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ing wealth to any extent, sent for all the farmers and informed them that
instead of the usual assessment he should require them in future to deliver
up to him annually their old ploughshares, and on this condition they
might cultivate to any extent. (The well, it is said, may be pointed out
into which the ploughshares used to be cast I)

I cannot help considering the story to have some reference to gold-
mining. Though traces of this industry exist in so many parts, as
previously described under Geology, and although we know that vast
sums of gold must have been obtained by the old governments, yet
no mention of it is met with in the thousands of inscriptions that I
have examined. It was, therefore, no doubt a royal monopoly and
kept secret.

Vishnuvardhana's first wife was S'antala Devi, a Jain, who died in
1 131, apparently without any surviving male issue. He subsequently
married Lakuma or Lakshmi Devi, who was the mother of Narasimha,
the son who succeeded him. His death occurred at Bankapura in
1 141. Narasimha, born apparently in 1136, seems to have been
considered as on the throne from the time of his birth. He inherited
a secure and peaceful kingdom, and except that some expedition may
have been made in the direction of Devagiri, not much is said of
events in his reign. On the other hand he is described as being like a
god, enjoying the pleasures of the gods. His queen was Echala Devi,
and they had a son Vira Ballala, who became one of the most

340 /f /STORY

distinguislicd of Uic Hoysala kings, and after whom they are sometimes
called the Ballala kings.

Vi'ra Ballala came to the throne in 1172. He gained important
victories to the north over the Kalachurya and Yadava forces, and
carried the Hoysala kingdom up to and V)eyond the Peddore or
Krishna, establishing his residence at Lokkigundi (Lakkundi in
Dharwar). On the defeat of the Kalachuryas he assumed their titles
of S'anivarasiddhi and (liridurgamalla. He also defeated Jaitugi, son of
the Yadava king, at Lokkigundi, and thus acquired the sovereignty of
Kuntala. He moreover gained a great victory at Soratur over Sevuna.
the general of Jaitugi, and pursuing him to the banks of the Krishna,
there slew him. He further reduced all the hill forts about the
Tungabhadra, and subduing the Pandya who was ruling at Uchchangi,
restored to him his power. Ballala's wife was Padmala Devi, by whom
he had a son, Narasimha, born in 1183, who succeeded him in 1220.
The events of his reign are the overthrow of Pandya, who had taken
refuge with the Kadava (that is, the Pallava) army, and the subjuga-
tion of the Kadava and Makara kings, with the setting on his throne
of Chola, who had been covered up under the clouds of dust raised by
his enemies : also the erection of a pillar of victory at Setu (Adam's
Bridge). Whatever the transactions referred to were, the Hoysalas
always after this call themselves upsetters of the Pandya kingdom and
setters up of the Chola kingdom. The conquests of the previous
reign beyond the Tungabhadra seem to have reverted to the Yadavas.
Narasimha's wife was Lokambika, and their son was Somes'vara. He
is said to have fought against Krishna-Kandhara, who was a Yadava
king, and whose general claims to have acquired the territory of the
turbulent Hoysalas and to have set up pillars of victory as far as the
Kaveri. But Somes' vara's power was absolute to the south, where he
took up his residence at Kannanur or Vikramapura in the Chola
country, a place that has been identified as being close to Srirangam
near Trichinopoly.^ The boundaries of his kingdom in 1237 are given
as Kanchi in the east, Yelavura (Belur) in the west, the Peddore in the
north, and Chalas'eravi (probably in the south of the Malabar district)
on the south. By the Peddore is generally understood the Krishna,
but as the name literally means only Big River, we must suppose it to
be used here ambiguously and to refer to the Tungabhadra. His chief
queen was Bijjala Devi, but he had a wife named Somala Devi when he
went to live at Vikramapura, and also a wife Devala-mahadevi, a
Chalukya princess.-

He had two sons, between whom his territories seem to have been
» By Dr. Hultzsch, Ep. fiid.. Ill, 9. * loc. at.


