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upon carriages some of Alvarado's small vessels." — " The Modern Traveller."


severity of the cold on the tops of the mountains, that, before he
arrived on the plains of Quito, a fifth of the Spaniards and half of
the horses had perished ; the rest were discouraged and in a con-
dition unfit for service. Alvarado and his companions finally
arrived in the province of Quito; but the melting of the snows
caused so great an inundation that several men perished. Being
near a village where a party of Indians had fortified themselves, he
besieged it and forced the Indians to leave it.*

At this time Pizarro and Almegro were deeply engaged in the
progress of their conquests, and the news of Alvarado's approach
and designs gave them the greatest unasiness. A body of horse
was immediately dispatched by Almegro to watch his movements,
but this party falling into Alvarado's hands, was kindly treated
and dismissed. This moderation suggested the first idea of com-
promising differences in such a manner that all should heartily
unite in the same design. Almegro made the proposals, and they
were accepted without hesitation by Alvarado. An interview was
appointed, and the following agreement signed by the commanders :
that a hundred thousand pesos should be paid by Pizarro and
Almegro ; that such of Alvarado's officers and soldiers as desired
to serve under Pizarro and Almegro should be provided for as their
own troops, according to the merit of their services ; and that Alva-
rado should return to Mexico after he had visited Pizarro at Cuzco,
of which capital he had heard the most exaggerated accounts.
There were some other stipulations of less consequence in this
treaty, to which both parties adhered with great punctuality, ex-
cept that Pizarro, apprehensive that a sight of the immense wealth
of Cuzco might stagger Alvarado's resolution, sent a message to
Alvarado that he would save him the trouble of so tedious a journey,
and give him a meeting in the valley of Pachacamac ; for which
place he immediately set out, escorted by a body of cavalry. There
he met with Alvarado and Almegro. He gave Alvarado twenty
thousand pesos more than was stipulated in the treaty, made him
several valuable presents of turquoises and other precious stones,
and conducted himself with so much address that Alvarado returned
perfectly satisfied to Mexico, having been fully recompensed for the
expense and trouble of the expedition, and assured that his soldiers
and ofl!icers would be well provided for according to their several
About this time Hernando Pizarro arrived in Spain. The im-

* Universal History, and Richer.

t Modern Universal History, vol. 34, p. 433.


inense quantity of gold and silver he brought caused as much
astonishment as it had excited at Panama and the other Spanish
colonies. Pizarro was received by the emperor with the respect
due a man who brought him a present whose value exceeded all
the ideas that the Spaniards had formed of the wealth of their
acquisitions in America, even after having been ten years in posses-
sion of Mexico. To reward tlie services of Francisco Pizarro the
emperor confirmed him in the dignity of governor, and joined to it
new powers and new privileges, and extended the boundaries of his
government seventy leagues to the south, along the coast, beyond
the limits fixed by his first patent. Alnaegro also obtained the
honors which he had so long sought. He was given the rank of
adelantado, or governor, and his jurisdiction was extended over
two hundred leagues, to commence at the southern limits of the
government of Pizarro. Hernando Pizarro himself was made
knight of the order of San lago, and returned to Peru accompanied
by many persons of greater distipction than those who had hitherto
served in America.

They received in Peru some news of Hernando Pizarro's negotia-
tion before his arrival there. Almegro was no sooner informed
that he had obtained of the emperor a government independent of
Pizarro, than he claimed that Cuzco was embraced in it, and pre-
pared to take possession of this important post. Juan and Gon-
zales Pizarro prepared to repulse him. Each of the contestants had
a powerful party, and the dispute was about to be decided by force
of arms, when Prancisco Pizarro arrived at the capital, and the
address, mingled with firmness, which he showed in his complaints
against Almegro and his partisans, diverted then the storm. He
made a new reconciliation with Almegro, the principal condition of
which was that Alnaegro should attempt the conquest of Chili, and
that if he did not find there an establishment worthy of him,
Pizarro, to indemnify him, would cede to him a part of Peru. This
new convention was confirmed with the same religious solemnities
as the first, and observed with as little fidelity.

