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Mysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) online

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the village service emoluments. It assumes great importance owing to
the necessity of providing sufficient remuneration for the patels in
connection with the organization of the Village I'olice. At present the
remuneration of all classes of village servants is very uneven. Under
the Survey Settlement the dya payments, that is to say the fees
realized by patels and shanbh6gs in the shape of grain paid to them
direct by the ryots, have been abolished, and a scale of remuneration
has been fixed in the shape of money payments in the surveyed taluqs.
The aya payments, from which the ryot has thus been relieved, are
included in the land assessment he has to pay to Government.

The progress of the operations of the Survey Department, up to the
close of the working season of 1880-1, that is, the 31st October 1880,
shows that out of the 69 taluqs comprised in the Province, only 10 had
been wholly untouched. The remaining 59 had been measured or
were in course of measurement, while in 42 classification was completed
or in course of completion.

The survey commenced in 1863 in the north, in Chitaldroog District,
and worked westwards and southwards. The Department was
controlled by a Commissioner, under whom were a Superintendent, a
Deputy Superintendent, and 14 Assistant-Superintendents, but during
the famine most of these were transferred for famine duty and the
number was subsequently reduced. The total area measured and
classed, from the commencement of the survey operations up to the
end of March 1881, was 13,915,826 acres measured, and 11,292,928
acres classed. The total cost to the 31st October 1880 amounted to
Rs. 34,04,826. The following is the annual statement of work
done : —



Year.


Acres
measured.


Acres
classed.


1 Cost per
'acre of both
operations.


Year.


Acres 1
measured.


Acres
classed.


Cost per
acre of both
operations.




1


As


P.








As. P.


1863-4


291,595 200,176


3


27


1872-3


943>655'


1,051,076


4 3-8


1864-5


507,288 248,244


2


9-,S


1873-4


831,191


696,933


5 3-5


1865-6


817,304 454>620


2


4-0


1874-5


933,893


762,653


5 13


1866-7


743,041! 473 > 996


2


87


1S75-6


1,017,015


899,268


4 8-5


1867-8


789,780 669,521


2


9-9


1876-7


596,266


508,794


5 4-6


1868-9


995,428 680,645


3


2-6


1877-8


677,691


568,320


5 4-6


1869-70


1,015,756 526,567


3


9-6


1878-9


545>io9:


574,896


5 5-8


1870-I


972,819' 998,142


3


6-5


1S79-S0


550,214


723,176


6 5


1871-2


1,081,163 658,005
1 ^


3


IO-5


! 1880-1

1


652,423


555,860


6 37



Itidm Departmejit. — The inams in the Province may all be referred
to one of three epochs, and the statement below shows the value of the
land inams which had sprung up during each of these periods.



IN AM SETTLEMENT



697



Period of Inams.


Whole Villages.


Minor Inams.


Valuation. 'J"^*^' ""^ ''8^'
assessment.


Valuation, j J"**' °" "^!"
" 1 assessment.


To the termination of Divan Pur-
naiya's administration in 1810.

•Granted during the Maharaja's ad-
ministration, 181 1 to 1S31

Granted by the Chief Commissioner
of Mysore

Sthal or unauthorized inams


2,86,038
3,19,167


1,32,150 1 4.99,528 1,48,134

62,435 35,025

! 18,500 8,000
63,616 17,946


Total Rs.


6,05,205 1 1,94,585 6,16,669 1,74,080



After the fall of Seringapatam in 1799, the British Commissioners
directed Purnaiya plainly that no alienation of land should be made
without the Resident's approbation. This salutary advice was fairly
acted on by the Divan during his long and successful administration.
The alienations between 1799 and 181 1 (when the Raja assumed the
government of the country) were in reality few and unfrequent, and the
inams which are entered as having been created during Purnaiya's
administration, are (with the exception of his own jagir) chiefly those
which had been sequestrated during the Muhammadan usurpation, and
Avhich on the re-establishment of Hindu rule it was thought proper to
restore. But this measure being accompanied with an increase of the
jodi on such inams, the alienation of revenue in the fresh grants was
■counterbalanced. From 18 10 to 1831, when the British Government
interfered to save the country from ruin, the Raja recklessly alienated
lands, some of them forming the best villages in the country, besides
confirming others on permanent or kayamgutta tenure, while his loose
system of administration afforded his subordinate officers opportunities
for alienating land without proper authority. The third epoch dates
from the commencement of the British administration in 1831. The
grants made during this period are comparatively of small value, and
are held on condition of service, consisting in the upkeep of chatrams,
maintenance of groves, tanks and avenue trees. In addition to the
above, the statement shows a considerable number of sthal inams, or, as
they are sometimes termed, chor inams. Under this head are comprised
all such inams as, although enjoyed for some time, have not been
properly registered as granted by competent authority.

