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His favourite retreat was Nandidroog, where he spent several months
in the year.

We obtain a delightful picture of him in 1858, at the time of Lady
Canning's visit. Her companion, the Hon. Mrs. Stuart, writes : —
"At seven in the morning (22nd March) drove up, through the lines
of the 60th Rifles, to General Cubbon's charming bungalow at
Bangalore. . \\'e found the whole house prepared for us, the chival-
rous old man of 74 having put himself into a tent. He is a very hand-
some," keen-eyed, intelligent man, and the quantity of anecdote of the
deepest interest that he has told us has been more entertaining than I
can describe." Lady Canning, writing from Nandidroog, says : — " I
am visiting a charming old General, Sir Mark Cubbon, 1,500 feet
above the tableland of Bangalore, and with a view over about 150
miles of country on all sides. It is cool fresh air and a very pleasant
spot, and the old gentleman is very delightful. He has been all this
century in Lidia. but seems to know all that has gone on all
over the world, and is the most gra?id seipieiir old man I almost
ever saw."'

His remains were conveyed by Dr. Campbell, the Durbar Surgeon,
who had accompanied him on the voyage, to the Isle of Man, where he
was met by Colonels Macqueen and Haines, old officers of the
Mysore Commission, and the body was laid to rest in the family
vault in a pul^lic funeral in which the whole island took part. As
the mourners left the tomb, "There lies," .said the archdeacon,
"the greatest man this island has produced for centuries back."
An equestrian statue, by Baron Marochetti, was erected to his
memory at Bangalore by public subscription, and stands in front of
the Public Offices.

The control of India had now passed from the Company to the
Crown, so, on the departure of Sir Mark Cubbon, the Rdja,
encouraged by the friendly terms in which Lord Canning had in the
previous year acknowledged his steadfastness during the mutiny, and
had supported his objection to be transferred to the control of Madras,
as well as bv his proclaimed goodwill to the native princes of India,
thought the opportunity favourable for again bringing forward his
claims to the restoration of his country. He accordingly addressed
Lord Canning on the subject in February 1861. That nobleman, in
^ The Story of Two Noble Lives, by A. J. C Hare.



434 ///STORY

n reply dated in Marcli 1862, the day before lie left fcjr ICngland, took
exce[>ti()n to the terms of the petition as ill-advised, and rejected it,
stating that "whilst the liritish (lovernment had been careful to satisfy
the right which it originally conceded to your Highness . . it is equally
alive to its obligations to the jjcople of Mysore and to the responsibility
for their prosperity and welfare of which it cannot divest itself." The
Raja, however, renewed his appeal through the new Viceroy, Lord Elgin.
The decision of the Home Government, rejecting the appeal, on the
ground that " the reinstatement of your Highness in the administration
of the country is incompatible with the true interests of the people of
Mysore," was made known to him at the end of 1863, on which the Raja
annoimced his intention of adopting a son. His debts had now again
accumulated, since the last clearance of them, to fifty-five-and-a-half
lakhs, and two officers were appointed for their liquidation.

Sir Mark Cubbon handed over charge to Mr. C. B. Saunders, the
Judicial Commissioner, who conducted the administration till the
arrival in Feb. 1862 of the new Commissioner, Mr. L. B. Bowring,'
and the latter, with the interval of a year's leave in 1866-7, during
which Mr. Saunders again ofificiated, held office until 1870. During
this period many radical changes were effected. Mysore had hitherto
been a non-regulation province. In 1862 the administration was re-
organized on the model of the Punjab system, and other reforms were
set on foot all tending towards the introduction of the regulation
system. The Province was now formed into three Divisions, sub-
divided into eight Districts, each Division being placed under a
Superintendent with enlarged powers, and each District in charge of a
Deputy Superintendent, aided by Assistant Superintendents. The
department of finance underwent at the same time a sweeping reform,
and in place of the large discretion previously allowed to officers of all
grades in regard to the disbursement of moneys, the Indian budget
system of audit and accounts was introduced.

