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Mysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) online

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perty, and gangs are escorted by the Police when they move from place
to place.

The Village Police is under the Patel, who is assisted by the minor
village officials. They report crime and help the Regular Police in
prevention and detection of crime. The Patel is held responsible for
the enforcement of night watches in villages, for the upkeep of boundary
hedges and village choultries, and for the general safety of the villagers.

Criminal Justice. — The administration of Justice was presided over
by the Chief Judge, a European, exercising the powers of a High
Court. In 1884 a Chief Court was formed of three Judges, the Chief
Judge being a European (a retired Judge of the Madras High Court),
and the two Puisne Judges being Natives. From 1891 the Chief Judge
was also a Native, but in 1895 a European was again appointed.

The Chief Court exercised original jurisdiction in criminal
cases in Bangalore, Kolar and Tumkur Districts from May 1884, when
the Court of the Sessions Judge of the Nundydroog Division was
abolished, until September 1890, when the latter Court was re-estab-
lished, holding periodical sessions in the three Districts. In 1887 the
system of trial by jury was introduced in Sessions cases. In 1888 the
holding of periodical sessions at Hassan was revived. For Appellate
jurisdiction in Criminal cases, no separate Benches were formed ; the
Benches that sat for Civil Appellate work also disposing of Criminal
appeals. As a rule appeals against the decisions of the Chief Court
on the original side are disposed of by a Full Bench, and other appeals
by a Divisional Bench of two Judges. The Chief Court also acts as a
Court of Reference and a Court of Revision.

In i8go there were 131 Courts subordinate to the Chief Court,
presided over by the following classes of magistrates : —

Magistrates of the 3rd class ... ... ... ... ... 76

2nd ,, 24

,, ,, 1st ,, 20

District Magistrates 8

Courts of Sessions ... ... ... ... ... ... 3

In 1892 a European Magistrate's Court was established at the Kolar
Gold-mines, and in 1895 a temporary Sub- Judge's Court at Shimoga.
The receipts of the Criminal Courts in that year were Rs. 76,257, and
the charges Rs. 2,32,948.

The subjoined statement exhibits the nature of the punishments
awarded by the various tribunals for five years : —



PRISONS



769





Numbers


Sentenced to








Imprisonment.


Fine.


Whipping.


2^







punished


Death.


Trans-
porta-










c -
c 3








^''- ?° ' Above


10 stripes Above


t/l V










Rigorous


Simple.


and 1 n


and 10




a >














under.




under, stripes.




1886 1 7,770


.s


.s


1,282


183


6,121


62


54


S8


19


22


1887 8,886


13


4


1,150


169


7>393


S2


43


62


2^


13


1888 8,768


2


10


1,112


222


7,256


60


41


6S


27


15


1889 1 8,784


9


9


1,287


172


7,057


I2S


51


74


46


17


1890 7,615


4


5


1,250


206


5,963 \ 69


40


7S


56


II



Prisons. — The Chief Judge is ex-officio Inspector-General of Prisons.
The temporary jail at Kukarhalli was given up in Jtuie 1881, and on
the revision of Districts and Taluqs in 1882-3 only three Jails, the
Central Jail at Bangalore and the District Jails at Mysore and Shimoga,
were kept up, with the Lock-ups at Taluq and Sub-Taluq headquarters.
Rules were at the same time framed specifying the Jails to which
persons sentenced by the different Courts should be sent for incarcera-
tion. In 1882 it was decided not to transport any more life-convicts
from Mysore to the Andaman Islands, owing to the cost involved in
maintaining them there. The Mysore convicts already there were
brought back (except a few dangerous characters whom it was thought
well to leave) and Rs. 103,252 paid for their past upkeep. They have
since then been confined in the Central Jail, Bangalore, and this course
is now pursued with all life-convicts. In 1887 the Lock-up at Bangalore
and in 1890 the Lock-ups at Mysore and Shimoga were absorbed in the
respective Jails at those places. There thus remained three Jails and
78 Lock-ups. In 1889 the ticket-of-leave sy.stem was introduced among
life-convicts, on the basis of the rules in force in the Punjab. Some
changes in improving the scales of diet were also made about this time.

