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1889. Ei'om that time a more liberal grant from Provincial Funds
became possible, and the i"35 lakhs of 1 881-2 rose to 175 lakhs in
1886-7, to 2'6i in 1889-90, to 3"02 lakhs in 1890- i, and has since
increased to 4^84 lakhs in 1894-5. At the same time Local Funds
have, in addition, provided for an expenditure of from somewhat less
than I ,\ lakhs frcjm the years after 1881 to i"95 lakhs in 1894-5. The
total State expenditure on education from all sources, including small
sums from Municipal funds, has thus risen from 274 lakhs in 188 1-2
to 6-82 lakhs in 1894-5. Together with this must be taken into
account expenditure from private sources in ^Vided schools, amounting
in 1894 5 to about Rs. 82,000.'

The numbers under instruction have steadily increased, as the
following figures for ten years past testify : — ■

* These and oilier figures in ihis section do not include the C. and M. Station of
Bangalore.



79:



ADMINISTKA TION





Pupils in


Total.


Year.


Pupils in




Year.


Pu-slic
Institu-
tions.


Private
Insiitu-

lions.


Public Piivate
Ins'itu- Institu-
tions, tions.


Total.


1885-6 ...
1886-7 ...
1887-8 ...
1888-9 ■■•
1889-90 ...


43,240
48,859

54,373
59,840
66,501


14,290

14,459
(15,000)

16,378
16,196


57,530
63,318

69,373
76,118
82,697


1890-I ..
189I-2 ..
1892-3 ..
1893-4 ••
1894-5 ••


. 72,970 23,457

. 76,288 25,041

76,963 26,586

79,496 26,003

■ 83,398 27,662


96,427
101,329

103,549
105,499
111,020



Public institutions are those managed, aided or inspected by Govern-
ment. Private institutions are those that do not conform to Govern-
ment rules or standards, generally called indigenous schools. From
the foregoing statistics it appears that public and private institutions
have exactly kept pace with one another, each showing an increased
attendance of 51 '8 per cent. During the same period the Government
expenditure from State funds has increased nearly 35 per cent., and
that from both State and Local funds together nearly 46 per cent. The
vitality of the indigenous schools is thus apparent, and their equal
growth alongside of the public institutions indicates that the desire for
education is very general. Grants in aid amounted to Rs. 34,184 in
1885-6, and to Rs. 51,319 in 1894-5.

Distinguishing between boys and girls under instruction, the
following are the figures for six years ; beyond that complete statistics
are not available : —



1889-90

1890-1

1891-2



Boys.
74,640
86,402
89,967



Girls. I

8,057 I 1892-3

10,025 I 1893-4

11,362 1894-5



Boys.


Girls.


91,904 .


• 11,645


93,312 .


. 12,187


98,260 ..


. 12,760



The numbers of Government and Aided schools, with scholars in
each, at two intervals of ten years, were as follows : — •





G


a/ernment




Aided






Schools.


Scholars.


Schools.




Scholars.


I88I-2 ...


923


36,800


.. 114




6,326


1884-5 •••


... 1,007


... 35,001


.. 130




7,970


I89I-2 ...


... 1,460


63,041


.. 166




11,834


1894-5 ■••


... 1,576


69,480


.. 191




12,872



If the figures for the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore were
added they would considerably swell the totals under Aided schools.
A slight drop in the numbers in Government schools between the first
and second periods, with a rise in those in Aided schools, was due to
the direct action of Government in giving up the junior classes in the
two principal colleges and transferring the pupils. This proceeding



INSTR UCTION 7 93

accorded with recommendations of the Education Commission con-
vened at Calcutta by the Government of India in 1882-3.

In 1884 the teaching staff of the Colleges and High schools was
revised, and the position of the masters much improved by grading
them in classes, with provision for regular increments of pay. In 1890
a superior grade was formed of European professors with University
distinctions for the first-grade colleges. The regular grading of all
other classes of masters has since been carried out, and their service has
been declared as superior with regard to pension, whatever the pay.

The standards of instruction have been re-arranged, and passing the
second vernacular standard made a necessary preliminary to the study
of English. Three years of purely vernacular instruction, followed by
eight years of Anglo-vernacular instruction, are intended to form the
course leading to matriculation. A Text-book Committee has charge
since 1892 of the selection and preparation of suitable school books.
A museum of educational apparatus and books was also then formed
in the Victoria Jubilee Institute. Local Committees have been
entrusted with the management of Ciirls' schools, and the Committees
for Hobli schools have been formed afresh, with definition of their
duties. The Karnataka Bhashojjivini Pathas'ala, founded for pro-
moting the study of Kannada, was in 1894 converted into a Normal
school.