The necessity of a searching investigation into the inam tenures of
the Province, with the view of securing those inams which had been
granted by competent authority to their possessors on a permanent
basis, very early attracted the attention of the British Government ; but



698 ADMINISTRATION

it was not unlil J 863 that any dcfinilc scheme for this purpose was
mooted. It was then found that the operations of the Revenue Survey
and Settlement Department created alarm and evoked opposition among
the inamdars, and it was thought advisable that rules for the confirma-
tion of inams on a liberal princi[)lc; should be drawn up. After much
discussion, it was decided to adoi)t the principles which had after long
deliberation been decided on in the Madras Presidency. In one
important respect, however, these principles were departed from. The
Inam Commissioner was constituted the final judicial authority, and his
decision was not, as in Madras, made liable to be reversed by a Civil
Court. But after the transfer of the Inam Commissioner's duties to the
Survey and Settlement Commissioner, this provision was altered, and
the Madras system, with one exception, which will be noticed below,
prevailed in its integrity. The Inam Rules for Mysore were sanctioned
by the Government of India in April 1868. These rules, based on the
theory of the reversionary right of Government, were so framed as to
meet the several descriptions of inam lands existing in the Province,
testing their validity — ist, by the competency of the grantor, irre-
spectively of the duration of the inam, whether 50 or less than 50 years
old ; 2nd, by the duration of the inam for 50 or more than 50 years,
irrespectively of the competence or otherwise of the grantor.

The following are the principles on which the settlement was
conducted : —

i. When sannads had been granted by the Maharaja or by his pre-
decessors, and when they conveyed full powers of alienation and were
hereditary, the indms were treated as heritable and alienable property.

ii. When sannads emanating as above did not convey full powers of
alienation, the ind,ms might be enfranchised by payment of a quit-rent equal
to one-eighth of the assessment of the tenure, except in the case of indms
granted for the performance of religious, charitable, and village service,
which are still required to be rendered.

iii. When sannads have been granted by incompetent persons, and when
they are less than 50 years old, a compulsory quit-rent, equal to one-halt of
the assessment, was imposed. But in doubtful cases, and where there was
a probability that the indm had been enjoyed for fully 50 years, the quit-rent
to be imposed was one-fourth of the assessment.

At the time of its first organization in 1866, the Inam Commission
was composed of an Inam Commissioner, one Special Assistant, and
three Assistants. These officers were at first invested with judicial
powers. But at the commencement of the year 1872-73, the De^jart-
ment was reorganized. The control of its proceedings was then
transferred to the Survey Commissioner, while the settlement was.



INAM SETTLEMENT



699



carried on, under his direction, by an officer styled Superintendent of
Inam Settlements, aided by three Assistants, on whom devolved the
preliminary work of registering the inams, taluq by taluq, and of
collecting all the material for settlements. Under this scheme, the
judicial powers hitherto exercised by Inam officers were withdrawn, and
claims inter partes were referred to the regularly constituted Civil
Courts. In other respects the rules of settlement remained the same
as before, except in the case of whole inam villages. Up to 1872, the
determination of the extent and value of inam villages for purposes of
enfranchisement was based upon the Madras system of procedure,
which is very liberal. Under this system, the Inam Department does
not profess to estimate the acreage of inams. Unless the terms of the
sannad make it perfectly clear that the Government only intended to
assign a certain number of acres, and was deceived as to the extent of
the village, the mere fact that the number of acres enjoyed by an inam-
dar exceeded the number entered in his sannad, was not allowed to
operate prejudicially to him. As regards valuation, the old assessment
recorded in Purnaiya's Jari Indmti accounts was adopted, with such
additions as were deemed suitable or equitable on account of the right
of the State to prospective cultivation of waste lands ; and Purnaiya's
old valuation was adopted when the accounts of present rental furnished
by the inamdars fell short of it or could not be relied upon.

But in 1872, upon a representation of the Survey and Settlement
Commissioner that the course above described, based upon imperfect
data, would be too liberal to the inamdars, and injurious to the Govern-
ment in not securing the full amount of quit rent and local fund cesses,
a survey of whole inam villages, with a view to ascertain their correct
valuation, was sanctioned by the Chief Commissioner for purposes of
the inam settlement. And as the survey could not keep pace with the
inam inquiry, which had already out-stepped the survey, a system of
charging ad ifiterim quit-rent, upon the best data forthcoming, was
devised, on the understanding that this settlement was to be merely
temporary, and to last only until the land was valued by the Survey
and Settlement Department.