The number of convicts in Jail, which was 1,689 in 1881, was 819 in
1890. Of the latter, 254 were under sentence for less than one year,
108 for above one and less than two years, 114 for above two and
below five years, 128 for above five and below ten years, 9 for above
ten years. There were also under sentence of transportation, 200 for
life and 6 for a term. The total included 762 male and 57 female
prisoners. There were 7 under sixteen years of age, 619 between six-
teen and forty, 169 between forty and sixty, and 24 above sixty.

The convicts are employed in cleaning and grinding ragi, on jirison
duties, such as, prison warders, servants and gardeners, on the prepara-
tion of articles for use or consumption in the jails, on jail buildings,
manufactures and i)ul)lic works. The chief industries arc printing,

\ i>



770 ADMINISTRATION

carpet, tent and blanket making, cloth-weaving, gunny and coir work,
carpenters' and ijlacksmiths' work in the Central Jail at Bangalore ;
carpenters' and smiths' work in the Shimoga Jail, and weaving and
spinning, basket and mat making, and pottery in the Mysore Jail.

There is a paid teacher in tlie Bangalore Central Jail to give instruc-
tion to convicts. A large number are taught Kannada : a few
Hindustani and English.

The cost of the jails fell from Rs. 158,507 in 1881 to Rs. 88,517 in
1890. The net cost per head of average strength in the latter year,
after deducting the value of jail industries, was Rs. 94.3.6.

Civil Justice. — There are four classes of Civil Courts, namely : —
Courts of Munsiffs, of Subordinate Judges, District Courts, and the
Chief Court. Munsiffs exercise original jurisdiction in cases up to
Rs. 1,000 in value, and Small Cause powers up to Rs. 50 ; Subordinate
Judges have jurisdiction in cases from above Rs. 1,000 to Rs. 5,000,
and Small Cause powers from above Rs. 50 to Rs. 100, and hear
appeals from decisions of Munsiffs if referred by the District Judge ;
District Courts have unlimited jurisdiction, hear appeals from
decisions of Munsiffs, and from those of Subordinate Judges within the
limit of Rs. 3,000. The Chief Court, by one of its Judges sitting for
the purpose, acted for some time as the District Court for Bangalore,
Kolar and Tumkur \ sitting as a Full Bench it hears appeals from the
decrees of a single Judge as above, and sitting as a Bench of not less
than two Judges disposes of all other appeals brought before it. In
1890 its original civil jurisdiction over the three Districts named was
withdrawn and transferred to the new District and Sessions Court
established at Bangalore. An Additional Munsiff's Court was also
formed to relieve such of the Munsiffs as had heavy files. In July
1893, the Special Magistrate of the Kolar Gold-fields was appointed as
Munsiff also, with jurisdiction up to Rs. 100 in ordinary suits and
Rs. 50 in small causes. In August 1894, a Subordinate Judge's Court
was temporarily opened at Shimoga for relief of judicial work, and
closed in June 1895.

There were thus in 1895 three District Courts, at Bangalore, Mysore
and Shimoga ; two Courts of Subordinate Judges, at Bangalore and
Mysore, which also take up all the Small Cause cases there ; nineteen
INIunsiffs' Courts in various parts, including the Additional Munsiff:
altogether twenty-four, besides the Chief Court. The number of suits
instituted gradually increased from 15,788 in 18S6 to 19,861 in 1895,
nearly one-half of them belonging to the class of Small Causes. The
receipts in all the Courts in the latter year were Rs. 345,008, and the
charges Rs. 341,103.



M UN I C IP A LI TIES 7 7 1

Registration. — Till 1S86 the Inspector-General of Registration was
an officer who was at the same time Comptroller, and also Super-
intendent of the Government Press. The office was subsequently held
by the Legislative Secretary.

