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750 ADMINISTRATJON

645, wilh an average area of 41 scjuarc miles, and a population of
6,040 persons. The masters were to he men selected from among the
teachers of existing indigenous schools, and trained for their work in
normal schools, of which one was provided for each of the three
Divisions. While under training every man was to receive a main-
tenance allowance of Rs. 5 a month, and on appointment to the charge
of a school his salary was to be Rs. 7, with prospect of promotion.
Care was taken to nominate the men as far as po-ssible to the localities
in which they were known and thus had influence. The schools were
to be examined three times a year by Sub-Deputy Inspectors, of whom
one was designated for each of the eight Districts, and Local
Committees of influential residents in each h6bli were further to exercise
a general supervision. No fees were to be levied in the schools, but
the education would be paid for by a cess. The people, however, were
expected to build or provide premises as an earnest of their desire for
the schools. Night classes were to be formed for the benefit of those
who were unable to attend school during the ordinary hours of
labour, students in these classes paying a fee to defray the expense
of lights.

To meet the cost of the scheme, a cess of i per cent, was intended
to be levied as the land settlement in each District was completed by
the Survey Department. But subsequently the Local Funds being con-
stituted on the basis previously described, in 1S72-3 the proportion of
24 per cent, from the entire Local Fund cess was allotted for H6bli and
Village schools. This admitted of the expansion of the scheme, which
had all along enjoyed marked popularity and success, and an aggregate
of 750 such schools was thus provided for, with an examining staff of
15 Sub-Deputy Lispectors.

In 1875 the upper department of the Bangalore High School was
formed into a Central College, and in connection with it a School of
Engineering and Natural Science was established on an entirely new
footing, for the purpose of training selected Natives for both the
officers' and subordinate grades of the Public Works, Forest and
Revenue Survey Departments.

Meanwhile education by private bodies had been encouraged by a
liberal system of grants-in-aid, subject to Government inspection. The
number of private schools thus aided by the State continued greatly to
multiply, and the character of their instruction, influenced by the
general elevation of that imparted in Government institutions, was
vastly improved. The Department in this manner succeeded in
bringing within the scope of its operations and enlisting the sympathy
of all the educational agencies at work in the country, whether



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION



European or native, together with the co-operation of the learned
-classes.

The following figures will serve to illustrate the growth and expense
■ of the Department in two decades, and before and after the allotments
made from Local Funds : —



Yenr.



No. of
Schools.



No. of
Pupils.



Charges to
Government.



Receipts from

fees and other

sources.



Net cost to Govern-
ment.



Total. Per Pupil.



1855-6 ...



Before the formation of the Educational Department.

Rs. ;rs. a. r.

1,108 16,580 ; 2,566 16,580 I 14 15 5



Government
Schools.

1862-3

1865-6

1872-3

1875-6

Aided Schools.

1862-3

1865-6

1872-3

1875-6



After the formation of the Educational Department.



13


990


49


2,408 ,


659


19,497


730


27,711


14


1,383


33


3,234


98


6,900


114


8,598



29,729
49,188

1,37,855
1,84,533



7,940
25,561
41,109
46,721



3,517
12,677

1,10,785

1,31,387



6,268

29,418

77,225
78,769



26,212

36,511
27,070
53,156



7,940
25,561

41,109

46,721



26 7 7

15 2 7

I 6 2

I 14 8



10



7 14 5
5 5 10
5 6 II



In addition to the above there were reckoned to be at this latter
date 1,350 private unaided schools, with 17,882 pupils.

A scheme for Industrial training for Europeans and Eurasians was
introduced in connection with the Anglo-Indian Aid Association. A
grant of Rs. 200 a month was made to it from the ist January 1876,
on condition that 40 youths should be on the rolls, of whom at least
two-thirds must be under definite engagement as apprentices. Under
this scheme 22 boys were under training in an Industrial school at
Bangalore, and i 7 others apprenticed to local firms. The Apprentice
Act was also introduced into Mysore in connection with the movement.
Besides the above, 11 junior boys and 21 girls were under subordinate
training. The scheme, however, did not outlive the famine.

The Educational Department was controlled by a Director of Public
Instruction. There were three principal circles of inspection, two in
charge of Inspectors, and the third in charge of a Deputy Inspector.
Subordinate to these were 2 Sub-Deputy Inspectors for Hindustani
Schools, and 15 for H6bli and Village Schools.

