Copyright
B. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) Rice.

Mysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) online

. (page 66 of 98)
Online LibraryB. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) RiceMysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) → online text (page 66 of 98)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


long maintained in connection with the Commissariat at Hunsur.
Although they have been abolished, the district continues to reap the
advantage which they conferred in training workmen after European
methods. Tanneries have been established on a considerable scale by
]\Iuhammadans near Bangalore. They cure the leather very well, and
export it to European markets.

Leather is tanned by the Madigas at Bangalore in the following
way : —

To dress the raw hides of sheep or goats, the Mddigas in the first place
wash them clean, and then rub each with the fourth part of a kind of soft
paste, made of 6 dudus weight of the milky juice of the yakkada {asclepias
giganled), about 6 dudus weight (2"426 ounces) of salt (muriate of soda),
and 12 dudus weight of ragi anibali or pudding, with a sufficient quantity of
water. This paste is rubbed on the hairy side, and the skins are then
exposed for three days to the sun ; after which they are washed with water,
beating them well on a stone. This takes off the hair. Then powder

2 seers (r2i3 lb.) of myrobalans, and put them and one skin into a pot with

3 or 4 seers measure of hot water, where it is to remain for three days. The
skin is then to be washed and dried.

This tanned skin is dyed black as follows : take of old iron, and of the
dross of iron forges, each a handful ; of plantain and lime skins, each five
or six ; put them into a pot with some ragi kanji, or decoction of ragi, and
let them stand for eight days. Then rub the liquor on the skins, which
immediately become black.

These skins may be dyed red by the following process : take of ungarbled
lac a dudus weight (about 13 drams), of suja kara, or fine soda, i dudu
weight, and of lodu bark 2 dudus weight. Having taken the sticks from
the lac, and powdered the soda and bark, boil them all together in a seer of
water (68^ cubical inches) for ih hour. Rub the skin, after it has been
freed from the hair as before mentioned, with this decoction ; and then put
it into the pot with the myrobalans and water for three days. This is a
good colour, and for many purposes the skins are well-dressed.

The hides of oxen and buffaloes are dressed as follows : — For each skin



LEA THER-DRESSIXG 5 5 3

take 2 seers (r2i3 lb.) of quicklime, and 5 or 6 seers measure (about \\ ale
gallon) of water ; and in this mixture keep the skins for eight days, and rub
off the hair. Then for each skin take 10 seers by weight (about 6 lbs.), of
the unpeeled sticks of thetangade {cassia aiirictilatd), and 10 seers measure
of water (about 2^ ale gallons), and in this infusion keep the skins for four
days. For an equal length of time add the same quantity of tangadi and
water. Then wash, and dry the skins in the sun, stretching them out with
pegs. This leather is very bad.

A very pretty kind of red morocco is manufactured at Harihar by a
set of people called Muchikar.

It is in the first place tanned. The goat skins (for these only are
employed) are dried in the sun for one day ; next day they are washed in
the river, rolled up and put into a pot, with a mixture (for each skin) of one
handful of common salt, as much water, and half of that quantity of the
milk of wild cotton {asclepias gigantea). After the skins have been soaked
in this mixture for four days, the pot is filled up with water, and the leather
suffered to remain four days longer in it : the hair now comes easily off the
skins when scraped by a piece of broken pot. The leather thus cleaned is
laid in the shade, and when dry is rolled up and kept in a house for two or
three days, in a place secure from smoke and from insects ; it is then
soaked for eight hours in pure water, and scraped with a piece of earthen-
ware till it becomes quite white. Before the leather is dyed it is soaked for
one night in a pakka seer of water which has been mixed with a handful of
cholam meal [Iwlciis sorghum) and warmed on the fire ; in the morning it
is taken out and dried with a piece of cloth : when well dried, it is soaked
again for half an hour in water with which one seer of tamarinds has been
mixed ; it is then spread on a mat and the colour applied.

