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B. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) Rice.

Mysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) online

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porated. I also at the same time met with Assay Tables of Indian Coins, I)y
Dr. Shekleton, Assay Master of II.M.'s Mint, Calcutta, which furnislieil several
particulars.

In this revised edition some particulars and illustrations have been added from Sir
Walter Elliot's Coins of Sotit/icrn India in the Nnmismala Oricntalia, Mr. Edgar
Thurston's Catalogue of Mysore Coins in the Madras Museum, and Captain K. II.
Campl^ell Tufnell's Catalogue of those in the Bangalore Museum.



8o2 APPENDIX

Gangas have an clcpliant on the obverse and a floral design on the reverse.
Weight of the specimens, 52'3 and 58'5 grains. The characteristic device
of the Kadambas is a Hon looking backwards. One coin has on the obverse
a padma in the centre, with four punch-struck retrospectant lions round it.
On the reverse are a scroll ornament and two indented marks. Weight,
58'52 grains. Another has on the obverse a lion looking backwards, with the
legend (?) Ballaha in Kannada below. On the reverse is an indistinct object,
surrounded with a circle of dots and an ornamental outer circle beyond.
Examples of R^shtrakuta coins have so far been found only in silver, and
that recently. They resemble the GrKCO-Parthian coins which circulated
in Gujarat more than those of Southern India. On the obverse of those
found is the head of the king, and on the reverse the legend parama
mahcs'vara imitdpitripadamidhydta S'ri Krislma Raja. Weight, about 33
grains.

The Chalukya coins had the boar on the obverse and the padma or
chakra on the reverse. Weight, 58 grains. But some interesting coins of
the Eastern Chdlukyas, belonging to the eleventh century, which have been
found only in an island off the coast of Burma and in Siam,' are large thin
plates, having on the obverse a boar in the centre under an umbrella with a
chata-i on each side ; in front of the boar and behind it a lamp-stand ;
under the snout of the boar the Old-Kannada letter ra. Round these
emblems is the legend S'ri Chdhikya-Chandrasya on some, and S'ri
Rdjardjasya on others, both in Old-Kannada letters, impressed by separate
punch-marks. The reverse is plain. Weight, 65-9 to 66*6 grains.^ The
Kalachuri coins have on the obverse a human figure with a garuda or
bird's head, advancing to the right. On the reverse, in three lines of Old
Kannada, one has .... Mio'dri . . . , and another, Rdja Sova bhata . . .
Weight, 54*5 and 52-2 grains.

The Hoysala coins (which were unknown until the publication of the
first edition of this work, and of which only a few specimens have been
found) have on the obverse a s'drdula or mythical tiger, facing the right,
with a smaller one above, which is between the sun and moon : in front of
the larger tiger is (?) an elephant goad or lamp-stand. On the reverse is a
legend in three lines of Old-Kannada letters. One coin has S'ri Talakddu
gofjda, another has S'ri Nonambavddi goitda, and a third has S'ri
Malaparol ganda. The two first, weight 6175 and 63 grains, must be of
the time of Vishnuvardhana, and perhaps the third also.

The Vijayauagar coins hav'e on the obverse, some, S'iva and Parvati
seated, others the ganda bhcnuuja, a fabulous two-headed bird, either alone
or holding elephants in beaks and claws, and others again have some
different device.'* On the reverse is the king's name in three lines of
N^garf or Kannada letters, such as, S'ripratdpa Harihara, or S'ri pratdpa
Achyiita Rdya, or S'ri pratdpa Sadds'iva Rdya, and so on. Weight, 52'6
ojrains. One of Tirumala-Rdya has Rdma and Sita on the obverse, seated,

' Since the above was written some have been found near the Godavari.
"^ See Dr. Fleet's account, Ittd. Aut. , xix, 79.
3 See Dr. Hultzsch in Ind. Ant., xx, 301.



el.



LEAD AND GOLD COINS




Andhra

G G



'^rW^



Padma taiika ChalukTa



'/^* ':^



'^^->



v?^



'^ ■•■,



Kadamba



/'r^:i



W^-






Siddiki, zarb e sal Jiiltis
Sard 1

1



Silver Coins. — These came in, as already stated, with the Muhammadans,
and were first coined in Mysore by Tipu Sultan. The coins were ri'ipayi, or
rupees (so called from a word meaning silver), Vir\Afafia>iis. The following
is a table of silver coins : —





By whom coined.


Symbols or Legends.




Obverse.


Reverse.




Rupees.




Nokara (double ru-
pee), or Haidari


Tipu Sultan


din Ahmad dar
jaltdn roslian se
fatleii Haidarast.
zarb Patan sdl
Azal san 1 198
Hijri

J> 5>
>> >»

Alia Mtthaiiimad
htm al Sultan ul
ddil san 1 218.*


wohu-til-wohid al
Stiltdn ul ddil,
siyum Bahari sdl
Azal sail zjuliis.


Sultani riipdyi, or

Imami
Sultani adha rupayi

(^ r.), or A'bidi
Bakhiri [\ r.)




hull Stiltdn wohid
iilddilicc. asabovc
>» »»

Bakhiri, san 7 Patan



* The Ahmadi was so named from Ahmad, a designation of the Trophcl ; the
Siddiki from Abu Bakr Siddiq, the first Khalif. (See Ind. Ant., xviii, 314.)

* The religion of Muhammad is made illustrious in the world through the victory
of Haidar.

