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/- - , THE



AMEKICAN ALMANAC



REPOSITORY



USEFUL KNOWLEDGE,



FOB THE YEAB



1848.



BOSTON:

PUBLISHED BY JAMES HUNBOB k 00.
1847.



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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1847,

Br Fhancib Bo wen,

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Kassachusetts.



I • "VAmfeLLAirDMOOAB.



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PREFACE.



The Kineteenth Volume of the American Almanac is now offered to the
pnblic. Unwearied pains have been taken to collect full and varied infor-
mation concerning the complex affairs of the general and state governments ;
and a mass of documents has been digested relating to the government,
history, finances, legislation, pnblic institutions, and internal improvements
of the United States. It is believed that the present volume is equal to its
predecessors in fulness and accuracy, and that it will sustain the high
character of the American Almanac as a trustworthy manual for reference,
and a full repository of useftil knowledge.

Tlie ABtronomlcal Department has been, as usual, under the direction of
Professor Peirce, whose high reputation is a sufficient guaranty of the com-
pleteness and accuracy of the computations. The articles upon the observa-
tory at Washington and the great telescope at Cambridge, show the
advaiitages that have resulted thus early to science from the wise forecast
of the general government, and the generous munificence of the citizens of
Boston. Another article gives the places in which Pingr6's predicted comet
of 1848 is expected to appear. The Meteorological information embraces
points in all parts of the United States ; and tables have been added, showing
the flowering seasons, and days and depths of snow, for a series of years in
several places. Such tables are valuable ; and it is desfa^ble that those who
have kept them should forward them to the editor for publication. The
table of latitudes and longitudes, kindly furnished for the American Alma-
nac by Major Graham, and received too late for insertion in the body of
the work, has been appended to it, and contains new and important
geographical information.

In another part of the volume will be found an abstract of the laws of
the several states concerning imprisonment for debt, which has been pre-
pared with great care, and is more complete than any other yet published.
The chapter upon the Patent Office and the laws concerning patents will
show the inventive genius of our countrymen, and point out the steps ne-
cessary to secure the inventor in his rights. The history of the Electric Tel-
egraph will be curious and interesting to all readers. The chapters upon
the several Departments are full and accurate, having been corrected at



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Washington to the latest dates ; and an extended account of the revenue of
the post-offlce under the new law is given. The tabular view of all the
railroads in this country is continued firom the last volume in a more en-
larged and perfect form ; and the comparative view of the debts, property,
and general financial condition of all the states, has been corrected with
great care from the latest official returns. Lists of the members elect to the
30th Congress, and their residence, and of the 5th Reformed Parliament, are
given. The genersd abstract of all the public laws passed by Congress is
continued, as heretofore ; and a list of the public resolutions and treaties has
been added. A distinguishing feature of the present volume is a brief
outline of the history, an abstract of the constitution, and a complete list of
all the governors of each state. The statutes of each state have been care-
fully examined, and all the amendments of the constitutions have been
incorporated in the abstract Great pains have been taken to make them,
accurate, and they are believed to be sufficiently fUll for all practical pur-
poses.

The thanks of the Editor are particularly due to the fltoads of Departments
at Washington, and to his many contributors and correspondents, to whom,
the work is indebted for a great part of its value. A continuance of their
fkvors is respectftilly solicited. A work embracing such a multitude of
facts must necessarily contain some errors : persons who detect any are
earnestly requested to communicate them to the Editor. It is a matter of
some public interest that a periodical which circulates so widely, both in
Europe and America, and which is so universally trusted as a manual for
reference, should be rendered as accurate as possible; and this end can be
obtained only by the cooperation of many individuals. Communications
may be addressed to the ^* Editor of the American Almanac," Boston.

Boston^ Mass.^

SepU 30, 1847.



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CONTENTS,



PABT I.



CA£ISDAB AKD CKUBSTUL FSKNOMIHA fob TIB TSIB 1848.