In 1863 was commenced a much-needed revenue survey and settle-
ment, for the purposes of olitaining an accurate land measurement, of
regulating the customary land tax, and of preserving all proprietary and
other rights connected with the soil. In conjunction with this, the field
assessment was fixed for thirty years, thus securing to the cultivator the
full advantages of a lease for that period without burdening him with any

* Mr. Bowring, of the Bengal Civil Service, had been Assistant- Resident at Lahore
in 1847, and subsequently in the Punjab Commission. P'rom 1S58 to 1862 he was
Private Secretary to the Governor-Ceneral, Lord Canning. Created C.S.I, in 1867,
and retired to England in 1870. The Bowring Institute in Bangalore was erected,
partly by subscriptions, as a memorial to him.



THE RAJA'S ADOPTION 435

condition beyond that of discharging the assessment for the single year
to which his engagements extend. Soon after, it was found necessary to
form an inam commission, to inquire into the validity of titles to lands
held by individuals or religious institutions as real or pretended
endowments from the sovereigns of the country, considerable aliena-
tions of whole villages having been made during the administration of
the Raja. The conservation of the numerous irrigation channels and
of the valuable forests of the country received attention ; and as judicial
work grew heavier, judicial assistants were appointed, one for each
District, for the disposal of civil suits. Education was greatly
extended. Municipalities were established. In short, there was
scarcely a branch of the administration but came under the scrutiny
and reforming hand of the untiring and energetic head of the
Government.

Meanwhile affairs had taken a turn of the utmost importance to the
fortunes of the Mysore royal family. In June 1865 the Raja adopted
a scion, then two years old, of one of the leading families of his house,^
who on his adoption received the name of Chama Rajendra. A\'hether
this adoption would be recognized by the British (Government was for
some time doubtful, and questions asked in the House of Commons
elicited no positive or final answer. In 1866 a deputation, headed by
Sir H. Rawlinson, waited on the Secretary of State for India, Lord
Cranborne (now Marquess of Salisbury), to urge upon him a recon-
sideration of the whole case of Mysore, more particularly as modified
by the adoption ; and later on, a petition, to which several old Indian
officers had added their signatures, was presented to the House of
Commons by Mr. John Stuart Mill, praying that '• your Honourable
House will take such steps as may seem in ) our wisdom most efficacious
for ensuring, with the least possible delay, the re-establishment of a
Native (Government in the tributary State of Mysore, with every
possible security for Ikitish interests and for the prosperity and
happiness of the people of the country.''

In April 1867 Viscount Cranborne stated to the House of (Commons
the decision to which the Government (of which Mr. Disraeli was
Prime Minister) had come, influenced by the belief that the existence
of well-governed native States is a benefit to the stability of British
rule; and on the i6th Sir Stafford Northcote, then Secretary of State
for India, penned the despatch to the (jOvernor-(jeneral which decided
the future fate of Mysore. After stating that no hope could be held

' He was the third son of Chikk;i Kiislma Arasii of the Betladakote family ; a
descendant, by adoption, of Katli Gopalraj Arasii, father of Krishna K.-ija II.'s wife
Lakshmamnianni, who signed the treaty of Serin{;a])atani in 1799.



436 HISTORY

oul thai tlu! piL'vious decision regarding the reinstatement of the
Maharaja himself wcnild he reversed, he went on to say : —

"Without entering upon any minute examination of the terms of the
Treaties of 1799, Her Majesty's Government recognize in the pohcy which
dictated that setdemcnt, a desire to provide for the maintenance of an
Indian dynasty on the throne of Mysore, upon terms which should at once
afford a guarantee for the good government of the people, and for the
security of British rights and interests. Her Majesty is animated by the
same desire, and shares the views to which I have referred. It is her
earnest wish that those portions of India which are not at present under her
immediate dominion may continue to flourish under native Indian rulers,
co-operating with her representatives in the prorhotion of the general pros-
perity of the country ; and, in the present case more especially, having
regard to the antiquity of the Maharaja's family, its long connection with
Mysore, and the personal loyalty and attachment to the British Govern-
ment which his Highness has so conspicuously manifested, Her Majesty
desires to maintain that family on the throne in the person of his
Highness's adopted son, upon terms corresponding with those made
in 1799, so far as the altered circumstances of the present time will
allow.