In consequence of his convention with Pizarro, Almegro pre-
pared to march into Chili. The inca placed at his disposal the
services of his brother Paullo, and of the high priest Villac Umu,
who were ordered to accompany Almegro to Chili. These he sent
on before ; he himself was to go next ; and his lieutenant, Rodrigo
Orgonez, was to follow with the rest of the people. It may show
how much Almegro's service was sought after, that so distinguished
a person in Pizarro's camp as Hernando de Soto was greatly disap-
pointed at not having been named lieutenant-general of the maris-


cal's [Almegro's] forces.* Almegi-o set out for Chili with five
hundred and seventy men. It was the largest body of Europeans
that had to that time assembled in Peru.

There were two roads which led thence to Chili ; one by the
plain, but it was the longest ; the other by the mountains, it
was the shortest. The snows and the cold rendered the latter
impracticable in every season but the summer. Paullo and the
high priest advised Almegro to talre the best of the two routes, but
he tools the shortest. The impatience to terminate promptly the
expedition, or the custom to endure every labor and to brave every
danger, tlie common custom of all the Spaniards who had served in
America, determined Almegro to cross the mountains. The route
was, indeed, the shorter, but almost impracticable. In this march
his troops suffered all the ills that human nature can experience
from fatigue, hunger, and the rigor of the climate of tliose elevated
regions of the torrid zone, where the cold is almost as severe as
that which is found under tlie polar circle. There perished a great
number of them. One of his officers and several cavaliers remained
upon the mountains frozen with their horses. The historians who
confirm this fact say that five months afterwards the army repass-
ing by the same place, found the corpses in the same position, hold-
ing in their hands the bridles of their horses. Their flesh was as
fresh as if tliey had died that moment.f

Those who resisted the cold and arrived as far as the fertile plains
of Chili, found there new obstacles to surmount. They had to do
with men, very different from the Peruvians, intrepid, hardened to
labor, much resembling, by their physique and their courage, the
warlike nations of North America. Although astonished at tlie
first appearance of the Spaniards, and still more at their cavalry,
and the effect of their fire-arms, they very soon recovered from their
surprise, not only to the degree of defending themselves with cour-
.age, but even to assail their new enemies with more resolution and
vigor than any other American nation had hitherto shown. The
Spaniards notwithstanding continued to penetrate into the country,
and to collect gold in abundance ; but they no longer thought of
forming a settlenient. Notwithstanding all tlie valor and skill of
their chief, the success of their expedition was still extremely

* "Life of Pizarro," by Arthur Helps.

t The army of Almegro did not return over the mountains, but the forces
under Diaz and Herreda crossed the mountains to join Almegro, and they may
have seen these frozen horsemen on frozen .horses. The Spanish soldiers under
Almegro experienced all the vicissitudes and inclemency of the seasons and
climates that the soldiers of Napoleon endured in Egypt and Russia.


doubtful, when they were r-ecalled to Peru by an unexpected revo-

Almegro had been joined by Ruyz Diaz and Juan de Herreda with
more than a hundred Spaniards, who had crossed the mountains in
a more favorable season of the year. Herreda informed Almegro
of tlie situation of affairs in Peru, and of the general insurrection of
the Indians of Peru.

The news of the general revolt of the Peruvians would have suf-
ficed to induce Almegro to leave Chili and return to succor his com-
patriots, but he was led to this resolution by less generous and more
interested motives. The same messenger who informed him of the
situation of affairs in Peru, brought the royal patent which made
him governor of Chili, and fixed the limits of his government. Ac-
cording to this patent Cuzco appeared to him evidently comprised
within the limits of his department, and he had from this time as
much eagerness to take from Pizarro the possession of this capital
as to hinder the Peruvians from seizing it. Impatient to execute
this double' purpose, he ventured to return by a new route, through
the sandy plains of the coast, the desert of Atacama. In this
march he suffered almost as much from heat and thirst as he had
suffered from cold and hunger in crossing the summits of the Andes.*