Page

Celestial Phenomena, Signs, &c. 8

Chronological Cvcles • 4

Signs of the Zodiac 4

B^iniiing and length of the Seasons • • 4

Movable Festivals of the Church 6

Jewish Calendar 6

Mahometan Calendar 6

Height of the Greatest Tides 7

Darkness of the Nights in 1848 S

Calbndak:— January, &o».« 10

JEclipses in 1848 84

Transit of Mercury 38

Occultations 40

Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites 42

Discs of Venus and Mars** 43

Bings of Saturn 44

XAtmide and Longitude of Places 45

Xatitnde and Long, of Observatories* • -48

JE^hemeris of the Sun 49

Apparent Places of the Pole Star 65



Places of the principal fixed Stars • • • 67

Dr. Young's Kefractions 65

Sun's Parallax in Altitude 66

The Observatory at Washington 67

The Great Telescope at Cambridge — 72

Pingr6's Predicted Comet of 1848 75

MsT£oaoLOGiOAL iNFORifATioN : — Tablcs
for Saco, Cambridge, Mendon, Low-
ell, Worcester, New x ork, Bocheater,
Lambertville, Chapel Hill, Savannah,
Natchez, Washington, Bloomington,
Louisville, Flowering of Fruit Trees,
Flowering Season at Worcester for 8
years, Leafing of Forest Trees, Flow-
ering of the Apple, Days when Snow
fell and Depth of Snow for 37 years
in Turner, Me., Frosts and Snows,
Depth of Snows and Flowering of
Fruit Trees in Lambertville, N. J.,
for 8 years 80-94



PART II.



United Statkj.



1. liist of Presidents 97

Executive Government 97

Officers in the Departments 98

Postmasters in the Chief Cities • • -100
CoUectors of Customs 102

2. Intercourse with For^gn Nations -103

Consuls in Foreign Countries 105

Foreign Ministers 108

Fore^ Consuls in the U. States -109

3. Mint 113

4. J udiciary 116

Supreme Court 116

Circuit Courts 117

District Courts 119

5. Army List 120

Fay of Army Officers 123

MiUtia Force of the United Statesl24



6. Navy List

Vessels of War of the Navy*



124
.126



7. Marine CorM 128

8. Post-office Establishment 128

Mail Service for 1846 .*. . .129

Bevenue under the New Law 131

Kates of Postage 133

Franking Privilege 134

9. Public Lands 136

10. Revenue and Expenditure 138

Debt of the United States 142

United States Bevenue for 67 years 143
U. S. Expenditure for 57 years- • • 144
Imports, Exports, &c. for 57 years- 145

11. Commerce and Navigation 146

Value of Imports 146

Value of Exports 194



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OONTBIfTS.



12.
13.
14.
15.



16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.



Tonnage in Foreign Trade* • •

Commercial Marme 154

Banks in the United States 153

Tea and Coffee for 26 years 159

Emigration to the United States • 160

Congress 161

Senate 161

House of Representatives- • • 163

Alphabetical List of Bepresenta-

tives 166

Finances and Debts of the States -168

CollMfes 170

Theological Schools • • 174

Law Schools l74

Medical Schools 17.5

Smithsonian Institution 175

Religions Denominations 176

State Elections, &c. 176

Governors of States, &c. 177



25. MezleanTarlir •%

26. Law of Imprisonment for Debt* • -181

27. The Electric Telegraph 187

28. Patent Office and Law of Patents, 190

29. Railroads in the United States- • • -193

Do. in Massachusetts 196

Other Railroads in New England -194
Railroads in New York 194

Do. at the South and West- -196

80. Abstracts of Public Laws 197

Treasury Notes 198

Ten-Regiment Bill 199

Passengers in Merdiant Yessels* • -201
Naval Steamships 209

81. Public Resolutions 212

82. Public Treaties 213

38. Population of the CiUes 213

84. Population of the United States • -214

85. Slaves in the United States 214



Inditidual Statu.



1. Maine 215

2. New Hampshire 219

8. Vermont 223

4. Massachusetts 227

5. Rhode Island 283

6. Connecticut 237

7. New York 241

8. New Jersey 252

9. Pennsylvania 257

10. Delaware 261

n. Maryland 264

12. Virginia 268

13. North Carolkia 2?2

14. South Carolina 276

15. Georgia 278

16. Florida 281



31.



Alabama 288

Mississippi 286

Louisiana • • • i 28»

Texas 298

Arkansas 296

Tennessee 298

Kentucky 801

Ohio 804

Michigan 807

Indiana 811

Illinois 816

Missouri 817

lovnt 820

Wisconsin 828

Oregon 324

District of Columbia 824



American States *...... 825 1 British American Provinces-



•826



Euaopx.



Sovereigns of Europe 826| Great Britain

European States 327 House of Lords

France 328 I House of Commons-



Relief for Ireland and Scotland, 342 I Latitudes and Longitudes 866

American Obituary 843 Corrections and Additions 370

Chronicle of Events 361 1



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INDEX.