divided, probably by mutual agreement subsequent to his death.
Narasimha III, his son by Bijjali, continued in the ancestral kingdom
with his capital at Dorasamudra, while Ramanna or Ramandtha (who
ruled from 1255 to 1294), his son by Devala-mahadevi, obtained
the Tamil country on the south, together with the Kolar and part of
the Bangalore districts in the east of the Mysore country. His
inscriptions are generally in Grantha and Tamil characters.^ The reigns
of the two kings seem to have been peaceful, but it was the lull before
the storm. In the reign of Ballala III, son of Narasimha, the Hoysala
power was brought to an end. The whole kingdom seems to have
been united again under him, as he is credited with certain
conquests, including Perundurai (which is in the Coimbatore district).
To account for the destruction which shortly befell the Hoysalas, the
following story is related : —

The king's sister, married to the .S'enji raja, was now a widow. She there-
fore came on a visit to her brother, accompanied by her two sons, Lakkana
and Virana, who were very handsome young men. One of the king's wives
conceived a guilty passion for them, but her advances being alike repelled
by each in turn, her love changed to hate, and she denounced them to the
king as having made overtures to her. The king, justly enraged, ordered
them to be at once impaled, and their bodies exposed like those of common
malefactors at one of the city gates. Hearing what had happened, their
unfortunate mother hastened to the palace lo demand an inquiry and
justice. But it was too late, the fatal order had been executed, and she
was not only put out of the palace, but the inhabitants were forbidden to
give her any assistance. In the agony of despair she wandered from street
to street, invoking the vengeance of the Almighty on her brother, and
predicting the speedy downfall of his empire. Arriving at the potters'
street, worn with fatigue and sorrow, she requested and received a draught
of water, in return for which act of kindness she declared that in the
destruction of the capital that street should be spared. It is the only one
that has survived.

In 1 3 10 the Hoysala dominions were invaded by a Muhammadan
army under Kafur, the general of Ald-udT)in, the second king of the
house of Khilji or second Pathan dynasty. A great battle was fought, in
which the Hoysala king was defeated and taken prisoner. Dorasamudra
was sacked, and the enemy returned to Delhi literally laden with gold.

From an inscription of 1316 it appears that Narasimha rebuilt the
capital, having taken up his residence meanwhile at Belur. But in
1326, another expedition, sent by Muhammad III, of the house of
Toghlak, completely demolished the city. The king then retired to

' Ranianalha's wife was Kamala-tlcvi, daughter of Ariya-I'illai, and she had a
sister, Chikka Somala-devi. Raniandtha's own sister was Ponnambala-mahadevi.
/:■/. /W., Ill, 9.

342 IlIsrORY

'I'ondanur ('roninir), north of Scringapatani, at the foot of the Yadava
liills. In 1329, however, we find him residing at Unnamale (Tiruvanna-
malai, Trinomalce, South Arcot district). There is a record of a son
of his, Vira Virilpaksha ]}allala, said to have been crowned in 1343,
l>ut as the Vijayanagar power arose in 1336, the Hoysalas now
disappear from history.

Yadavas. — This Hne of kings claim descent from Krishna, tiirough
Subdhu, a universal monarch, who divided his empire between his
four sons. The second son, Dridhaprahara, obtained the south, and
his descendants ruled over the Seuna or Sevuna country, extending
from Nasik to Devagiri. He was succeeded by twenty-two kings of
his line, down to Bhillama,' who was contemporary with the Hoysala
king Vira Ballala II., and from whose time alone the history of Mysore
is concerned with the dynasty. They style themselves lords of
Dvaravati (the capital of Krishna, not that of the Hoysalas), and their
standard bore the device of a golden garuda. They overcame the
Kalachuryas and became masters of all the western Dekhan, having
their capital at Devagiri, the ancient Tagara, now known as Daulatabad.
The following is the list of the kings : —