In 1887 the Mysore Local Examination, for pupils and teachers in
vernacular schools, was instituted, under the management of a Com-
mittee. This gave a definite aim to vernacular studies, similar in effect
to what was provided for English by the University and Middle School
examinations, and proved a great stimulus to the Taluq and Hobli
schools. It was modified in 1891 by substituting a Lower Secondary
examination in English, Sanskrit and the vernaculars, with a Vernacu-
lar Upper Secondary and a Teachers' Certificate examination. A
Sanskrit Pandits' examination is held every year before the Da.sara at
the Maharaja's Sanskrit College, Mysore ; and an examination for
Kannacja Pandits was established in 1893.

The three English colleges are the Central College, Bangalore, and
the Maharaja's College, Mysore, both of the first grade, and the
Shimoga College, which is of the second grade. The Central
College specially instructs in >Lithematics and Physical Science as the
optional subjects for the B.A. degree, while the ^L1haraja's College
takes Mathematics and History. The Oriental Colleges are the
Maharaja's Sanskrit College and the Kannada Pandits' classes at
Mysore, and the Sanskrit College, Bangalore. Students' Homes have
been established in connection with some of the colleges.



794



A DMINISTRA TION



Tlic following is a dulailcd classification of all educational institutions
borne on the returns as they stood on the 30th of June 1895 :—





Government.


Aided.


Unaided.


Total.




No.


Pupis.


No.


Pupils.


Nj.


Pupils.


No.


Pupils.


I'UBLic Institutions.

University Education.

Collenjes, English

,, Oriental ...


3
2


410
39


I


84








6

13

150

15

1,438
129

I

I

5

36

3


533


School Education,
General.

Secondary Schools —

High Schools,
English (for Boys)..'.


10


1,733


3


1,691






3,424


Middle Schools,
English (for Boys)...
Vernacular (for
Boys)


46

77


7,998
8,191


15
II


1,248
1,360


I


44


18,841


Middle Schools,
English (for Girls)...
Vernacular (for
Girls)


4


1,006


5
5


475
579


I


37


2,097


Primary Schools — •

For Boys

,, Girls


1,356
70


46,155
3,390


62
54


2,686
3,595


20

5


754
166


49,595
7,151


School Education,
Special.

Training Schools for
Masters

Training Schools for
Mistresses

Industrial Schools ...

Sanskrit Schools

Jail Schools


I

I
2
I
3


106

23

93

91

245


3

32


65
1,089


' 3


i
I

45


106

23
158

1,725
245


Total ...


t
1,576 ' 69,480


191


12,872


30

21
i 2,079


1,046

497
27,125

28,668


1,797


S3.39S


Private Institi'-

TIONS.

Advanced

Elementary











2,100


27,622


Grand Total


1,576 69,480


191


12,872

1


2,130


3,897


1 1 1 ,020



I



The High Schools are the Anglo-vernacular schools at the head-
quarters of each District and at Chile Ballapur and Channapatna, with



INSTjR UCTION 7 9 5

the London and Wesleyan Mission High Schools at Bangalore, and
Wesleyan High School at Mysore. They work up to the matriculation
standard of the Madras University. All the Government High
Schools, except two, are under native Head-masters. The Middle
Schools are mostly Taluq schools, preparing for the Local examina-
tions, with a proportion of Aided Mission and other schools. The
prevailing languages taught are Kannada or Hindustani, with a little
English in some. Fees for Muhamniadans have been reduced to a
half. The Primary schools are Hdbli or Village schools. In addition
to Kannada schools, which form the bulk, there are Hindustani and
Telugu, with a few Tamil and Mahratti schools where needed ; also
Night schools for adults.

Female education has made considerable progress. Though Mission
schools had long held the field and done much good, and some
Government schools had also been at work for a considerable time, a
special impulse was given to the movement by the establishment of
the Maharani's Caste Girls' School at Mysore in 1881. It commended
itself by combining a partially Hindu course of study with Western
methods of instruction ; and, backed by the patronage and influence
of the Palace, set a fashion since followed in other schools. All along
liberally aided, it was taken over entirely by Government in 1891, but
is conducted on the same lines as before, under the management of a
Committee ; and a similar course has been adopted with the remaining
Girls' schools. The present superintendent is a lady from Girton
College, who has taken Honours in the Mathematical tripos at Cam-
bridge. Home education classes have been formed for girls obliged to
leave school.