•^



Abetractfl of Fnblio Laws • • •

Alabama ..-asj

American Obituary 848

American States 825

Apple, Flowering of, for 87 years • • • • 98

Appropriations in 1847 197

Arkansas 296

Army List 120

Army Officers, Pay of 123

Articles imported in 1846 146

Articles exported in 1846 149

Banks in the United States 154

Banks in U. S. in 1842 and 1845 • -155, 156
Banks in U. S. from 1834 to 1847 167, 158

British American Provinces 825

Cabinet, Officers in the 97

Calendar : January, &c. 10

Capitals of States 176

Celestial Phenomena, Sinis, &c 8

Charges d'Affiiires of U. S. in 1847 ... -104

Chronicle of Events 862

Chronological Cycles 4

Church Festivals 5

Circuit Courts 117

Cities, Population of- 213

Coffee, Duties on for 12 years 159

CofTee, Consumption of for 26 years* • -159

Collectors of Customs 102

Colleges 170

Colleges, Annual Expenses in 178

Com^, Plngr6's predicted, of 1848 • • • • 75

Commerce 146

Commercial Marine of the U. States- .154
Commissioners,!!. S. in Foreign Coun-
tries 104

Commons, House of- 835

Congress 161

Connecticut 237

Consuls, Foreign, in United States • • -109

Consuls in Foreign Countries 105

Corrections and Additions 870

Countries whence Goods are brought -151

Darkness of the Nights 8

Debt of the United States 142, 144

Debts of the States, 168

Delaware 261

Departments. Officers in the 98

Depths and Days of Snow for 37 years • 93

Discs of Venus and Mars 43

District Courts 119

District of Columbia 824

Duties in Mexican Porta 178

SdipsesinlSiS 84



Page

E 176

E 187

E In 1846 160

E 49

E 327

E 97

E >7 years 144

E P1846 152

E S 149

E 145

F 6

F 168

F laces of- 57

Florida.. ......T • 281

Flowering of Fruit Trees in 1847 92

Flowering Season for 8 years 92, 94

Flowerinir of the Apple for 87 years • • -98

Foreign Goods imported 146

Foreign Ministers 108

Foreign Trade. Countries of 153

Forest Trees, Leafing of, for 87 years, . 93

France 828

Franking Privilege 184

Frosts and Snows for 8 years 94

Fruit Trees, Flowering of, for 8 years- 94

Georgia 278

Government, Seats of, in different

States 176

Governors of States 177

Grand Refractor at Cambridge, Mass.- 72

Great Britain 828

House of Commons 835

House of Lords 329

Dlinois 315

Import, Articles of, in 1846 .. 146

Imports for 57 years 145

Imports of each State for 1846 152

Imports paying ad valorem Duties 142,148
Imports paying Specific Duties- • -142, 148

Imprisonment for Debt, Law of 181

Indiana 311

Intercourse with Foreign Nations • • • -108

Iowa 820

Ireland, Belief for 842

Jewish Calendar 5

Judiciary, United States 116

Jupiter's Satellites, Eclipses of- 42

Kentucky 801

Latitude and Longitude of Places -45, 368

Law Schools 174

Law of Imprisonment for Debt 181

Laws, Abs&acts of Public 197

Laws oonoemlng Patents 190



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liCgfsIatareSf State, Meeting of 176

liOrds, House of 829

Louisiana 289

Magnetic Tele^^raph, The 187

Mahometan Calendar 6

Mail Ser?ice for 1846 129

Ma ine 215

Marine, Commercial, of the U. S. 154

Marine Corps 128

Maryland 264

Massachusetts 227

Massachusetts, Bailroads of 193

Medical Schools 175

Meteorological Information 80-94

Mexican Tariff- 178

Mex ico 325

Michigan 807

MiUtia Force of the United States 124

Ministers, U. S. in Foreign Countries- 104

Mint 118

Mississippi 286

Missouri 817

Navigati<m 146,153

Navy Department 99

Navy List 124

Navy OflScers, Pay of 126

Navy, Vessels of War in 126

New Hampshire 219

New Jersey 252

New York 241

New York, Railroads in 194

Nights, Darkness of the 8

North Carolina 272

Observatories, Lat. and Long, of 48

Observatory at Washington 67

Occultations 40

Ohio 804

Oregon Territory 324

Parallax in Altitude of the Sun 66

Patent Office 190

Patents, I^ws concerning 190

Pennsylvania 257

Pingr6's Predicted Comet of 1848 76

Pole Star, Places of the • • • • • 55

Population of Cities • • • -213

Population of the United States 214

Postage, Rates of 133

Postage by the New York and Bremen

Steamers 135

Postmasters 100

Postmasters, Compensation of- 132

Post-office, Business of- 132

Post-office Department 100

Post-office Establishment • -128

Post-office Revenue under the New

Law 181

Presidents of the United States 97

Public Lands - - 136

Public Resolutions of Congress 212

Public Treaties 213

Railroads in the United States 193



Page

Refractions, Dr. Young's «

Refractor, Grand, at Cambridge, Mass. T*

Relief of Ireland and Scotland 34S

Religious Denominations 17(

Representatives^ Alphabetical List of- 161

Representatives, House of- 16i

Resolutions, Public, of 2d Session, 29th

Congress 211

Revenue and Expenditure 13)