For the red colour take \ kachcha seer of lac (18 drams), alii toppalu
(leaves of the miiiiecylon capitellatiim) j\ of a dub weight, and the same
quantity of the salt extracted from washerman's earth (carbonate of soda) :
pound these ingredients together, boil \ of a seer of water in a place where
there is no wind ; put the pounded mass into it and keep it for a quarter of
an hour over a slow fire. To ascertain whether it has acquired the requisite
consistence, dip a cholam straw into it ; if the liquid does not run down the
straw when turned up it is sufficiently done, but if it runs, the boiling must
be continued for some time longer.

The leather (previously extended on a mat) is, at three different times,
rubbed over with this liquid ; it is then thrice sprinkled over with tamarind
water, and lastly it is steeped for five or six days in a liquid composed of
3 seers of water and i seer of pounded tangadi bark. Every morning it is
taken out, washed a little, and again replaced, till at last it is well washed
in clear water and dried : thus prepared, it has a fine crimson colour, and
is very soft.

Earth Salt. — The manufacture of earth salt, which was once con-
siderable, has greatly declined. Within five miles of the British



554 INDUSTRIAL ARTS

frontier it is prohibited, with the view of preventing smuggling of the
salt into British territory. The process is conducted as follows : —

In the dry season, the surface of the earth is scraped off and collected in
heaps. In front of these heaps the native salt-makers construct a semi-
circle of small round cisterns, each about three feet in diameter and a foot
deep. The sides and floors of these cisterns are made of dry mud : and
each, at its bottom, on the side toward the heaps of saline earth, has a small
aperture, with a wooden spout, to convey the brine into an earthen pot that
is placed in a cavity under it. The bottoms of the cisterns are covered
with straw, and then the saline earth is put in, till it rises nearly to the level
of the tops of the walls. Water is now poured on the surface of the saline
earth, and, in filtering through into the pots, carries with it all the salt.
The inert earth is then thrown out behind the cisterns, and new earth is put
in, for impregnating more water. In the meantime the brine is emptied into
a cavity cut in a rock, and the evaporation is performed entirely by the sun.
The grain of the salt is large, and consists of well-formed cubes ; but it is
mixed with much earthy impurity.

Coffee Works. — A very important industry, which has come into
existence in recent times, is the preparation of coffee for the European
market. The largest works are those belonging to Messrs. Binny & Co.
of Madras, at Bangalore, for peeling, sizing, and sorting coffee. During
the cleaning season, extending from December to March, about i,ooo
hands are employed there, and about 1,500 tons of coffee, the produce
not only of Mysore, but of Coorg, the Nilagiris, the Shevaroys, (Sec,
pass through the works. The factory is also engaged in the compound-
ing of artificial manures for coffee plantations. Other works of a
similar character, for the preparation of coffee for transhipment to
Europe, are carried on by ]Mr. Hay at Hunsur.

The following figures show the value of this manufacture for five
years :-





Rs.




Rs.


I88I-2


1,114,488


1884-5


3,287,869


1882-3


1,567,192


j 1885-6


2,733,207


1883-4


1,188,308


1





Brick and Tile J forks. — The great demand for building materials
has led to the establishment recently of a factory for machine-made
bricks and tiles, fire-bricks, drain-pipes, &c., in the Bangalore city, by
Messrs. Arbuthnot & Co. of Madras.

Paper Mills. — The local manufacture of country paper is quite
extinct. A proposal brought forward for paper mills was not carried
out solely because other undertakings seemed to promise better
results.



555



TRADE AND COMMERCE

The land-locked position of Mysore, the mountain barriers which
separate it from the surrounding countries on three sides, and the want
of navigable rivers, are circumstances unfavourable for external trade.
In the time of Tipu all importation was forbidden, with the view of
stimulating home production. But owing to the arbitrary measures
adopted to bring about this result, the Government itself entering the
market as a wholesale dealer, the effect was rather to check the natural
growth of trade and to paralyze industry. Although under the Raja's
government which followed, the same restriction did not exist, yet
commerce was shackled by incredibly vexatious transit duties, to the
abolition of which the early efforts of the British Commissioners were
directed.