" In considering the stipulations which will be necessary to give effect
to this arrangement, I have, in the first place, to observe, that Her
Majesty's Government cannot but feel a peculiar interest in the welfare
of those who have now for so long a period been subject to their direct
administration, and that they will feel it their duty, before replacing them
under the rule of a native sovereign, to take all the pains they can
with the education of that sovereign, and also to enter into a distinct
agreement with him as to the principles upon which he shall administer
the country, and to take sufficient securities for the observance of the
agreement.

" It is, therefore, the intention of Her Majesty that the young prince
should have the advantage of an education suitable to his rank and position,
and calculated to prepare him for the duties of administration ; and I have
to desire you to propose to the Maharaja that he should receive his
education under the superintendence of your Government. I have to
request that you will communicate with me as to the mode in which
this can best be effected without separating the young prince more
than is necessary from those over whom he may hereafter be called on
to rule."

The despatch went on to direct that if at the demise of his Highness
the young prince should not have attained the age fixed for his majority,
'•the territory shall continue to be governed in his name upon the
same principles and under the same regulations as at the present time."
Before confiding to him the administration of the whole, or any portion,
of the State, arrangements would be made "for the purpose of adequately



DEATH OF KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR 437

providing for the maintenance of a system of government well adapted
to the wants and interests of the people," and, in regard to the rights
and interests of the British Government, for some addition to the
subsidy.

The Raja, though this gave the final blow to his own pretensions,
was much gratified with the remainder of the decision, and with the
friendly tone of the despatch. He was as alive as the British Ciovern-
nicnt to the fact that defective training had been to a great extent at
the bottom of his misfortunes. He accordingly selected Colonel G.
Haines, formerly in the Mysore Commission, as guardian of the young
prince, to superintend his education and training. Next year he died,
on the 27th of March 1868, having reached the ripe age of seventy-four
years. Though deprived of political power, the assignment to him of a
fifth of the revenue for his personal expenditure had enabled him to
give reins to tlie princely lil)eralit.y which formed one of the main
elements of his character, and he possessed many amiable personal
qualities much appreciated by those with whom he was intimate.
Immediately on the occurrence of this event the following proclama-
tion was issued : —

" His Excellency the Right Honourable the Viceroy and Governor-
General' in Council announces to the Chiefs and people of Mysore, the
death of his Highness the Maharaja Krishna RAja Wodiar Bahadoor,
Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India.
This event is regarded with sorrow by the Government of India, with which
the late Maharaja had preserved relations of friendship for more than half a
century.

" His Highness Chamarajendra Wodiar Bahadoor, at present a
minor, the adopted son of the late Maharaja, is acknowledged by the
Government of India as his successor and as Maharaja of the Mysore
territories.

" During the minority of his Highness the said territories will be
administered in his Highness's name by the British Government, and
will be governed on the same principles and under the same regulations
as heretofore.

"When his Highness sliall attain to the period of majority, that is,
the age of eighteen years, and if his Highness shall then be found
qualified for the discharge of the duties of his exalted position, the
government of the country will be entrusted to him, subject to such
conditions as may be determined at that time."

The young Maharaja was installed at Mysore at noon on the J3rd of
September, at the time of the Dasara, by the Commissioner, Mr.
Bowring, who reported thai "during the whole of the fatiguing cere-

' Sir Jdlin (afterwards Lord) Lawrence.



438 HISTOR Y

monies attendant on his installation the young prince showed great
self-control and composure, and it was not a little remarkable to see a
child of his tender years behave with so much dignity."

Mr. Bowring, who from 1869 was styled Chief Commissioner,
resigned office at the beginning of 1870. His Indian experience and
well-known acquaintance with the oriental classical languages enabled
him to sympathize readily with native institutions and interests. The
assimilation of the system of government, therefore, to that of the
15ritish Provinces, although it had necessitated the introduction of a
larger European element than before, was conjoined with the recognition
of native merit and talent. Two out of the eight Districts were placed
under the administration of native Deputy-Superintendents, appoint-
ments which ranked among the highest anywhere held at that period
by their countrymen. Many important judicial and other offices were
filled in a similar manner, and the way was left open for a more extensive
employment of native agency.

