army was marchiug for its recovery. General Matthews, having gained
spoils to the value of eighty-one lakhs of pagodas, besides jewels, was
waiting for reinforcements, when Tipu appeared on the 9th of April.
The latter, dividing his army into two columns, with one retook
TIPU SULTAN 399
Kavale-durga and Haidarghar, and with the other Anantapur : and,
cutting off all communication with the coast, invested Hednur. The
garrison, being starved out, capitulated on the 30th on honourable
terms. But instead of being sent to the coast as stipulated, both officers
and men were marched off in irons to Seringapatam. Tipu now
advanced for the recovery of Mangalore, and invested it on the 4th of
May. The garrison held out in spite of great hardships. In July arrived
intelligence that peace had been concluded in Europe between the English
and the French ; the leaders of the French forces, therefore, to the
great indignation of Tipu, announced the necessity for their withdrawal.
An armistice was agreed to on the 2nd of August, but the articles were
not observed by Tipu. Mangalore held out till the 30th of January 1 784,
when the starved-out garrison, whose bravery had excited the highest
admiration even from Tipu, were allowed to retire to Tellicherry.
Meanwhile, in the east, the English had concluded an agreement at
Tanjore with Tirumal Rao, an emissary sent by the Mysore Rani' вАФ
and had occupied the whole of the Coimbatore country. At Seringa-
patam, Shamaiya, the postal and police minister, at the same time
formed a plot for seizing the fortress and restoring the Hindu Raja. It
was accidentally discovered on the very eve of the date appointed for
its execution, the 24th of July. Shamaiya and his brother were confined
in iron cages, in which they perished. The other conspirators were
dragged at the feet of elephants.
After negotiations, purposely prolonged by Tipu until the fall of
Mangalore, peace was concluded on the nth March 1785, on the con-
dition of the mutual release of prisoners and restitution of conquests.
But of the English officers the most distinguished had been previously
removed by poison or assassination. Sayyid Ibrahim, the commandant
of the prison, is honourably distinguished for his humanity in attempt-
ing to alleviate their condition. On the capture of the country by the
English, a mausoleum was erected over his tomb at Channapatna and
endowed by the East India Company.
The reversion of Mangalore to the possession of Tipu was signalized
by the forcible circumcision of many thousands of native Christians and
their deportation to Seringapatam. A revolt in Coorg next year led to
the same treatment of the greater part of the inhabitants, the occasion
being marked by Tipu's as.sumption of the title of I'adshah. All Brah-
man endowments were at this period resumed.
1 Tirumal Rao was assisted in his coinnumicalions hy liis l)r