After 1 83 1, the construction of an excellent system of trunk roads
throughout the country, leading through the ghats or mountain passes
to the surrounding territories and to the chief ports on the \Vestern
coast, greatly stimulated traffic. But the most powerful impetus has been
given by the railways now in operation, which connect Mysore with
Madras and Bombay, and the intermediate Districts, as well as with the
whole of India beyond. The proposed line from Arsikere to Manga-
lore will aid in developing the trade of the western Districts.

The religious festivals, and the weekly fairs or santes, are the
principal opportunities of trade in the rural districts. The large
merchants are chiefly residents in the towns. They employ agents
throughout the districts to buy up the grain, in many places giving
half the price in advance before the harvest is reaped. By this means
a few men of large capital are able to some extent to regulate the
market.

Sandal-wood, grain, cotton, areca-nut, coffee and a few other com-
modities are the principal articles of commerce. The best method of
exhibiting the interchange of trade will be to give the imports and
exports for a series of years. Though the figures cannot be accepted as
altogether correct, they no doubt show roughly the general course of
trade, the articles carried to and from the country, and the annual
value of the transactions. The means of transport, except where there
are railways, arc country carts on lines of road, and pack-bullocks or
asses in wild and forest tracts



556








TABLE OF IMPORTS


INTO MYSO.
1




1881


-82.


1882-83.


1883-84.


1884-85.


1885-86.


Articles.
























Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


Quantity
Tons.


Val
R

1

1


Arecanut


1,299


565,876


426


415,898


697


512,200


446


345.443


1,480


'''>3!J


Betel-leaves )
(bundles))


25.629,350


1.5871400


33.699.550


91.850


2i27S,340


134,453


2,469,900


147.015


2,717,000


i&l


Camphor


34


41.925


41


54,250


SO


60,950


-


-




.L


Cardamoms ...


5


19,110


22


38.529


5


25,878


8


27,763


4




Chillies


1.434


204,280


1,692


241.975


1.475


306,405


1,568


284,225


1,428


i(


Cholam (jowari)


2,356


70,949


2,078


50.250


2,641


93.444


2,727


93,558


2.414




Cloves


16


33.845


17


22,300


7


9,755


-


-


-




Coarse clothsNo.


275.864


391,820


250,000


348,300


1,466,180


4,293,100


175.550


326,080


285,700


«


Cocoanuts, dry


341


69,283


205


58,049


234


63,468


246


67,219


184


il


,, fresh No.


2,196,740


85,412


S.595,500


197,960


583,500


36,846


2,169,000


229,740


3,600,300


"5


Coffee


32S


246,371


232


172,960


87


63; 690


87


66,585


104


t


Cotton


1. 147


640,868


1.177


648,968


1,178


584,400


975


544,201


513


-V


Cotton thread ...


416


375-963


339


165,250


246


180,250


201


198,126


268


26;


Gold


-


441,320


-


328,500


-


496,500


-


642,960


-


53=


Gram, Bengal


1,964


102,389


2,804


127,340


1,651


92,370


1.756


122,710


2,010


16?


„ black ...


1,538


75,538


622


43.770


944


62,730


1,258


96,204


1.234


la


„ green ...


2,495


116,117


1,910


122,774


2,020


99,385


1,962


129,161


2,184


i3i


,, horse ...


9.343


277,935


4,303


126,197


4.306


152,700


6,077


232,050


2,6o6


^H


Hides ... No.


50,300


45,300


50,000


25,000


52,000


28,500


42,000


28,000


54.000


ili


Iron ... •..


2,837


554,660


3,154


605,656


3,843


721,450


3,975


773.450


3,937


7if


Jaggory


1,877


190,472


2,414


225,800


374


35.100


1,483


140,558


1,309


121


Oil, cocoanut ...


161


72,587


189


89.542


99


42,040


116


50,303


160


5!


„ gingelli ...