Colonel (afterwards Sir Richard) Meade^ assumed charge in February
1870, and was unexpectedly called away five years later by Lord
Northbrook, to the control of the Baroda State, where he had also
previously for several months (October 1873 to March 1874) been a
member of the Commission for the trial of the Gaikwar. His able
administration of Mysore was therefore subject to unlooked-for inter-
ruptions of a harassing nature. Among the more important measures
of this period a great impetus was given to public works, in raising all
works of irrigation to a complete standard of repair and efficiency, in
opening out communications in the remotest and most difficult parts
of the country, in surveys for railway extension, and in the erection of
public buildings, and carrying out of local improvements in towns.
Education continued to flourish. A topographical survey, the planting
of village topes, improvements in agriculture, and other useful works
were set on foot. In 187 1, Sub-Divisions, composed of groups of taluqs,
were constituted, and an Assistant-Superintendent was placed in charge
of each, the object being to bring Government officers into closer

' This distinguished of¥icer had made a name when only a Captain in connection
with the surrender of the fort of Gwahor, in the Mutiny. He subsequently com-
manded the column which captured the rebel leader Tantia Topee. Was Political
Agent at Gwalior in i860, and for Central India, at Indore, in 1861. Arrested
and deported the Gaikwar Malhar Rao in 1S75, selected and installed his successor,
and reorganized the administration of Baroda. When on his way back to Mysore
at the end of that year, he was appointed Resident at Haidarabad, from which he
retired to England in 1881, and died in the south of France in 1894. To him
Bangalore owes the Cubbon Park, at first called Meade Park, the name being
changed in accordance with his wishes.



THE GREAT FA.]fEyE



439



communication with the people and to give the Assistant-Super-
intendents a greater interest in their work.

In 1873 the designation of Commissioner was substituted for Super-
intendent through all the grades ; and in the same year, an important
measure for the establishment of Munsiffs' courts, with purely civil
jurisdiction, was Ijrought into operation. The amildars were thus
relieved of jurisdiction in civil cases, and the judicial powers of other
officers were greatly modified. The re-organization of the police was
commenced, one of the principal features of the scheme being the
recognition of the village police, and its utilization after being placed on
a reasonable footing of efficiency. The local military force, somewhat
reduced, was greatly improved by proper selection of men and horses,
and by the enforcement of a regular course of drill. Native agency
was systematically introduced into every department. Special training
was provided for preparing native officers for the Public Works, Survey
and Forest departments, and young men of good family were
appointed as Attache's, with the view of enabling them to gain
experience in civil and revenue matters before being entrusted with
responsible charges.

Mr. R. A. Dalyell, of the Madras Civil Service and Member of the
Viceroy's Council, officiated for a year from April 1875, ^^'hci ^Ir.
C. B. Saunders, who for some years had been Resident at Haidarabad,
was re-transferred to Mysore.' During the two years that he was Chief
Commissioner occurred the great famine which swept off more than a
million of the population, and for a time beclouded all the prosperity of
the State.

The young Raja (to whom, on the resignation of Colonel
Haines in 1869, Colonel G. B. Malleson' had been appointed
guardian) attended, with Mr. Saunders, the Imperial Assemblage at
Delhi on the ist of January 1877, when the Queen was proclaimed
Empress of India. Soon after their return gloomy prospects began
rapidly to thicken.

The late rains of 1875 and the rains throughout 1876 had generally
failed. The harvests of two successive years were lost, and the surplus
stores of grain were consumed. Relief works had been started in
several parts ; remissions of assessment had been granted ; the State
forests were thrown open to grazing ; house-to-hou.se visitation had

' He had served in the I'unjah in 1849, and was I'oHtical .\gent and Conimissidiicr
with the army before Delhi at its final siege and capture in the Mutiny in 1S57.
Created C. B. in 1864. Retired to England in 1878, and died there some years after.

- Previously Controller-( General in the Military Finance Department. Author of
several standard works on Indian historical subjects. Created C.S.I, in 1872.