Bhillama 1187-1191 | Mahadeva 1260- 127 1

Ramachandra, Rama Deva 1 271- 1309
S'ankara 1309-13 12

Jaitugi, Jaitrapala 1191-1210

Singhana 12 10-1247

Kandhara, Kanhara, Krishna 1247- 1260

We have already referred to the severe struggles that took place
between the Hoysala and Yadava armies for the possession of the
Chalukya-Kalachurya dominions, and how Vira Ballala, by a series of
victories over the forces of Bhillama and Jaitugi, carried his conquests
up to and beyond the Krishna. Later the Yadavas gained the advan-
tage, and the Hoysalas were forced to retire to the south of the
Tungabhadra. The earliest of the Yadava inscriptions in Mysore are
of the time of Singhana, and he probably took advantage of Vira
Ballala's death to extend his power to the south. In this and the
succeeding reigns a portion of the north-west of Mysore was
permanently in their possession. Kandhara was Singhana's grandson.
He describes himself as thruster out of the Hoysala king and restorer
of the Telunga king (Ganapati of Orangal). His general also boasts
of subduing the Rattas, the Kadambas of the Konkana, the Pandyas
of Gutti, and the turbulent Hoysalas, and setting up pillars of victory
near the Kaveri. Mahadeva was Kandhara's younger brother, and
attempted to establish his own son on the throne after him. But
Ramachandra, son of Kandhara, secured it. In his time the seat of
the Yadava government in Mysore was at Betur, near I^avangere.

1 Cf. Bhandarkar's Early Hist, of the Dekhan.


His general, Saluva Tikkama, professes to have captured Dorasamudra,
and obtained a tribute from it of all manner of wealth, especially
horses and elephants. That he made a victorious expedition to the
south is probable, but whether it extended so far is uncertain.

It was in the time of Ramachandra that the Muhammadans first
appeared in the Dekhan. Ala-ud-I)in, nephew of Jalal ud-Din Khilji,
the founder of the second Pathan dynasty, resolved in 1294 to attempt
the conquest of the Dekhan, and in order to throw the enemy off their
guard, pretended to leave his uncle in disgust. Suddenly changing
his course to the west, he appeared before Devagiri. The Raja was
quite unprepared, but hastily collected a small army, and after vainly
trying to oppose the enemy near the city, retired to the fort, carrying
in a great quantity of sacks belonging to passing traders, believed to
contain grain, but really filled with salt. Ala-ud-Din plundered the
town, levying heavy contributions on the merchants, and besieged
the fort. He at the same time gave out that a larger army was follow-
ing, and thus induced Rama Deva to offer 50 maunds of gold to buy
him off. Meanwhile, the Raja's son, S'ankara Deva, arrived with a
large force, and, contrary to his father's advice, attacked the Muham-
madans. Though successful at first, he was defeated. Ala-ud-Din now
raised his demands, but the contest might have been prolonged had not
the troops in the fort discovered to their surprise that their provision
was salt and not grain. At last it was agreed that the enemy should
retire on receipt of 600 maunds of pearls, 2 of jewels, 1,000 of silver,
4,000 pieces of silk, etc., besides an annual tribute to be sent to Delhi.

How the aged J^^kil-ud-Din came forth to welcome his victorious
nephew, and how the latter, with the basest treachery, assassinated him
while making professions of attachment, are matters of history. Aki-ud-
Din, seated on the throne, again sent an expedition in 1306 against
Devagiri, which had withheld the promised tribute. It was com-
manded by Malik Kafur, surnamed Hazar Dinari,' a eunuch. He had
been the slave of a merchant, and taken prisoner in the conquest of
(iujarat ; but having attracted the king's notice, was speedily raised to
the highest offices in the state.

Kafur overran the whole country, and Rama Deva, finding resistance
hopeless, submitted, and offered to go to Delhi. He was there received
with distinction and restored to his kingdom with additional honours,
which kept him faithful during the rest of his life. In this expedition
occurred an incident deserving to be mentioned. On the conquest of
(iujarat, that raja's wife, Kaula Devi, had been taken captive, and being
admitted to Ala-ud- Din's harem, by her beauty and talent gained his

' A thousand i/iimis, tluit being the price for which he had l)een bought as a slave.