Revenue, U. States, for 57 years K

Rhode Island 23i

Satellites of Jupiter, Eclipses of 4i

Saturn's Rings 4'

Scotland, Relief for 34J

Seasons, Beginning and Length of • • • i

Senate of the United States 16:

Signsofthe Planets <

Slaves in the United States 21^

Smithsonian Institution 17i

Snow, Days and Depth of, for 87 yrs.- 9J
Snows, Frosts and, for eight years- • - • 94

South Carolina 27S

Southern Railroads 195

Sovereigns of Europe 326

Stars, Fixed, Apparent Places of- 57

State Department 98

State Elections, &c. 17«

State Finances, Debts, &c. M

Sun, Ephemeris of the 48

Sun's Parallax in Altitude 66

Supreme Court 116

Tariff in Mexican Ports 178

Tea, Duties on, for 12 years 159

Tea, Consumption of, for 26 years ... -ISA

Telegraph, The Electric 187

Telegraph, Lines of; in operation 1SS

Telegraph, Lines of, in process of con-
struction 189

Telegraph, Lines projected 189

Telescope, at Cambridge, Mass. 72

Tennessee 298

Ten-Regiment Bill 199

Texas 293

Theological Schools 17i

Tides, Height of Greatest 7

Tonnage of the United States 145, 152

Trade, Foreign, Countries of 163

Treasury Department 98

Treasury Notes 198

Treaties, Public 213

Venus and Mars, Discs of 43

Vermont 223

Vessels of War in U. States Navy ... -126

Virginia 1 268

War Department 99

Washington Observatory 67

Western Raihroads 196

Wisconsin 828

Young's Refractions 65

Zodiac, Signs of the ^



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AMERICAN ALMANAC,

FOR

1848.



PART I.



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THB

AMERICAN ALMANAC,

YOB THE BISSEXTILB TEAR

1848,

Being the latter part of the 7 2d, and the beginning of the 73d year
of the Independence of the United States of America ;

" the 6561st year of the Julian Period ;

" the latter part of the 5608th, and the beginning of the 5609th
year since the creation of the world, according to the Jews ;

" the 260l8t year (according to Varro) since the foundation of
Rome;

« the 2595th year dnce the era of Nabonassar, which has been
assigned to Wednesday, the 26th of February of the 8967th
year of the Julian Period, which corresponds, according to
the chronologists, to the 747th, and, according to the astron-
omers, to the 746th year, before the birth of Christ ;

<< the 2624th year of the Olympiads, or the fourth year of the
656th Olympiad, beginning in July, 1848, if we fix the era
of the Olympiads at 775^ years before Christ, or at or
about the beginning of July of the year 3988 of the Julian
Period;

<' the latter part of the 1264th, and the beginning of the 1265th
year (of twelve lunations) since the Hegira, or flight of
Mahomet, which, as is generally supposed, took place on
the 16th of July, in the year 622. of the Christian era.



I. CALENDAR
AND CELESTIAL PHENOMENA FOR THE YEAR.
SIGNS OF THE PLANETS, &c.



The Sun.

The Earth.
, >Q€ The Moon.
9 Mercury.
2 Venus.



Mars.
_ Vesta.
$ Juno.
^ Pallas.



$ Ceres.

1|. Jupiter.

h Saturn.

igL Herschel or Uranus.

:jc A^edstar.



i Conjunction, or haying the same Longitude or Bight Ascension.
D Quadrature, or differing 90° in " ** *♦

S Opposition, or differing 180* in " a «

il The ascending, XS the descending node.



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CHRONOLOGICAL CTCLB8, BIGNS OF THE ZODIAC, ETC.



[1848.



The sign + is prefixed to the latitude, or declination, of tire Sun, or other
heavenly body, when north, and the 8io:n — when south ; but the former pre-
fixed to the hourly motion of the Moon in latitude, indicates that she ^s
approaching, and the latter that she is receding from, the north pole of the
ecliptic.