440 IIISTOR V

been iii.stituicd and other palliative measures adopted. When, therefore,
spring showers fell in 1877, hope revived ; but only to be quenched.
The regular rains failed for the third year in succession. The
surrounding Madras and Bombay districts were in the same plight.
Panic and mortality now spread among the people, and famine became
sore in the land. From November, the only railway, the one from
Madras to Bangalore, had been pouring in 400 to 500 tons of grain a
day, the latter sufficient to support 900,000 people ; yet, in May, there
were 100,000 starving paupers being fed in relief kitchens, and in
August the numbers rose to 227,000; besides 60,000 employed on
relief works, paid in grain, and 20,000 on the railway to Mysore. Sir
Richard Temple had been deputed as Special Commissioner, to advise
the Government, but it became evident that the utmost exertions of the
local officers were unequal to cope with the growing distress. The
Viceroy, Lord Lytton, then came himself. A larger European agency
was seen to be absolutely necessary. A number of officers, therefore,
of regiments in Upper India, as well as civilians, were induced to
volunteer for famine duty. Mr. (afterwards Sir Charles) Elliott was
appointed Famine Commissioner, and Major (afterwards Sir Colin)
Scott-Moncrieff, chief engineer.

Relief works were now concentrated, and gratuitous relief was
confined as far as possible to those whose condition was too low to
expect any work from them at all. Bountiful rains in September and
October caused the cloud to lift, and the pressure of famine began to
abate, but mortality from attendant sickness continued and relief works
were not all closed till November 1878. Private hoards of gold and
silver coins, and articles of jewellery, had been generally parted with,
often at ruinous rates. The Mansion House fund, subscribed for the
famine by English charity, thus afforded the means of reinstating
numbers of agriculturists who had been left destitute, while missionary
and other bodies, aided by Government contributions, took charge of
orphans, to be brought up and respectably settled.

The financial effects were indeed disastrous, especially in view of the
approaching Rendition. The in-vested surplus of 63 lakhs had
disappeared and a debt of 80 lakhs had been incurred. The revenue
collections, which in the year before the famine stood at over 109 lakhs,
fell in 1876-7 to 82 lakhs and in 1877-8 to 69 lakhs. A Committee
was convened to report on the measures practicable for reducing
expenditure to meet the deficit, and the proposed reductions were
generally carried out in 1878 and 1879, involving the abolition of many
appointments and the removal of European officers, with the substitu-
tion of natives on lower pay.

Mr. (afterwards Sir James) Gordon, who had been Judicial



THE RENDITION 441

Commissioner since 1868/ was made Guardian to the Maharaja at the
end of 1877. This appointment had been in abeyance since vacated
by Colonel Malleson in 1876. Captain F. A. Wilson' then acted as
tutor to the Maharaja till 1878, when Mr. \\. A. Porter' was appointed
tutor. The method adopted in his education had been to teach him
along with other boys of good family and suitable age, away from his
residence, in a select school, where all were treated alike, and he took
his place with them in lessons and games. Por the benefit of change
of scene and association he was taken on trips to Calcutta and
Bangalore, and spent the hot weather on the hills at Ootacamund.

In April 1878 Mr. Gordon was made Chief Commissioner in
addition to his office as Guardian. On him, therefore, devolved the
responsibility of the final steps needed to fit both the young prince for
his kingdom, and the kingdom for the prince. On the latter, who
proved to be of a most tractable disposition, the good effects of his
influence were soon manifest, while, as the result of favourable seasons,
the country was at the same time rapidly recovering its prosperity,
though crippled by the results of the famine. To the young Maharaja
(whose marriage had now been celebrated with an accomplished
princess of the Kalale family, educated in a similar manner), the system
and principles of the administration conti'.iued to be the subject of
careful instruction on the part of Mr. Gordon, and in 1880 he
accompanied Mr. Gordon on a tour throughout the State as
the best means of impressing the lessons on his mind, and making him
acquainted with the country he was so soon to rule.

The Rendition took place on the 25th of March 1881, when, at
seven o'clock in the morning, amidst universal good wishes and every
demonstration of joy on the part of the people, the Maharaja Chama
Rajendra Wodeyar was placed on the throne at Mysore. The ceremony
was performed in an impressive manner by the Governor of Madras,
the Right Honourable \\\ P. Adam, and during the inauguration a
gentle shower of rain descended, a welcome omen, seeming to betoken
a blessing from the skies on this great act of State. Mr. Gordon
now became Resident, and was knighted shortly after. The terms



Online LibraryB. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) RiceMysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) → online text (page 52 of 98)