296


99,850


285


126,075


170


50,960


424


142,078


217


V


Pepper


254


184,450


214


155.560


155


100,500


174


128,412


155


14'


Piece goods, No.


1,002,692


2,994,765


1,153,300


3,489,000


*


*


1,211,260


4,891,159


2,008,521


4,73;


Poppy-seed


42


6,186


307


46,080


432


67,480


4,102


16,630


870


9f


Ragi


63,860


2,129,705


16,646


1,134,600


15,300


438,900


48.504


1,499,710


34,430


1,59;


Rice


38.453


2,717,765


16,769


1,540,4x5


30,080


2,465,688


25.151


2,268,770


23,072


2,51!


., paddy ...


28,797


1,084,834


47,382


1,218,510


43.792


1,097,800


24,310


1,037,500


29,352


1,59'


Silk


-


44,800


142


16,300


109


118,080


III


138,876


108


1,62;


„ cloths No.


15.700


143,180


16,730


182,200


6,285


82,900


20,323


238.719


16,915


19.


Silver


6


581,240


8


486,250


S


487.500


8


542.234


7


54^


Sugar


222


67,263


329


83.250


303


66,850


347


97i2i5


399


11;


Tamarind


188


7,720


270


24,100


607


38.250


2,501


195.335


2,373


i6<


Tobacco


497


247,936


413


83.764


594


195,600


608


247,010


■506


32


Togari (dal) ...


3.706


252,838


5,018


310,855


4,628


176,800


4,291


419.157


4,044


41'


Wheat


13.537


721,999


15,550


887,030


15,999


985,988


20,943


1,358,308


22,714


1,90










Included i


n coarse c


oths.








i
i'

J



FOR TEN YEARS



557



1886


-87.


1887


-88.


1883-89.


1889-90.


1890-91.


Quantity Value
Tons. Rs.


Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


1.557 1,030,742


1,633


958,730


1.788


1,014,712


1,076


689,900


1,172


680,639


6,863,000 155,410


7,000,000


120,750


3,831,000


85.454


47,500


112,125


1,854,000


232,449


3 24,010


4


24,150


5


22,919


6


19.985


4


20,710


1,410 200,200


1,371


329,845


1.509


337,380


1,400 282,409


1,427


305,948


1,907


79,500


2,172


78,246


S.700


180,400


5,445 : 137,128


5.783


467,566


20,545,800

1


60,738,050


625,900


780,000


549.953


666,191


690,690 1,184,190


642,900


854,500


708


202,187


643


160,359


653


179,359


618 175,520


826


1.124,473


3,670,707


108,841


4,560.000


107,100


3,305,728


107,006


3,390,000 2,061,137


2,671,000


94,041


133


186,030


117


210.705


112


215,164


III 127,288


2,042


2,445,091


653


415,922


533


295.940


1,088


542,416


1,372 771,849


2,076


786,702


1.237 ,1,140,270


1,251


1,139,740


1,300


1,175.520


1,211 1,109,090


1,285


1,184,678


— 1,428,800


-


392,416


-


382,200


7


423,860


-


482,360


3,316


242,968


4.101


316,026


5,190


429,341


4,345


354.008


4,229


369,628


3,136


250,647


3,903


309.756


4,404


362,190


4,609


407.141


3,822


383,344


3,03s


268,791


4,713


343.073


4,475


337,590


4,186


377,046


4-771


330,481


8,366


177,030


6,436


250,805


6,874


314,520


7,107


500,022


7,920


190,228


45,000


41,000


77,800


103,100


52,000


63,620





40,000


58,000


41,000


3,61s


712,292


8,052


1,589.736


8,214


1,687,520


1,107,600


'.850,370


9.25s


1,801,666


2,228


224,712


4,014


570,352


4>059


528,421


4,112


505.953


4,029


523,562


304


110,258


281


126,000


251


102,630


"5


97,588


244


106,488


242


80,210


125


34,746


457


212,568


145


135.543


181


68,758


138


149,750


.46


163,478


142


165,262


134


142.598


149


133,108


3,098,690 7,716,700


4,859,800


8,884,000


1,641,830


7,119,600


3,388,297


6,829,820


1,042,430


4.045.490


164 ! 22,697


112


19,64s


119


22,246


111


21,961


III


21,983


42,413 '1,398,02s


42.450


1,220,617


42,637


1,205,920


37,939 1,179.390


31,265


1,127,025


27,330


2,392,906


29-874


2,768,587


28,600


3,315,866


27,474 588,485


38,969


3,252,364


28,382


932,720


32,971


1,440,400


23,784


784,523


31,586


987,956


26,798


1,318,102


116 1,679,560


no


1,655,620


107


1,474,275


113


1,623,550


133


1.738.594


106,131


403,120


105,882


621,500


111,925


664,400


116,390


780,090


13,910


208,400


8


777,200


7


709,632


8


811,180


7


603,580


6


409,960


554


148,054


266


60,405


358


47,616


552


20,523


507


135,137


2,530


226,360


2,265


230,965


2,150


189.408


2,076 178,860


1.834


59,300


1,100


557,800


1,023


497,057


1,118


601,313


989 515,392


i,o6S


493.703


6,059


437,865


3.501


284,447


2,803


89,365


4,543 381.028


3.84s


395.784


23,197


1,876,002


21,686


2,195,065


21,764 2,191,725


20,687 1,027,129


20,813


2.938.958



558








TABLE OF EXPORTS


FROM MYSO.






1 88


-82.


188


2-33-


1883-84.


1884-85.


1885-86.




Articles.


Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


Quantity
Tons.


' Value
1 Rs.


1

Quantity Val
Tons. Kj




Arecanut


8,266


1,124,040


5,184


2,434.645


4.444


2,620,296


5,498


1
3.011,545

j


6,397


3,971




Betel-leaves )
(bundles) f


11,191,210


660,113


1,478,360


56,523


2.707,299


181,825


2,539.586


85,290


4,602,800


1




Camphor


-


1,200





1,280


I


1,500





-





1




Cardamoms ...


39


118,500


32


110,506


33


171,998


64


270,405


80


27!




Chillies


531


74,864


214


35.305


316


50,850


500


70,425


577


SI




Cholam (jowari)


S.iSi


207,760


7.671


341.540


9,073


68,175


14,300


483,200


2,745


13!




Cloves


I


2,000


-


-


1


1,500





-





-




Coarse cloths No.


275,864


391,820


3,000


5,500


268,600


797,000


29,360


59,860


6,000


l:




Cocoanuts, dry


383


92,220


201


45.150


275


68,160


216


57,116


291


H


,, fresh No.


4,773.000


115.267


2,512,100


50,850


1,258,500


46,587


2,273,860


61,779


5,114,000


II




Coffee


1,909


1,219,197


2,163


1,253,412


2,898


1,156,408


4,407


1,389,340


4,916


3.09;


Cotton


173


70.750


265


116,978


1,029


234,711


260


1 19,090


24,281


igt


Cotton thread ...


34


33.000


180


150,000


33


32,250


41


39,775


45


43.


Gold


-


80,000


-


80,000


-


100,000


2


200,000





564.


Gram, Bengal ..


2,897


193.340


2,454


168,590


1,351


72,510


1,298


83,100


1,125


83,'i


„ black ...


101


6,800





-


998


23.700





-


414


3;.


„ green ...


488


26,540


564


30,460


813


36,180


544


36,000


442


4>


,, horse ...


13.719


415.998


10,617


330,228


11,739


380,200


7,760


325.300


5.378


250.


Hides ... No.


125,900


127,275


119,400


"4.133


105,650


140,600


147,992


136,046


145,200


iS-;


Iron


179


31,100


148


27,872


159


29,000


70


31,200


236


4;-

J


Jaggory


2,702


287,300


2,235


227,700


13,085


856,800


2,116


223,500


6,377


52I,«|


Oil, cocoanut ...