The letters M. J.., m. a., denote Morning and Afternoon.



CHKONOLOGICAL CYCLES.



Dominical Letters, B, A

Epact, - 25

Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number, 6



Solar Cycle, 9

Roman Indiction, 6

Julian Period, 6561



SIGNS OF THE ZODLA.C.



Spring
signs.

Summer
signs.



(I. T
12. 8

(s. n



Aries.
Taurus.
Gremini.
23 Cancer.
Leo.
Virgo.



Autumn
signs.

Winter
signs.



( 7. ^
t 9. /



-^ Libra.
Scorpio.
Sagittarius.
flO. Vf Capricomus.

1 11. ts;. Aquarius.

112. H Pisces.



BEGINNING AND LENGTH OF THE SEASONS.



Sun enters ]ff (Winter begins) 1846, Dec 21st,

* cp (Spring " ) 1847, March 20th,

" " C (Summer " ) " June 21st,

" " ^ (Autumn " ) " Sept. 22d,

" " vy (Winter " ) " Dec 21st,



m. 8.
5 46 M.
9 26 M.
5 44M.



5 11 26 A.
10 52 2 M.



M. Time

at
Wash'ton
Observa-
tory.



Sun in the Winter Signs*



d.
89



m. 8.
3 40



Spring " 92 20 56 18

« Summer " 93 14 5 42

" Autumn " 89.16 40 36

north of Equator, (Spring and Summer)" 186 11 2
south of " (Winter and Autumn)-. 178 18 44 16



Length of tlie tropical year, commencing at)
the winter solstice, 1847, and terminating at ? 365 5 46 16
the winter solstice. 1 848, '

Mean, or average length of the tropical year, 365 5 48 48



-J /



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1848.] ^ MOVABLE FESTIVALS, JEWISH CALBNDAB. 5

MOVABLE FESTIVALS OF THE CHURCH, IN 1848.



Septnagesima Sunday, Feb. 20th
Quinq. or Shrove Snnday, Mar. 5th

Ash Wed., Lent begins, Mar. 8th

Mid Lent Sunday, Apr. 2d

Palm Sunday, Apr. 16th

Easter Sunday^ Apr. 23d

Low Sunday, Apr. 30th



Kogation Sunday, May S8tfa

Ascen. Day, or Holy Th. June Ist

"Whitsunday or Pentecost, June 11th

Trinity Sunday, June 18th

Corpus Christi Day,

F§te Dieu,

Advent Sunday, Dee. 3d



June22d



JEWISH CALENDAR.

[The axudTeraaries marked ^th an asterisk (*) are to Iw strictly obeerred.]

Tear. Names of the Months.

5608 Thebet begins, Dec 8, 1847-

" " 10th, Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem, Dec 17, "

" Sebatbeguis, Jan. 6, 1848.

" Adarbegins, Feb. 5, "

« « 14th LitUe Purim, Feb. 1?, **

" Veadar begins, Mar. 6, "

" « 11th, Fastof Esther, Mar. 16, «

" " 14th, *Purim, Mar. 19, "

« « 15th, Schuscan Purim, Mar. 20, «

" Nisan begins, Apr. 4,

" " 15th, *Beginning of the Passover, Apr. 18, "

« " 16th, *Second Feast, or Morrow of the Passover, Apr. 19, "

« « 21st, *Seventh Feast, * Aim*. 24, **

« " 22d, *End of the Passover, Apr. 25, **

" Ijarbegins, May4, «

« « 18th, Lag Beomer, May 21, "

« Sivaa begins . ^ June 2, «

" « 6th, *reast of Weeks or Pentecost, June 7, **

« " 7th, *Second Feast, June 8, **

" ^Thammus begins, J^y 2,

" l7th,Fastforthe taking of the Temple, .•• July 18, "

« Abbegins, July 31, *|

" " 9th, *Fast for the burning of the Temple, Aug. 8,

" " Elulbegins, Aug 30, «

5609 Tisri begins, *Feast for the New Year, Sept. 28,

" " 2d, *Second Feast for the New Year, Sept 29, **

" " 3d, F^t of Gedaljah, Oct. 1,

" ** 10th, *Fast of the Reconciliation or Atonement, Oct. 7,
1*



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6 HAHOMSTAK CALENDAR* [1848.

Year. Names of the Months.

5609 Tisri, 15th, *rea8t of the Huts or Tabernacles, Oct. 12, 1848.

" " 16th, *Second Feast of the Huts, Oct. 13, "

" " 21st, Feast of Pahns or Branches, Oct. 18, "



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