But the famine affected the Educational in common with all other



752 A DMTNISTRA TION

Departments. In April 1878 the H6bli Normal Schools were closed.
In April 1879 the two European Inspectors were transferred to other
parts of India, and their places were supplied by four native Deputy
Inspectors, on much lower pay, one for each District. The previously
existing Deputy Inspector was also made Assistant in the
Directors' Office and had charge of the Town and Cantonment of
Bangalore. As another measure of economy, all charges for vernacular
education were thrown upon Local funds, thus relieving the State
revenues of all expenditure except what was incurred for English
instruction.

Under new rules of affiliation the Central College and Bishop
Cotton's Schools and College in Bangalore had been affiliated to the
Madras University up to the B.A. Examination ; and the Maharaja's
High School, Mysore, and the Shimoga High School up to the First in
Arts Examination. The School of Engineering and Natural Science in
Bangalore was at the same time affiliated in Civil Engineering. Its
abolition on the plea of economy had been proposed, but the
Government of India did not approve of this step. The uncertain
demands, however, of the public service in view of impending changes,
made it necessary to give it up on a collegiate scale in 1880. Scholar-
ships were in lieu granted to advanced students to enable them to
complete their Engineering course in the large Colleges at Madras or
Poona. The lower students continued to be trained as Overseers in
the Public Works Department and for subordinate appointments in the
Topographical and Revenue Survey Departments. Botanical classes
were also opened to prepare subordinates for the Forest Department ;
and a Medical School was formed in connection with the Bangalore
Petta Hospital, providing a three years' course of study in preparation
for Hospital Assistants.

The returns for 18S0-1 illustrate the progress of the Department up
to the time of the Rendition. There were then 899 Government
Schools, with 33,287 pupils; and 188 Aided Schools, with 9,370
pupils : or a total of 1,087 schools, containing 42,657 pupils, of whom
38,713 were boys and 3,944 girls. ^ According to race, 1,142 were
Europeans or Eurasians, 1,051 Native Christians, 35,757 Hindus,
4,330 Muhammadans, and 377 others. The total expenditure was
Rs. 3,91,028, of which only Rs. 1,58,423 was met from State Revenues,

' The unaided indigenous schools may be put down at 1,000, with 15,000 pupils.
In addition to these were the Regimental schools, under the military authorities, which
were 7 in number, containing 970 pupils. These being added, which, seeing that the
military are included in the census of the population, is but just, we obtain a grand
total of 58,627 pupils (54,480 boys and 4,147 girls) under instruction, or i in 71-4 of
the population.



MEDICAL 753

the remainder, or Rs. 2,32,605, being defrayed — Rs. 1,40,976 from
Local and Municipal funds, Rs. 57,250 from school fees, and the rest
from private sources.

The following are further details relating to the several grades of
instruction : —



Grade.


Schools.


Pupils.


University Education


4


132


Secondary ,,


166


3.084


Primary ,,


907


38,296


Special ,,


ID


1,145



f.overnment


Other


expcndituie.


expenditure.


22,720


1,160


63,137


40,461


145,237


48,758


7,328


1,250



The results of examinations in that year show that 6 students passed
the B.A. examination, 16 the First in Arts examination, 126 the
Matriculation examination, and 186 the Middle School examination.



^rEDICAL

The medical institutions maintained by the Mysore Government in
1 88 1 were the following : —

General Hospitals, with dispensaries attached :— Bowring Civil Hospital,
Bangalore ; Raja's Hospital, Mysore ; Civil Hospital, Hassan.

Dispensaries, with wards for in-patients : — Kolar, Hassan, Chitaldroog,
Chikmagalur, Tiimkur ; for out-patients only : — Bangalore Petta, and
eleven taltiq headquarter stations. One at Shathalli, belonging to the
Roman Catholic Mission, was aided by a Government grant.

Special Hospitals : — Lunatic Asylum, Leper Hospital, both at Bangalore.
Maternity Hospitals at Bangalore and Mysore, newly established.

Temporary special Famine Hospitals were opened in 1877.

The Surgeon to the Mysore Commission was stationed at Bangalore,
and had charge of the Bowring Civil Hospital and the two Asylums, as
well as the general control of vaccination, while another medical officer
was Superintendent of the Central Jail and had the supervision of the
Petta Dispensary. There was a Civil Surgeon at the headquarters of
each of the other two Divisions, who was also Superintendent of the
local Jail and Inspector of all medical institutions within the limits of
the Division. The Deputy Surgeon-General, Indian Medical Depart-
ment, for Mysore and the Ceded Districts, personally inspected the
institutions at headquarters at Bangalore, and others which hajjpened
to lie in the routes of his official tours. He also acted as Sanitary
Commissioner and Registrar of Vital Statistics.