The Normal School for masters was opened in 1894, and contains
94 Hindus and 23 Muhammadans. The Training School for mistresses
is held in the Maharani's School, and some young widows are also
under preparation there for the same calling.

The Government Industrial schools are at Mysore and Hassan. The
pupils are of all castes and are mostly supported by scholarships.
They learn carpentry, rattan work, blacksmiths' and other mechanical
work, with drawing and modelling. Of the Aided Industrial schools,
two are ^\'esleyan, at Hassan and Tumkur ; the former for orphan
girls, who learn to knit woollen caps and stockings ; the latter for
orphan boys, who learn carpentry, roi)e-making, bricklaying, cVx. The
other school is Roman Catholic, at Mysore, where carpentry and
gardening arc taught, as well as the violin, with a view to providing
bandsmen.



796 A DMINISTRA TION



ARCH/EOLOGY

Arch.4-:olo(;y had for many years received informal attention. A
number of inscriptions photographed by Colonel Dixon in 1865, under
the orders of Mr. Bowring, were translated by the Director of Public
Instruction, and published in 1879, with additions, under the name of
Mysore Inscriptions. In August 1884 he was relieved of Police
work in order to give more time to antiquities, and in January 1885'
was appointed Director of Archaeological Researches in addition to his
office as Education Secretary. The Coorg Inscriptions were published
by him in 1886. In March 1888 a regular Archaeological department
was formed under him, and in April 1890 he was relieved of other
duty for the time, but later on was appointed also to compile the present
work.

Epigraphy. — The entire country has been surveyed and copies of
all inscriptions taken i)i situ. The number discovered is nearly 9,000,
and they are in course of translation and publication under the
designation of Epigraphia Carnatica. A volume of 144 Jain inscrip-
tions at S'ravana Belgola was published in 1889 ; another, containing
803 inscriptions in the Mysore District, was published in 1894 ; and a
further volume, with 880, completing that District, is approaching'
completion. Volumes relating to the other seven Districts are also
going through the press.

The results obtained by the Survey have exceeded expectation. The
most notable discovery was that of Edicts of A'soka in the Molkal-
muru taluq in 1892, an event which has been described by one of the
highest authorities as forming "an epoch in Indian archseology." The
Jain inscriptions relating to Bhadrabahu and Chandra Gupta, the
Satakarni inscription in Shikarpur taluq, the Kadamba inscription at
Talgunda in the same, and one at Anaji in Davangere taluq,
have brought to light ancient records of the highest value
for the history of the first centuries. The Vokkaleri inscrip-
tion opened the eyes of scholars to the true significance of the
Pallavas. The clean forgotten dynasties of the Mahavalis or Banas,
and of the Gangas who ruled Mysore for so long, have been restored
to history. The chronology of the Cholas has been for the first time
definitely fixed. The birthplace of the Hoysalas has been discovered,
and their history worked out in detail. Great additions have been
made to information relating to the Chdlukyas, the Rashtrakiitas, the
Nolambas, the Vijayanagar kings, and other more modern dynasties.



I



ARCH.-EOLOGY 797

Ahtmisniaiics. — An important find, the first in Mysore of this kind,
was that of Roman coins in 1892 near Yesvantpur, in making the
cutting for the Hindupur raihvay. There were 163 silver coins, denarii
of the early emperors — Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula and Claudius,
with one of Antonia — ranging in date from 21 r.c. to 51 a.d. The
find of Buddhist leaden coins near Chitaldroog has been referred to
above, p. 293. That of old Indian coins at Xagar is mentioned in
the appendix. Cold coins of the Hoysalas, before unknown, have
been identified and the legends deciphered.

Architecture and Scii/J>ti/rc. — Information under these heads will be
found on pp. 509ff. Steps have been taken for conserving ancient
monuments of importance, such as the A'soka inscriptions, the
IJhadrabahu inscription and facade of the Chandra Cupta basti at
S'ravana Belgola, the Halebid, Sonniathpur, Arsikere, and other
temples.

Ancient Ma>iuscripts. — The search for these has extended over many
years. The results obtained are already summarised in the chapter on
Literature, pp. 495 ff.