344 msroK y

favour. She had charged the commander during this expedition to
recover her daughter by the Gujarat raja, who had been long sought in
marriage by S'ankara, the son of Rama Deva, but refused, as she was a
Raj{)ut. Now, however, the Gujarat raja in his exile had consented,
and sent her under an escort to I )evagiri. No clue could be gained
as to where she was, when a party from the camp going to see the
caves of EUora, by chance fell in with the escort. They were forced to
fight in self-defence, and captured the princess. But it was not till
afterwards they knew the value of the prize. The girl was carried off
to Delhi, where the king's son, Khizr Khan, being brought up with
her, became enamoured of her and ultimately married her. Their
loves are the subject of a celebrated Persian poem by Amir Khusru.

In 1309, the army under Malik Kafur passed through Devagiri on
its way to the conquest of Orangal, and was hospitably entertained by
Rama Deva. But the following year S'ankara Deva came to the throne,
and the army being on its way to the conquest of Dorasamudra he was
less friendly. Soon after he withheld the tribute, on which Kafur a
fourth time marched into the Dekhan, in 13 12, seized S'ankara Deva,
put him to death, and took up his own residence in Devagiri.

In 13 1 6 Haripala, the son-in-law of Rama Deva, in common with
many of the conquered princes, raised the standard of revolt in the
Dekhan and recovered their possessions, expelling the Muhammadan
governors. The paroxysms of rage into which Ala-ud-Din was thrown
by this intelligence brought on his death, hastened, it is said, by poison
administered by Kafur. The latter attempted to place himself next on
the throne, but he was assassinated, and Mubarak succeeded. In 1318
he marched into the Dekhan, took Haripala prisoner, and ordered him
to be flayed alive and his head put up over the gate of his own capital.
Thus ended the line of the Yadavas of Devagiri, and in 1338 Muham-
mad Toghlak removed the capital of his empire from Delhi to Devagiri,
giving it the name of Daulatabad.

Yijayanagar. — The last great Hindu sovereignty of the south was
founded in 1336, and brings us back, after a lapse of more than two
thousand five hundred years, to the site of Kishkindha, whose annals
engaged our attention near the beginning of this historical survey.
Though the details vary, all accounts attribute the origin of the Vijaya-
nagar empire to two persons named Hakka and Bukka, assisted by the
celebrated scholar Madhava, surnamed ^'idyaranya, or forest of learn-
ing.^ Hakka and Bukka, of whom the former assumed the name of

' The capital was apparently called Vidydnagara (city of learning) at first, in
honour of the sage Vidyaranya, who was chiefly instrumental in its foundation ; but
by a natural transition it passed ere lonq; into Vijayanat^ara (city of victory), the


Harihara, were the sons of Sangama, described as of the Yadava line
and the Lunar race. The earhest of the inscriptions of the Vijayanagar
kings are found north and west of Mysore, and they were probal)ly
Mysorean by origin and feudatories of the Hoysalas. Dorasamudra and
Orangal, the respective capitals of Karnataka and Telingana, had fallen
a prey at about the same time to the Muhammadans. But amid the
general revolts occasioned by the rash measures of Muhammad
Toghlak, the two brothers Harihara and Bukka took advantage of a
period of public commotion to lay the foundation of a new State : to
which they were moved by the sage Madhava or ^'idyaranya, who,
besides experience and talent, may have brought pecuniary aid to the
undertaking. He belonged to the school of S'ankardchdrya, and was
the jagat guru of Sringeri (Kadur district), the members of which
establishment, alarmed, as \\'ilson remarks, by the increasing numbers
of the Jangamas and Jains, and the approach of the Muhammadans,
may have contributed their wealth and influence to the aggrandisement
of the sons of Sangama.^