During the period of the Maharaja's government there was a Darbar
Surgeon attached to the Court, who superintended His Highness'
Hospital at Mysore. After the assumption of the government by the
British, a dispensary was established in 1833 in a room in the Com-

3 c



754 ^i DAf/NISTRA TION

missioner's Office in the Fort of Bangalore, and in 1834 one in the
Cantonment. In 1839 a Hospital and dispensary were commenced in
the Petta on a small scale, but proved so popular and useful that a
suitable building, with accommodation for 50 patients, was erected in
1847. In 1849 the Fort Dispensary was also provided with a proper
building. In 1850 a Hospital was opened at Shimoga. In 1852 a
Hospital for 70 in-patients was established in the Cantonment Bazaar,
and the Petta Hospital was enlarged. A further addition to the latter
was made in 1856, and in that year the Yelwal Dispensary, established
in connection with the Residency, was transferred to Hassan. In
1866 the Petta Hospital was further enlarged, but meanwhile the
Bowring Civil Hospital was under erection in the Cantonment, on the
plan of La Riboisiere in Paris, which admits of the segregation of the
several castes of people and of different classes of disease. It was
occupied in 1868, and in 1872 the Petta Hospital was converted into a
Dispensar}', in-patients being transferred to the Bowring Hospital.

The numbers under treatment by the jMedical establishment steadily
increased every year, the totals for two decades being as given below,
fis well as those for 1 880-1 : —

Bangalore. Outstations. Total.

In-patients. Out-patients. In-patients. Out-patients.

11,243 3S1 6,198 19,518
18,711 _ _ _

47,604 1,863 68,044 118,993

46,040 1,827 151,647 156,989

The diseases for which treatment was chiefly sought at the medical
institutions of Government were skin diseases, fevers, diseases of the eye,
injuries, dysentery and diarrhoea, respiratory and venereal diseases.
Among skin diseases, scabies was the most common ; among fevers,
the paroxysmal type ; among affections of the eye, simple and catarrhal
ophthalmia ; among affections of the respiratory system, bronchitis was
perhaps the most prevalent.

Fevers were the chief cause of mortality in the Province, not less
than 30,000 deaths occurring from this cause alone annually, which,
considering that this is not ordinarily a directly fatal class of disease,
will convey some idea of the extent to which it prevailed. Dengue
was a peculiar type that appeared in 1873 and reached its height in
March. It was most severe in ^Mysore and Seringapatam, proving
fatal in some instances.

Cholera carried off the greatest number of victims in 1866-7, ^vhen
18,504 deaths were reported from this cause. The cholera years since
have been 187 1-2, with 4,297 deaths, and 1875-6, with 3,139. The
minimum of deaths from this disease was in 1874-5, when there were



IS55-6


1,696


1865-6


1,800


1875-6


1,482


1880-1


1,688



MEDICAL 755

only 2, 5 in 186S-9, 12 in 1873-4, and 51 in 1872-3. The outbreak
of 1866 was attributed to the scarcity or famine, and was general. Of
the course of the disease in 1870-1, the following remarks are taken
from the Deputy Surgeon-General's report : —