MISCELLANEOUS

Mi/zrai. — ^This department administers the revenues of endowed
religious and charitable institutions, that is, temples, mosques, and
chattrams. There are 1,8 [4 within Mysore, and 29 in British terri-
tory. The revenues consist of large grants of land and money
payments by former rulers, and of deposits of money funded by
votaries for the fulfilment of certain vows and ceremonies. A separate
Muzrai Superintendent was appointed in 1892 to more effectually
control these institutions and to rectify the abuses which had crept in.
A regular system of budgets and sanctions has Ijeen introduced. The
power of sanction vested in the ruler to nominations of gurus of
maths has been re-asscrted. Provision for more light and air is being
gradually made in the temples as they come under repair, and the
appearance and surroundings are being improved so as to be more in
keeping with their character as places of worship, bunds and endow-
ments alienated or misapplied by the priests are being restored to
their original purpose. Committees of local residents of influence as
Dharmadarsis are being apjjointed to maintain a proper supervision.
The priests are required to be men of some learning in regard to their
duties, and qualified to command respect. Dancing girls are being



798 ADMINISTRAr/OiV

gradually eliminated from the temples. Over;,^ro\vn establishments
of ill-paid menials are being reduced and only a sufficient staff
retained, more adequately paid. The abuses in distribution of food
at chattrams are being checked, and arrangements made to carry
out their legitimate functions of affording shelter to travellers and
f)ilgrims.



APPENDIX



COINS, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Owing to the number of Principalities into which the Mysore country
was broken up on the subversion of the \'ijayanagar empire, each of
which arrogated to itself the sovereign right of coining its own money ; and
to tlie subsequent conquests in succession by various rival powers, each of
whom introduced a separate coinage, which passed into circulation along
with the divers kinds previously current ; nothing could be more confused
or perplexing than the whole monetary and metric system down to the time
of the British assumption.' But a measure of uniformity may now be said
to prevail, though calculations continue to be made on the former system of
each locality. The introduction of English figures into all the Government
accounts since 1863, and the increase of European officers and settlers,
have led to increasing regularity ; while the system of arithmetic taught
throughout the Government schools, though recognizing to some extent the
methods of the country, is calculated to bring in a conformity with the
practice observed throughout British India.

Coins

Among the oldest Indian coins that have been found in Mysore are
those of lead {see p. 293), of the time of the A'ndhra or S'dtavuhana kings."''
Sir Walter Elliot remarks that " the characteristic of their coinage was the
employment of lead with but a small proportion of copper. General
Pearse called attention to a passage in Pliny to the effect that India has
neither brass nor lead, receiving them in exchange for precious stones and

' The value of the different coins, says Buchanan, was frequently changed by Tipu
Sultan ill a very arbitrary and oppressive manner. When he was about to pay his
tr()0]-)s, the nominal value of each coin was raised very high, and kept at that
standard for about ten days ; during which time the sf)ldiery were allowed to jiay off
their debts at the high valuation. After this the standard was reduceil to the jirojier
value.

After the conquest of the countr)-, the itirak, or rate of exchange by which all the
different coins could be offered as a legal tender of payment, was periodically fixed,
generally once or twice a month, at the various centres of trade, by the Amildar,
who first consulted the principal merchants. In Bangalore, the nirak was fixed by
the European Officer connnanding in the Fort.

' The illustration given from this find is from a coin kindly lent hy Dr. Hultzsch.
The ol)verse shows a bull standing, with the legend round it . . J^i/iiniiiyi nia/idnija
.... On the reverse is a fir-tree and the chaitya symbol.



8oo APPENDIX

pearls, wliicli may afford some explanation of this peculiarity. The lead is
generally very pure, a careful analysis detecting only a trace of copper.
One class of coins was found to consist of a kind of speculum of an alloy
of lead and tin, and another of an impure lead ore, which gave them the
appearance of a coarse alloy. They are stamped with symbols of a
Buddhist character. The reverse has figures of a lion or horse [or bull]
with the name of the sovereign, but his effigy, never . . . The pieces vary
greatly in size ; they are generally round, sometimes scjuare."

The same writer says, — "In all the countries with which we are best
acquainted, the metal first used for monetary purposes was silver, to which
India (except in the case of the A'ndhras) forms no exception. The pro-
portion of bullion to be given as a medium of exchange was adjusted by
weight. In course of time, to obviate constant recourse to the scales, the
use of uniform pieces, certified by an authoritative mark, suggested itself.
Such pieces, taken from a bar or plate, trimmed and cut to the required
standard weight, received the impress of a symbol, guaranteeing their
acceptance.