The site selected for the new capital was a remarkable one, on the
banks of the Pampa or Tungabhadra, where the ancient Kishkindha
had stood. In the words of an inscription, " its rampart was
Hemakuta, its moat the auspicious Tungabhadra, its guardian the
world-protector Virupaksha, its ruler the great king of kings Harihara."'-'
The Vijayanagar sovereigns adopted the vard/ia or boar as the emblem

Bijanagar of IMuhammadan historians, and the Bisnagar of the l-iench. It is also
commonly known as Anegundi, properly the name of a village on the other side i>l
the river, said to have been the capital of the Yavanas, regarding whom so little is
known. Anegundi, a Kannada name meaning "elephant pit," was translatetl into
Sanskrit as llastinapura and Ilaslinavati, which is the designation in the Maha

harata of the capital of the I'andus, near Delhi.

' Madhava succeeded to the pontifical throne of Sringeri in 1331, at the age of 36,
and lived till 1386. I lis brother Sayana was the most celebrated commentator on
the \'edas.

- The whole of the extensive site occupied by the ruins of Bijanagar on the soulii
bank of the Tungabhadra, and of its suliurb Anegundi on the northern bank, is
occupied by great bare piles and bosses of granite and granitoidal gneiss, sejiaraled
by rocky defdes and rugged valleys, encumbered by precijiitated masses of rock.
Some of the larger flat-bottomed valleys are irrigated by aqueducts from the river, and
apjjear like so many verdant oases in this Arabia I'etnva of Southern India. Indeed
some parts of the wilderness of Sinai reminded me, l)Ut on a far grander scale, of this
huddled asseml)lage of bare granite rocks on the banks of the Tungabhadra. The
formation is the same ; the scantiness of vegetation, the arid aspect of the bare rocks,
and the green spots marking the presence of s])rings few and far between in the
depths of the valleys, are features common to both localities.

The peaks, tors and logging stones of Bijanagar and Anegundi indent the horizon
in picturesque confusion, and are scarcely to be distinguished from the more arliticial
ruins of the ancient Hindu metropolis of the Deccan, which are usually constructed with



on the royal signet, and their family god was Virupaksha, the name
under which Siva was worshiped in a celebrated temple erected at the
capital. Their grants are signed S'r'i Viri'tpdksha. Among their titles
were, ari-raya-vibhdda^ bhdshe^e tappuva rdyara ganda, pi'trvapas' chiiiia-
dixkshima-samudrddhipati^ Hindu-rdya-Suratrdna.

The following is the list of the Vijayanagar kings, based upon the
evidence of inscriptions, but some dates may require slight readjust-
ment when our information is complete : — -

Haiihara I, Hakka, Haii-

yappa 1336-135"

Bukka Raya I, TUikka Raya

Odeyar I350-I379

Ilarihara II, Hariyapjia

Odeyar 1379-1405

Deva Raya I, Bukka II,

Pratapa Deva Raya 1406-1415

\'ijaya Raya I 1416-1417

Deva Raya II, Praudha Deva

Raya, Pratapa Deva Raya 1417-1446
Mallikarjuna, Vijaya Raya

II, Immadi Deva Raya,

Iinniadi Praudha Deva



Narasa, Narasimha I,

Narasimha II, Immadi \ar-

Krishna Raya
iVchyula Raya
Sadas'iva Raya (Rama Raja

till 1565, Tirumala Raja

from 1566)
S'ri Ranga Raya I
^'enkatapati Raya I
Rama Deva
Venkatapati Raya II
S'ri Ranga Raya II