The Deputy Commissioners were ex-officio District Registrars, and
the Taluq Amildars were Sub-Registrars. Wherever the work has
increased to a certain amount, special Sub-Registrars have been
appointed. In 1892 Deputy Commissioners were relieved of Regis-
tration work, the Treasury Assistant Commissioners being appointed to
do it. Likewise the Sheristadars relieved the Amildars in taluqs. In
1S95 Deputy Commissioners were again made District Registrars. In
that year the Department consisted, besides them, of fifteen special
Sub-Registrars and sixty-four Sheristadars as ex-officio Sub-Registrars.
The number of documents registered was 42,974, affecting property
valued at Rs. 11,360,893. Of these, 26,626 were documents whose
registration was compulsory, and 14,882 those whose registration was
optional. The receipts of the department were Rs. 95,652 and the
expenditure was Rs. 50,003.

Municipal Administration. — Excluding that of the Civil and .Military
Station of Bangalore, which remained under British Administration,
there were 83 Municipalities in 1881. By 1895 the number had
risen to 112. They are established in all District and Taluq head-
quarter towns and in other large places that are suitable. But those of
Bangalore and Mysore cities are the only ones of important magnitude.
The Municipal Boards are composed of official and non-official
members nominated by Government, with the Deputy Commissioner
or Taluq Amildar as President. The ex-officio members do not as a
rule exceed one-third of the total number. In 1892 the privilege of
election was granted to Bangalore and Mysore, with specific rules for
the qualifications of candidates and of voters, and the former has now
a separate paid President. In Bangalore there are 22 Municipal
Commissioners, 1 1 elected, 5 ex offiicio, and 6 nominated by Govern-
ment ; in Mysore the total is 20, composed of 10, 5 and 5 respectively.
The income of the former amounted to i^ lakhs in 1893-4, and of the
latter to i^ lakhs. These funds are derived from octroi, taxes on
buildings, mohatarfa, license fees, &c. ; and are expended on con-
servancy, lighting, roads, drains, water supply, charitable institutions, &c.
The income of the remaining no Municipalities came to Rs. 2,79,652
in 1893-4, and in many suffices for little more than sanitary operations
to keep the places clean, but various local improvements are carried
out wherever funds are available. Out of the total municipal
income in 1894-5 of Rs. 5,63,000, the amount spent was Rs. 4,89,000,

3 D 2



772 ADMINISTRATION

dislribulLd as follows: — 23'22 per cent, on conservancy and sanitation,
6*22 on lighting, 37'65 on public works, 6-8o on education, and 7*29
on medical aid.

Military. — The Military Department is under the Military Secretary,
who also has charge of the Amrit Mahal. Cavalry. — In August 1883,
a Cavalry Officer of the British service was appointed as Staff Officer,
for the purpose of drilling the Silahdars and bringing them up to
a higher standard of efficiency. In 1885 the three regiments of
Silahdars, stationed at Bangalore, Mysore and Shimoga, with detach-
ments at other District headquarters, w^ere reduced to two, with a total
strength of 1,171, and stationed at Bangalore and Mysore, for greater
convenience of management, furnishing detachments where required as
before. In 1892 the two regiments were broken up and two fresh
corps formed, as finally sanctioned in July 1893, one, called the
Imperial Service Lancers, with headquarters at Bangalore, for imperial
service, and the other, with headquarters at Mysore, for local service.
The former consists of picked men, better paid, mounted and equipped,
and on the same footing as Native Cavalry of the British service.
They are commanded by a member of the Mysore Royal family, are
brigaded with the British troops at reviews, and are periodically
inspected by the British Staff Officer appointed for that purpose, and
by the Inspector-General of Imperial Service Cavalry with the Govern-
ment of India. A Transport Service, to be made up to 300 ponies,
and suitable camp equipment are maintained in connection with it in
readiness for service. The actual strength of the two regiments in 1895
was : Imperial Service Regiment, 645 ; Local Service Regiment, 549 ; or
1,194 altogether. Infantry. — -The three battalions of Barr Sepoys were
somewhat reduced in 1888 by allowing only eight companies to each
instead of ten. Their actual strength in 1895 was 1,890. The head-
quarters were at Bangalore, Mysore and Shimoga respectively, and
detachments were furnished to other Districts for Treasury guards and
similar duties.