At what time and by what people they were first employed is unknown.
They were regarded as prehistoric by the older Indian writers, and may
therefore be presumed to have been found in circulation when the Aryans
entered Hindustan. They have no recognised name in any of the
vernacular dialects. They appear, however, to have been known to the
earlier Sanskrit writers under the designation of ptirdua, a term which
itself signifies ancient.

The oldest Indian examples are of all shapes, oblong, angular, square,
or nearly round, with punch marks on one or both sides, the older signs
often worn away by attrition ; in almost all cases the earlier ones partially
or wholly effaced by others subsequently super-impressed upon them.
Other specimens, which are more circular and thicker, with sharper
attestations, are probably of later date. All weigh about 50 grains troy.
A parcel of forty-three very old-looking pieces, part of a large find in Nagar
or Bednur, weighed 2,025"5 grains, giving an average of 47-1, but the
heaviest was 50 grains, the lightest only 3775-

Before quitting the subject it may be asked where the supply of silver
was obtained to meet the circulation of so great an extent of country.
Gold; iron, and copper were found in many parts of India, but no silver
so far as I know. It must therefore have been imported from abroad.""'

The later coins of the country were either of gold, silver, or copper.
Gold coins, at first so numerous, are now rarely seen, and the silver and
copper coins in general use at the present time are those of the British
Indian currency. According to Ferishta, there was no silver coinage in
the Carnatic countries at the beginning of the fourteenth century, and even
three centuries later we find only gold and copper coins in existence. In
fact, it was not till the jMuhammadans were permanently established in the
South, that their preference for the rupee led to the introduction of a silver
currency, without, however, displacing the gold previously in circulation.
' Coins of Southern India, 22, 45, 49fi".



GOLD COINS So I

Gold Coins. — These arc known to Europeans as pagodas, fan tins and
viohurs. The pagoda is an original Hindu coin, called varaha, from the
symbol on it of the vardha or boar, one of the incarnations of Vishnu,
which formed the crest of the Chc^lukyas and of the \'ijayanagar kings.
In some parts it seems also to have been called chakra. Before the rise
of the Chalukyas the pagoda was probably called jwtvj;-//^? or «/i-///vj:. It
also had in Kannada and Telugu the wvim^ i^adydna. In Hindustani the
coin is known as hiin. There were various pagodas,' named from the
States in which they were severally coined. A half pagoda was called
p07i or hon, and at a later period, under Vijayanagar, aXso prahipa. The
fanam is properly hana or pana (a word used also for money in general),
and is doubtless a corruption of the neuter form panam. As with the
pagodas, so there is a variety of fanams issued from different mints. The
mohur is a Muhammadan coin, bearing the impression {inohur) of a seal
or stamp. Mohurs came into circulation with the Bijapur and Mughal
conquests, and some were coined in Mysore by Tipu.^

The oldest gold coins (to further cite Sir Walter) are spherules, quite
plain and smooth, save for a single very minute puncli-mark, too small to be
identified, by the impress of which they have been slightly flattened. In
Old Kannada they are called guligc, a globule or little ball, whence the
sign gti with a numeral is employed in old accounts as the sign for express-
ing pagodas. These were succeeded by flat round thicker pieces of
superior v/orkmanship, which have received the name of padnia-tankas,
from having what is called a lotus in the centre. The use of the punch
gradually gave way to the employment of a matrix or die. This was at
first of the simplest form, and the coins appear to have been struck upon
the single symbol placed below, the additional symbols being added by the
old-fashioned process around the central device. The force of the blows
in many instances gave the upper side a concave surHice, and this, though
accidental, may have led to the use at a later period of cup-shaped dies, as
in the Raina-fankas. The adoption of the double die led eventually to tiie
final and complete disuse of the punch.

The gold coins of the principal Mysore dynasties may here be described,
much of the information being from the same source. Those of the

1 Pagoda is a word of Portuguese origin, commonly applied by Europeans to a
Hindu temple, and given to this coin perhaps from the representation that ajipcars
on it, in some parts, of a temple.

^ This Appendix had been already compiled before chance brought into my
hands a valuable little pamphlet on the Coins of Mysore ami Soiitiicrn India, by
Captain II. P. Ilawkes, Assistant Commissary-General, prepared for the Madras
Exhil^ition of 1857. Some additional information thence derived has been incor-



Online LibraryB. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) RiceMysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) → online text (page 94 of 98)