The first cases of cholera were reported in April, and were supposed to
have been imported from the Salem District, where, and in Southern India
generally, the disease prevailed at the close of 1869 and commencement of
1870. The disease during 1870 fell with the greatest intensity upon the
eastern Districts of the Province, and notably upon the Cantonment of
Bangalore itself, a few ripples only of the storm-wave reaching the western
Districts. There was an apparent lull altogether at the close of the year.
The months of June, July and August were those in which the disease
prevailed to the greatest extent. But at the close of January 1871, cases
were reported from the western Districts, the disease having, it is alleged,
been re-imported from the Western Coast, where it prevailed with some
intensity at the close of the year 1870. From this period the disease
extended its ravages. It invaded the Districts of Mysore and Hassan ; and
the mortality was heavy. It was not till the 15th February that undoubted
evidence was obtained of the disease having appeared at Hunsur in an
epidemic form, and it was reported to have been introduced by travellers
from Cannanore. From Hunsur it spread to Fraserpet, being introduced,
it is alleged, by cartmen frequenting the distillery there. About the time of
its appearance at Hunsur, reports came in of deaths in different taluqs of
the Ashtagram Division. The first death in the town of Mysore occurred
on the 22nd February, and the disease speedily spread and expanded itself
very much in the Ashtagram Division. A few deaths occurred in towns on
the high road to Bangalore, on dates subsequent to the first death at
Hunsur. The disease, in fact, occupied principally, indeed almost entirely,
the Districts which were spared in 1870, while those which experienced the
main incidence of the disease in that year escaped in 1871. The Districts
of Mysore and Hassan suffered to the greatest extent. The deaths in the
former amounted to 2,156, or in the ratio of 2*9 per mille of population.
But the Yelandur JAgir suffered far more than any taluq under the
direct administration of the Mysore Government. The deaths therein were
708 out of a population of 25,765 souls, or in the ratio of 27 per mille.

In regard to the question of invasion and propagation, whether by human
intercourse or by prevailing currents of wind, every medical report received
speaks of introduction from infected localities by travellers. At the close
of 1870 the disease was known to prevail on the Western Coast, and at the
time the first warning notes of its possible invasion by one or other of the
main lines of intercommunication were sounded, the prevailing winds were
easterly ; north of east in January, east veering to south-east in February
and March. Now in these months the disease certainly advanced in an
easterly direction, against the prevailing currents of wind. But later in the
year, when the disease attained its acme of intensity in the months of June
and July, strong south-west winds prevailed. We do not notice as coin-

3 C 2



756 A DAflNISTRA TION

cidcnt with the setting in of the south-west monsoon any extension of the
epidemic to the eastward. On the contrary, the eastern Districts which
had felt the weight of the pestilence in 1870, almost entirely escaped. In
the Nundidroog Division, for instance, the deaths were only in the ratio of
0*46 per millc of population.

An interesting fact may be noted in connection with the extensive
prevalence of the disease in Mysore, Seringapatam, Ganjam and surround-
ing villages. On the fact becoming known to the Officer commanding the
30th Regiment at the French Rocks, that small station was as far as
possible put under quarantine. A cordon of sentries was thrown out round
the station, travellers were diverted, and communication between the
inhabitants of the bazaars and neighbouring infected villages as far as
possible prevented. The station entirely escaped, while villagers within a
few miles were suffering heavily. Had the extension of the pestilence been
due to aerial currents, the French Rocks could scarcely have escaped,
while the measures taken were precisely those calculated to prevent its
introduction by human intercourse.

In this year the special sanitary regulations now in force were
brought into operation at all fairs, religious festivals and other large
gatherings of people.

The spread of cholera in 1875 is thus described. Two sporadic cases
occurred in May in the Hassan District, and on the 14th July the disease,
imported from Coimbatore, appeared at Gundlupet, 70 miles south of the
town of Mysore. Subsequently the Province was invaded by cholera
imported from the Bellary and Kadapa Districts. In September the
violence of the epidemic reached its acme. In this month all the Districts
excepting three, in October all but one, and in November one and all, were
affected. In December there was a marked reduction in the aggregate of
mortality. Cholera attacked Bangalore in September, and in November
the mortality amounted to 225, and December to 95. Only 13 casualties
occurred in the Town of Bangalore. The ratios of death per mille in the
Cantonment and Town of Bangalore were 3"89 and •21 respectively. In
the town of Mysore the mortality was 534, equal to 9*24 per mille of the
population. Shimoga lost 11 "69 per mille from the epidemic. The total
mortality registered amounted to 3,139, of which 1,828 were males and
1,311 females. The largest mortality occurred in the Mysore District.

The deaths from small-pox, which had ranged from 350 to 400 in
the three years previous, rose to 1,494 in 187 1-2, and to 4,532 in
1872-3, when the epidemic reached its height. The numbers pro-
gressively declined each year since, bei«g 3,052 in 1873-4, 1,535 in
1874-5^ and 544 in 1875-6.