The uniforms and armament of both Cavalry and Infantry have
undergone several changes and improvements, and are now generally
assimilated to those of the Native troops in the British service. The
military expenditure in 1894-5 amounted to Rs. 9,19,264, of which
Rs. 46,557 was for headquarters establishment, Rs. 5,51,707 for
cavalry, Rs. 3,14,097 for infantry, and Rs. 6,902 for military stores.
The cost of the Imperial Service Regiment, included in the above, was
Rs. 3,23,010.



773



PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION

Agriculture. — A Director of Agriculture and Statistics was appointed
in 1886, the office being held along with those of Inspector-General of
Police and of Forests and Plantations. The duties were the collection
of statistics of rainfall, cultivation, cattle, trade and manufacture, with
promotion of experiments in agriculture and in the breeding of live
stock. These subjects have been already treated of Agricultural
Inspectors, trained in the Agricultural College at Saidapet, were
appointed to each District. An Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition
was held at Mysore in October 1888, at the close of the Dasara, and
was well attended. The number of exhibits exceeded 30,000, and a
]arge number of medals and prizes were distributed.

Weather and Crops. — Meteorological observatories, fully equipped,
were established, in 1892-3, at Bangalore, under the Principal of the
Central College, and at Mysore, Hassan and Chitaldroog under the
Science Assistant of the College or High School. The observations
recorded, of temperature, wind, clouds and rain, are daily telegraphed to
the ^Meteorological Reporter with the ( iovernment of India. Rain gauges
of a uniform pattern are maintained at 151 stations, and the registered
rainfall is reported to headquarters. The results are made use of in
Vol. II. under each District. Crops have already been fully dealt with.

Forests. — An Inspector-General of Forests and Plantations, who also
held other offices, as above stated, was appointed in 1885. In 1895
the department was placed under a separate Conservator of Forests ;
nearly all the Assistants are Natives, several of w^hom have passed
through a course of training in the Forest School at Dehra Dun.

The area of State Forests, or those which are reserved, was 643
square miles in 1881, and 1,654 square miles in 1895. The un-
reserved or District forests are under the management of the Revenue
authorities, and it has been found necessary, while providing for local
needs, to place restrictions on the indiscriminate felling of wood in
these tracts, in order to stop the reckless \asle that was going on in
several parts. I'uel reserves are also formed out of them when
suitable. The area of regular plantations slocked was 9 square miles
in 1885 and 34 square miles in 1895. This includes both forest
plantations and revenue plantaiions. In ihe former, a regular system
of nurseries, pitting and planting out of valuable kinds of trees, with
subsequent pruning and thinning, is pursued. In the latter, managed
by the Amildars, the land is merely ploughed, and in the rains seeds



7 7 4 ADMINISTRA TION

arc sown in drills, of indigenous trees that will admit of coppicing
afterwards. l>y 1895 there were 1,520 square miles of forests and
plantations brought under fire conservancy measures, and 1,416 square
miles were successfully protected from fire in that year. Grazing is
permitted to a certain extent on a system of licenses.

The number of reserved kinds of trees was increased from 9 in
1881 to II, and in 1890 to 12. The following are their names : —

Sandalwood SaiitahiDi album.

Teak Tectoiia grandis.

Poon Calophylhim e latum.

Blackwood Dalbergia latifolia.

Honne Pterocarpus marsiipium.

Lac, Jalari Vatica laccifera.

Nandi Lagerstrcemia inicrocarpa.



