuvanaika- I malla I1S2 I1S9

malla 1068-1076

The former kings of the ^^'estern Chalukya line had been largely
occupied in the south in wars against the Pallavas, whose power they

' Ins. at Sr. Bel. No. 57. -

Online LibraryB. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) RiceMysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) → online text (page 39 of 98)