Vaccitiation. — Private inoculators are stated to have been formerly
pretty numerous, but by 1855 they had been completely deprived of
their occupation by the preference given to the Government vacci-



MEDICAL 757

nators. These were 54 in number, and were transferred from taluq to
taluci as necessary. There were three grades, on the respective pay of
8, 10 and 12 rupees a month. Each vaccinator was expected to
vaccinate 10 persons for each rupee of his pay, or suffer a proportionate
fine. A small money reward was given at the end of the year to
the most active vaccinator of each division. Under this system the
number of operations increased with suspicious rapidity. The total of
62,257 in 1855-6, rose to 91,404 in 1857-8, and was little below a
lakh in 1862-3. It became notorious that, with the connivance of the
village officials, the verification lists sent in by the vaccinators were
frequently fictitious. The project was then formed, in 1865-6, of making
them work in a more systematic manner through their ranges, proceeding
from village to village in regular succession ; and as by this mode of
proceeding some difficulty might be found in making up the required
complement, the stipulation as to the number of operations to be
performed monthly was withdrawn. The total, which had fallen in
that year to 88,054, went down in 1866-7 to 73,793- Since that time
it steadily rose, until in 1875-6 it again touched a lakh, and has, with
some variations in the famine years, remained at near that figure. In
1872-3 a system of inspection, by the apothecaries attached to the
camps of Deputy Commissioners, was introduced as a check, which
appears to have worked well. There were 84 Taluq vaccinators in
:88o-i, and four in the Bangalore Municipality. The medical
subordinates in Hospitals and Dispensaries also vaccinated.

Special Hospitals. — The Leper House was opened in the Petta in
1845 ; the building, however, was small and badly situated; a large one
was therefore built in a better spot in 1857. The Lunatic Asylum was
opened near the Petta Hospital in 1850, the inmates being removed
from a smaller place of custody which had existed two years previously
in the Cantonment, and a few years after the old Petta Jail was added
to the accommodation.

Li the Leper Asylum there were 26 inmates at the close of 1S74 ; in
1875, 19 were admitted. Of these 7 died, 3 absconded, and 3 were
discharged at their own request. The population of the asylum
constituted about one-fourth of the total number of lepers known to
have resided in the Town and Cantonment of Pangalore. The gurjun
oil treatment was fairly carried out during the year, and the Deputy
Surgeon-General remarked that "as a therapeutic agent, it had been
found to improve the state of the skin, to assist in healing up
leprous sores, to corroborate somewhat the general health, and in some
cases to recall sensation to anaesthetic spots, but it had failed to
produce any permanent amelioration or to change for the better the



758 A DMINISTRA TION

true leprous cachexia. Most of the i)atients were, however, averse to
the external use of the oil."

In the Lunatic Asylum no restraint was practised, further than
confining a patient to his own room when he became violent or
excited; and as it is believed to be an important point in the treatment
of the insane to find for them both mental and bodil}^ occupation,
those whose health would admit of it were regularly employed in some
sort of out-door labour, consisting chiefly of gardening, rope-making,
&c. For the latter two years, the males and females were allowed to
mix together freely in the garden without any bad results ; on the
contrary, it was found that they took scarcely any notice of each other.
Nearly half the cases of mental derangement were attributed to the
abuse of bangh, opium and intoxicating drugs.



MILITARY DEPARTMENTS

The Subsidiary Treaty of Seringapatam concluded in 1799, provided
in its Second xVrticle for the maintenance, within the Territory bestowed
upon the Raja of Mysore, of a British force for the defence and
security of His Highness' dominions, on account of which the Mysore
State was to pay a subsidy of 7 lakhs of star pagodas (equal to 24^
lakhs of rupees) annually, the disposal of this sum, together with the
arrangement and employment of the troops to be maintained by it,
being left entirely to the East India Company. The Third Article
provided, that in the event of hostile operations becoming necessary
for the protection of either the Company's or the Mysore territories,
the Raja should contribute towards the increased charges a reasonable
amount, as determined by the Governor-General with reference to the
net revenues of the State.

British Subsidiary Force. — Under the first of these provisions,
Mysore was garrisoned by troops of the Madras Army. The ]\Iysore
(Military) Division in 1881 included Coorg and the Nilagiri Hills.
The headquarters were at Seringapatam till 1809, since when they
have been established at Bangalore. The only other military station
occupied in Mysore in 1881 was that of the French Rocks, 4 miles
north of Seringapatam ; Harihar (Hurryhur), on the Tungabhadra, the
last post given up, was abandoned in 1865.

Her Majesty's forces at Bangalore consisted in iSSi of the following
troops :— Headquarters and a battery of Royal Horse Artillery, and



Online LibraryB. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) RiceMysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) → online text (page 89 of 98)