Wild Jack, Hesswa,

Ileb-Halasu Ariocarpiis hirsiita.

Karachi, Kammar,

Arsina Hardwickia binata.

Bill Matti Terjiiinalia arjuna.

Kari Matti Terminaliatomentosa

Ebony, Bale, Ma-

lali Diospyros ebeniiin.

Special attention has been given to promoting the natural repro-
duction as well as the artificial propagation of sandalwood, teak and
other profitable trees.

The sales of large-sized timber are made at the regular Timber
Depots, and of the smaller sized at temporary depots opened in con-
venient places. The latter practice was introduced in 1883 in place of
the license system. But licenses are still granted for cutting bamboos.
Sandalwood, which is a State monopoly and contributes the greater
proportion of forest revenue, is sold at the various Sandalwood Kotis,
and improvements have been made in the preparation of billets and
roots, as such prepared wood fetches a higher price. Sleepers and
fuel for the railways were supplied from the forests in large quantities
for several years. Attention has of late been paid to improving the
revenue from minor forest products, such as myrobalans, lac, and
fangadi bark used for tanning. The elephant keddahs, already
described (p. 179) are also attached to the Forest department.

The surplus receipts from Forests have been steadily rising from
4*82 lakhs in 18S1-2, to 6"56 lakhs in 1885-6, to 8*49 lakhs in 1889-90^
to 9"3i lakhs in 1890-1, and lo'io lakhs in 1893-4. The total
receipts in the latter year were Rs. 14,21,770, of which sandalwood
produced Rs. 9,29,340, and the charges were Rs. 4,11,348.

Alines and Quarries. — A Geological Department was formed in
1894-5, under Mr. Bruce Foote, F.G.S., retired from the Geological
Survey of India. Its duties involve an investigation of the geology and
mineralogy of the country, and the inspection of mines. A number of
apprentice geologists are being trained for the work, most of them natives
of Mysore. An account has been given above of the gold-mines.

Manufacture and Trade. — Already treated of in detail.



PUBLIC WORKS



lis



Public Works. — This Department has always been under a Royal
Engineer officer as Chief Engineer. The majority of the executive
staff consists of Native engineers of Mysore origin, trained in the
Engineering Colleges at Madras and Poona. There has been great
activity in public works of all classes, especially since 1886, when the
transfer of the State railway to foreign capitalists allowed of larger
sums being placed at disposal for this purpose. The annual grant,
which averaged 15 lakhs before, was raised to 18^ lakhs in 1885-6
rose every following year to 29^ lakhs in 1 890-1, and was between
■^o\ and 32 lakhs in the four years to 1894-5. A special Sanitary
Department was also formed in 1892, the grants for whicli were \\ lakhs
in the first two years, and nearly 2\ lakhs in 1894-5.

The grant for Public Works made from Provincial Funds is supple-
mented by grants from District Inmds and Local Funds General,
Irrigation Cess Fund, and Palace Fund. The following are the
proportions for the past five years : —



Fund.


1890-1.


1891-2.


1892-3.


1893-4.


1894-5.


Provincial Fund
District Fund
Irrigation Fund
I'alace Fund


11,30,000

5,57,789

12,40,940

17,000


21,25,000

5,80,000

3,71,000

7,000


24,00,000

5,57,623

2,13,000

34,000


24,50,000

4,23,065

1,50,000

28,000


25,00,000

4,13,499
2,84,000

I2,CXX)


Total Rs.


29,45,729


30,83,000


32,04,623


30,51,065


32,09,499



The works executed are classed as Original or Repairs, under the
heads Military, Civil Buildings, Communications, Miscellaneous Public
Imj)rovements, and Tanks and Channels. Some additional works, for
which funds are provided from the departments concerned, are also
carried out for Forests, Education, Medical, Muzrai and Municipalities.
But petty repairs were in 1886 entrusted to the several departments
themselves.