12


5.928


25


11,750


4


2,200


23


8,800


21


7.'


„ gingelH ...


76


28,500


83


25,111


46


15,050


96


38,774


93


3;


Pepper


191


136,160


181


98,620


177


115,825


201


144,900


150


11:. •


Piece goods, No.


1,002,692


2.994.765


162,700


462,812


*


*


222,350


665,500


254,200


7C0,:


Poppy-seed


-


-


-


-


71


2,000


-


-


71


8,cl


Ragi


37,888


1,263,228


52,970


1,361,926


48.933


1,550,400


20,000


665.250


33,700


1,250,2 j


Rice


7,280


576.525


31,142


1,696,600


15,052


784,200


22,934


1.944.330


11,472


1,192.-


,, paddy


33,559


935.025


51,472


2,147,300


205,950


1.322,075


45.201


1,739,242


45.447


1,843.:


Silk


-


44,800


-


3,000


4


51,000


2


28,000


21


3-:^-


,, cloths. No.


-


143,180


5,000


50,000


-


-


2,200


2I,00O


2,300


21.


Silver


I


96,000


I


96,000


I


96,000


1


96,000


I


c:


Sugar


104


31.903


39


11,400


64


18,000


1,496


468,060


1,138


334 -


Tamarind


1,600


118,525


497


24,700


4,998


337,175


1,116


75.855


1,167


75.3


Tobacco


60


29.394


127


38,050


68


23,300


43


13,100


46 15.:


Togari (dal) ...


909


58,600


9S0


71,466


914


46,290


1,095


99,300


1,221 11: -


Wheat


449


18,930


1,482


79.710


1,768


100,300


1,140


65,100


1,185


9'





Included in coarse cloths.



FOR TEN YEARS



559



1886-87.


1887-88.


1888-89.


1889-90. 1


1890-91.


Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


i^uantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


Quantity Value
Tons. Rs.


Quantity
Tons.


Value
Rs.


5,967 .


ii 760,701


6.993


J.449.455


6,229


3,891,290


6,202 3.838,559


6308


3,186,138


6,360,500


104,994 '


(,460,000


121,145


1,662,704


636,492 43,509,214


690,770


♦1,014,960


971,588











-





-








-





77


242,840


98


358,350


106


273,324


81


310.454


"3


312.857


919


98,460


830


136,080


1,258


227.595


2,202


368,854


1,069


203,238


22,295


669,000


19.974


479,299


27,433


737.200


32.370


664,951


43. '79


1,066,355


-


-








-


-














18,000


28,000


26,000


39,000


32,500


47,861


28,500


44,350


37,200


53,500


460


129,420


458


53.492


931


130,200


6,236


1,497.660


2,269


565,315


4,285,000


137,076


3.995.500


302 042


6,144,999


176,199


7.339,474


380,063


1,196,200


132.457


2,707


2,334,200 6,974


5,647,630


3,660


4,080,000


3,980


4,732.630


3.632


4,354.720


362


187,588


339


157.801


598


318,067


2,091


780,288


442


195.139


301


272,250


252


227,000


303


302,500


678


678,000


684


683,900





1,001,245


-


1,063,929


1


2,470,692


-


622,347


-


6,033,562


3,629


247,280


14,430


540,374


2,297


182,852


3.548


260,775


3.375


280,938


Ii537


115,287


2,129


177.735


1,662


132,319


2,785


230,010


2,02I


241,063


1.949


143,870


4,343


207,991


1.553


120,239


1,867


176,984


1,912


164,550


9.529


394,500


14.230


540,374


7,849


308,214


12,377


717,241


6,102


740,237


280,890


675,906


276,100


333.650


270,219


343,289


189,000


273,500


159,600


200,035


322


61,295


805


203,474


492


113,290


3.692


707,186


3.768


711,041


3,051


542,27s


7,045


1,007,045


6,835




Online LibraryB. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) RiceMysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) → online text (page 66 of 98)