* Siyum Bahdri, or the third day of Bahiiri, was the date of his accession to the
throne, and of his assuming the title of Sultan, corresponding with the 4th of May.
But it was fated also to be the date of his overthrow and death.

* Slight differences occur in the inscriptions, but they are all to the same efi'ect.



8o6



APPENDIX







Symbols or Legends.


Name.


By whom coined.






Obverse.


Reverse.


Jdfari (ir.)


Tipu Sultan


Miikamjiiad sati
1226 zarb Patau


Jdfari, san 12 J tiliis


Kazimi ^''jj ,,)


>>


99


Kdzimi, ,,


Khizri (./^ ,,)


>>


Zarb dar ttl Saltanal


Khi-.ri, 12


Raja rupayi


Krishna Raja Wode-


Sikka zad bar haft


zarb Mahisiir san




yar


kashiir say a fazl


47 juliis niayi-






at khdmi din Mil-


vianat mdmis^






haiiwiad Shah








Alain bddshdh




,, ardha rupayi (ir.)


j> ))


)> ) J


J» 99


„ pavali (|„)


)) ))


Figure of Krishna,


Kisheii Raj Wodeyar






surrounded with


san 12.^^ j it Ills,






dots.


zarb Mahisiir (in
Hind.) surrounded
with dots-




Silver 1


'^aiiaj/ts.




Adda (i fanam)


Krishna RajaWode-
yar


Figure of Krishna


Mayili haiia? (Kan. )


Haga(i „ )


)) f)


)) )>


99 99



The rupee or Imami of Tipu Sultan was named after the twelve Imams,
and the other silver coins after individual Imdms. Thus the Haidari was
named after Haidar, a surname of 'Ali, the first Imam ; the A'bidi, after
Zainu'l-abidfn or A'bid Bimar, the fourth ; the Bdkhiri, after Muhammad
Bdkhir, the fifth ; the Jafari, after Jafar SAdikh, the sixth ; and the Kazimi,
after Musa Kdzim, the seventh. The Khizri was named after Khvvdja
Khizr, a prophet who is said to have drunk of the water of life. (See
l7td. Ant., xviii, 314.)

Persian having become established as the official language, the coins at
first struck by Krishna Raja Wodeyar bear inscriptions in Persian. The
Rdja rupee was issued in the name of the Mughal emperor. Shah 'Alam,
following the type of the rupees issued by the East India Company at
Arcot and elsewhere; but the dates and regnal years given are irreconcileable.
The legend on the obverse signifies — " The defender of the religion of
jMuhammad, the reflection of divine excellence, the emperor Shah 'Alam
struck this coin, to be current throughout the seven chmates." As regards
the latter. Moor says : — " When Timur, establishing his throne in India,



* Only a portion of the inscription occurs on each coin. Some of these may have
been coined first under Purnaiya.

^ Some are dated according to the Kali yuga.

^ Called the viayili fanam. The meaning of mayili is not very clear. It may
mean may Hi, reduced body, or thin. Another possible, hut not very probable,
explanation is Mayi, contraction for Mayisiir, and li, the locative suffix. This
would mean " in Mysore," indicating the mint town. The only other meanings of
mayili in Kannada are — dirty, and small-pox, neither of which is of any use here.



GGLD.oILVER and COPPER UOINB



c






'^ Hoysala



tof^a



Ikkeri Varaha



41



KanthiraycL hana






Old Mysore














G



^




Siddiki ( ^4 TTiohur



■■>^>. ^>



1



# «'



Krishna Raja p avail




■^oldmoliur



Imami ( rupee



COPPER COINS 807

overcame the kings of Cashmere, Bengal, Deccan, Gujarat, Lahore, Pooriib
and Paishoor, he united the kingdoms, and called himself conqueror and
sovereign of the seven climates or countries ; which title has been retained
by his successors." The inscription on the reverse means — " coined at
Mysore in the 47th (or other) year of the auspicious reign."

Copper Coins. — The copper coins were duddit, or dubs (Hindustani
paisa), and kdsii or cash. They as a general rule, from the earliest times
to which they have been traced, bore on the obverse the figure of an
elephant, due, whence the name dne or anna, though the latter term is
perhaps a compromise between ha?ja and dne. Above the elephant
was afterwards introduced the moon, and later on the sun also. The
reverse consisted of crossed lines. There was also a half paisa, with a
tiger on one side and a battle-axe on the other, which may have been a
Hoysala coin, though it has been suggested that it was a type tried but
abandoned by Tipu. But, besides these, there was an old series bearing
on the obverse a Kannada numeral, from i up to 31, in a ring of dots, with
the crossed lines reverse. They are attributed to the Mysore Rdjas who
immediately preceded Haidar Ali. Tipu brought in a new copper coinage
with fresh names of his own invention. The old device of the elephant,
with sun and moon, was retained on the obverse, the Arabic letter for the
number of the regnal year being inserted above. On the reverse, in
Persian, were the name of the mint town, the date, and the name of the
coin. His double paisa had at first been called Usm;ini by Tipu, after
Usmdn, the third Khalif. But subsequently he adopted the names of stars
for his copper coins. The Usmdni thus became the Mushtari, after Jupiter ;
the paisa was called Zuhra, after Venus ; the half paisa, Bahram, after
Mars ; the quarter paisa, Akhtar, meaning star ; and the one-eighth /(Z/j



Online LibraryB. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) RiceMysore: a gazetteer compiled for government (Volume 1) → online text (page 95 of 98)