The following statement shows the value of minor inams of different
descriptions, payable in cash, at the time that their investigation and
registration were commenced by the Inam Department in 1868 : —



1 Up to Divan Pur-
Granted ' naiyas resigna-
tion, 1810.


By tlie M.-iharija.


By the Chief ^otal.
(Jommissioner.


NagadMuzrayi. Rs.' i ,42, 1 1 5


2


4


1,40,234


7


7


19,678


4


7 3,02,027


14


7



700 ADMINISTRATION

The operations of ihc Inam Department were brought to a close in
1881. The total number of land inums confirmed was 57,888, of which
57,726 were enfranchised and 162 unenfranchised. There were
besides 11,302 indms resumed for invalidity of tenure. In 4,658 cases
the land could neither be identified nor was it in enjoyment : they
were therefore struck off the list. Cash grants or muzrayi payments
were confirmed to the number of 1,942, amounting in value to
Rs. 2,68,940: in 415 cases the payments were resumed, and in 982
struck off as having been formerly resumed.

The total cost of the Commissicjn amounted to Rs. ■9,53,581, and
89 per cent, of this was added to the revenue through its operations,
though conducted on principles most liberal to the inamdars. Its
necessity therefore was evident.

Muzrayi Department. — A question of almost equal importance to
that of inam holdings in land, is the settlement of the money grants
made at various periods to numerous institutions and individuals for
services or otherwise. After the assumption of the country in 1831,
the management of these funds and the up-keep of the institutions were
vested in the Superintendents and their subordinate District ofificers. In
1852 Sir Mark Cubbon, the then Commissioner, took the administra-
tion of the Muzrayi Department into his own hands, and on his
departure in 1861 it again devolved on the Superintendents. In 1866
the Government of India observed, that although the peculiar circum-
stances under which Mysore was administered might render it necessary
that certain classes of acts should be performed which would not be
thought of in a purely British Province, yet where such acts were
connected with idolatrous buildings and practices, there seemed no
reason why any Christian officer of the Government, or indeed any
Government officer as such, should be called on to perform them.
Accordingly in 1867 the Muzrayi Department was finally placed in
•charge of a Native Assistant in each District, he being styled the
District Muzrayi Officer.

The orders passed by the INIuzrayi Officer were subject to appeal to
the Deputy Commissioner and Commissioner, and finally to the Chief
Commissioner. The accounts, &:c., were submitted to the Chief
Commissioner's Huzur Daftar Department, \vhere they were checked
and examined.^

' The total income of the Muzrayi Department for 1880-1, including balance of
previous years, amounted to Rs. 4,78,287, and the total expenditure to Rs. 3,30,134,
leaving a balance of Rs. 1,48,153.

The fixed annual grant to Muzrayi institutions stood at Rs. 2,92,986 3 a. 7 p. in
1880 as follows : —



LAND REVENUE



7or



Land Revenue. — The land revenue, as already stated, was
realized either from a direct money assessment or from a division of the
crop under the batayi system, which was being gradually converted into
the former. In 1870, with the view of affording relief to the ryots by
enabling them to bring the bulk of their produce to market before
meeting the Government demand, the instalments were made payable
at the subjoined rates and periods : —



Districts.



Bangalore, Kolar, and Chitaldroog. Annas.
Tumki'ir ...
Mysore ...
Hassan ...

Shimoga and Kadur, Maidan...
,, Malnad...



Dec.


Jan.


Feb.




2


3


2


J


4


2


4


6




3


5
2
2



But it was found that the indulgence was abused by the improvi-
dence of the cultivators, and the collection of revenue was attended
with great difficulty after they had disposed of their crops. The kists
were therefore in 1874 reduced to four, and the collection period or



Temples

Chattrams

Dargas

Masjids

Malts ...

Miscellaneous



R. a.

1,12,654 14

54,620 12

4,181 3

3,190 14

52,708 5

15,922 2



Rs. 2,43,278 3 7



Under the management of the officer in
charge of the Palace at Mysore.

R. a. p.

Temples 34,577 o o

Chattrams ... ... 6,604 o o

Other institutions ... 8,527 o o



Rs. 49,708 o o



The actual income of the institutions was : —

Money allowances from Government ..
Receipts from lands
Private contributions



R. a p.

2,50,021 2 5

69,657 15 8

35,840 14 5



l< CO vo CO vo CO CO !



Online LibraryB. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) RiceMysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) → online text (page 83 of 98)