The Military works were new Rifle Butts at Hebbal, and im[)rovcd
lines for the Silahdar and Barr forces at the various headquarters.
Civil buildings included a variety of cutcherries, courts, offices, schools,
dispensaries, police-stations, is:c. throughout the country. Some of the
more important major works were extensions of the Palace at l^anga-
lore, erection of the i'ublic Offices at Mysore, the \'ictoria Jubilee
Institute, the new Maharaja's College, the Exhibition building in the
]-al Bagh, the Laboratory and Observatory at the Central College,
the Maternity Hospital at liangalore, the Law Courts at Mysore, the
restoration of the Darya Daulat at Seringapatam, the Couri)alais
Chatram at Shimoga, the I-ansdowne Bazaars at Mysore, &c.



776 ADMINISTRA TION

Under Communications, in 1X94 5 there were 1,747 miles of main
or trunk roads, maintained from Provincial J-'unds, and 3,344 miles of
branch roads maintained from District Funds. The former include
the Madras Cannanorc road, 502 miles ; Salem-Bellary road, 454 miles ;
Eangalore-Honnavar road, 559 miles ; and Bangalore-Mangalore road,
by the Manjarabad (ihat, 196 miles. A number of Ghat roads to the
west have been opened out or improved, and many new roads made as
feeders to the railways. But among the works of greatest magnitude
are the bridges that have been constructed over several rivers, such as
over the Tunga at Hariharpur, over the Bhadra at Bale Honnur, over
the Yagache at Belur, over the Kaveri at Yedatore, and others.

Among Miscellaneous improvements the most important have been
the water-supply of Bangalore and Mysore. The former, the subject
of conflicting schemes and discussions for a great number of years,
has found solution in the project for water from the Hesarghatta tank
on the Arkavati river. The Mysore scheme is in two parts, one of
which includes the filling up of Purnaiya's Nala within municipal limits,
and the other, the conveyance of water from the Kaveri to Mysore by
pumping up with water power and the aid of turbines. Works of this
nature carried out by the separate Sanitary Department were, diversion
of the drainage and sewage of the Mysore fort, the drainage of
Shimoga, water-supply of Chikmagalur, Closepet, Nanjangud, Yeda-
tore, Hunsur, and other towns, together with the drainage and exten-
sion of overcrowded localities.

The annual grant for Irrigation Tanks and Channels was from 3 to
3'63 lakhs from 1881 to 1884, 4'64 lakhs in 1885-6, 6'ii in 1S86-7,
7*29 in 1887-8, 973 in 1888-9, ^^\ lakhs in the next two years, i6"3
in 1891-2 (15 months), 12 '63, 14^ and 134 lakhs in the three years to
1894-5. The serial restoration of tanks had advanced sufificiently by
the time of the Rendition to allow of an abatement of the expenditure
on it in favour of railway extension. In 1886 it was resolved to make
over the minor tanks, or those yielding a revenue not exceeding
Rs. 300, to the Revenue authorities, the ryots doing the earthwork
themselves and Government paying for masonry works where necessary.
The scheme was at first introduced tentatively into one taluq in each
District, and after trial was extended to all parts. A Tank Inspector
was appointed to each taluq to assist the Amildar in the work, and a
trained Sub Overseer to each District to instruct and supervise the Tank
Inspectors. A large amount of useful work has been carried out under
this system. In 1887-8 the management of the river channels in the
irrigation season was transferred to the Amildars of the taluqs through
which they run. This, it was considered, would allow of more speedy



RAILWAYS 777

attention to complaints of unequal distribution of water. In the following
year it was further arranged that the hot weather supply of water to sugar-
cane and garden tracts dependent on channels should be given at fixed
periods, in consultation with the Deputy Commissioners concerned.

The sums spent on Original irrigation works were, on Tanks, 4 "30
lakhs in the five years from 1881, 2578 lakhs in the next five, and



Online LibraryB. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) RiceMysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) → online text (page 91 of 98)