I 468- I 479
I 479- I 487

1 488- 1 508
1 508-1 529
1 530- 1 542

I 639- I 664

I 446- I 467

Sangama, by his wife Kamambika,' had five sons, Harihara, Kanipa,
Bukka, Marappa, and Muddapa. Harihara was the first ruler of the
Vijayanagar State, and was succeeded by Bukka. Kampa acquired
territory in the Nellore and Kadapa districts, and was succeeded by his
son Sangama, whose minister was Sayana, the brother of Madhava.
Marappa conquered the Kadamba territories, and ruled at Chandra-
gutti (Shimoga district). What became of Muddapa does not appear.
Harihara is said to have defeated the Sultan, a reference to his driving
the Muhammadans out of Orangal in conjunction with a confederacy of
Hindu chiefs who collected an immense force for the purpose.
Bukka Raya in 1355 was ruling from Hosapattana in the Hoysana
country (perhaps Hosur, Goribidnur taluq), said to be the capital of
Nijagali Kataka Raya. In 1368 he reconciled some serious disputes
between the Jainas and the Vaishnavas, " taking the hand of the
Jainas and placing it in the hand of the Vaishnavas."- The Jains are

blocks quarried from their sides, and vie in grotesqueness of outline and massiveness
of character with the alternate airiness and solidity exhibited by nature in the nicely
poised logging stones and columnar piles, and in the walls of prodigious cuboidal
blocks of granite, which often crest and top her massive domes and ridges in natural
Cyclopean masonry. — Newbold,y. A. S. B., xiv.

* One inscription says he had five sons by S'arada. Tliis is the name under whic
Sarasvati is worshipped as the tutelary goddess of Sringeri.

■■^ Ins. at Sr. Be/., No. 136.


described as occupying the country lying between Anegundi, Hosa-
pattana, Penagonda and Kalleha (Kalya, Magadi taluq), and possibly
these were the boundaries at that time of his kingdom. He married
(iaurambika,and had a son Harihara, who succeeded him on the throne ;
but he also had a son, Chikka Kampana, governing in the south of
Mysore, and one Mallinatha, governing in the east of Mysore.
Harihara II. is principally praised for his liberality in gifts at various
sacred places, localities which show that his territories extended from
the Krishna at Karnul to Kumbhakona, or even further south. His
queen was Mela Devi, of the family of Rama Dcva, probably the
Yadava king. The son who succeeded him was Deva Raya, or
Pratapa Deva Raya, who at first apparently called himself Bukka
Raya. There were also two sons, Chikka Raya Odeyar, perhaps the
same prince before he came to the throne, governing at A'raga
(Tirthahalli taluq), the chief city of the Male-rajya or hill kingdom ;
and Virupaksha, who professes to have conquered all the eastern
countries down to and including Ceylon. Deva Raya's son Vijaya
Raya, by Demambika, was governing at Muluvagil (Mulbagal) and
seems to have come next to the throne, but there is some confusion
in the history here. Deva Raya also had a son Mallanna Odeyar, by
Mallayavve, who was governing in the west, at Honavar.

During the two last reigns the greater part of Karnata and Telin-
gana, with the coast of Kanara, had come under the \'ijayanagar sway.
To the north, the simultaneous origin of the Bahmani kingdom pre-
vented an extension of territory in that direction. The rivalry between
the Bahmani and Vijayanagar kingdoms led to a continual succession
of wars and alliances between the two, many interesting details of
which are recorded by Ferishta, but perhaps with too favourable a
colouring, as might be expected, to the Muhammadan side of the
picture.' Among the earliest incidents that passed between them the
following is characteristic : —

' Vox convenience of reference the list of Bahmani Sultans is here given : — •

Hiisan Oangii, Ala-ucl-Din

- 1347

P'iroz Shah

•• 1397

Muhammad Shah...

... 1358

Ahmad Shah, Khan



-Mujahicl Shah

••• 1375

Ala-ud-Din Shah ...

• 1435

Daud Shah

... 1378 i

Ilumayun Shah ...

• 1457

Mahmud Shah

... 1378

Nizam Shah


(;hiyas-ud-Din Shah

••• 1397

Muhammad Shah...

• 1463

Shams-ud-Din .Shah

••• 1397

1 Mahmud Shah

.. 1482

Hasan, the founder of the line, was a poor Afghan, a native of Delhi, who farmed
a small piece of land belonging to a Hrahman named (langu, who was in favour at
court. One day, while ploughing, Hasan accidentally found some hidden treasure

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