He arrived at Cuzco the 12th day of July, ISSY, having left it
shortly after his last compact with Pizarro, made the 12th day of
June, 1535. It has already been mentioned that Soto sought the
rank of lieutenant-general in this expedition, and was disappointed ;
that Hernando Pizarro returned to Peru, accompanied by many
persons of greater distinction than any that had to that time
served in America; and that Hernando Pizarro had been knighted.
Hernando de Soto, in ability, was second to none of the conquerors
of Peru ; his ambition and love of fame, as his pride and sense of
honor, were great and ennobling. He saw the spirit of faction and
discord that raged in the rival parties of Almegro and Pizarro, and
probably anticipated the storm that was destined soon to devastate
Peru with the internecine strife of civil war. As after this period
his name no more appears in the events of Peru, it is probable that
he left the country about this time ; and that he returned to Spain
with Luis Moscoso de Alvarado, Nuno de Touar, and Juan Rodri-
quez Lobillo. He probably was in Spain during the years 1536
and ISS*?. In the spring of 1538 he sailed from Spain on his expe-
dition to Florida.

* Eicher's "Histoire Moderne."





As the works of G-arcilasso Inca de la Vega are the first literary
productions of the native genius of South America, it is proper that
here something should be said of the author and his works. In fact,
Garcilasso might, with propriety, be called the first distinguished
native author of the New World, though the Abbd Clavigero, in the
preface to his " History of Mexico," mentions the following


Fernando Pimentel Ixtlilxochitl, son of Coanacotzin, last king of
Acolhuacan, and Antonio de Tobar Cano Montezuma Ixtlilxochitl,
a descendant of the royal houses of Mexico, and Acolhuacan. These
two nobles, at the request of the Count Benevente, and the Viceroy
of Mexico, Luis de Velasco, wrote letters on the genealogy of the
kings of Acolhuacan, and other points relative to the ancient his-
tory of that kingdom.

Antonio Pimentel Ixtlilxochitl, son of Fernando Pimentel, wrote
Historical Memoirs of the Kingdom of Acolhuacan, by which Tor-
quemada was assisted ; "and from it we have taken the annual ex-
penses incurred in the palace of the famous king Nezahualcojotl,
great-great-grandfather of the author."

Taddeo de Niza, a noble Indian of Tlascala, wrote in the year
1548, by order of the viceroy of Mexico, the History of the Con-
quest, which was subscribed by thirty other nobles of Tlascala.

Gabriel d'Ayala, a noble Indian of Tezcuco, wrote, in the Mexican
language, Historical Commentaries ; containing an account of all
the affairs of the Mexicans from the year 1243 of the vulgar era
unto 1562.


Jnan Ventura Zapata e Mendoza, a noble of Tlascala, wrote, in
the Mexican language, the Chronicle of Tlascala ; containing all the
events of that nation, from their arrival in the country of Anahuac
to the year 1589.

Pedro Ponce, a noble Indian, rector of Tzompahuacan, wrote in
Spanish, An Account of the Gods and the Rites of Mexican Pagan-

The chiefs of Colhuacan wrote the Annals of the Kingdom of

Christoval del Castillo, a Mexican mestee, wrote the History of
the Travels of the Aztecas, or Mexicans, to the country of Anahuac.

Diego Mugnoz Camargo, a noble mestee of Tlascala, wrote, in
Spanish, the History of the City and Republic of Tlascala. Tor-
quemada made use of this work.

Fernando d'Alba Ixtlilxochitl, a Tezcucan, and descendant, in
a right line, from the kings of Acolhuacan, wrote, at the request of
tlie viceroy of Mexico, several very learned and valuable works,
all written in the Spanish language. In order to remove any
grounds for suspicion of fiction, he made his accounts conform ex-
actly with the historical paintings which he inherited from his illus-
trious ancestors.

Juan Balesta Pomar, of Tezcuco, or Cholula, a descendant from
a bastard of the royal house of Tezcuco, wrote Historical Memoirs
of that Kingdom, which Torquemada made use of.

Domingo de San Anton Mufion Chimalpain, a noble Indian of
Mexico, wrote, in the Mexican language, four works much esteemed
b}' the intelligent: 1. American Chronicles, containing all the
Events of that Nation from the year 1068 to the year 1597 of the
vulgar era. 2. The History of the Conquest of Mexico by the
Spaniards. 3. Original Accounts of the Kingdoms of Acolh'ua-;
can, of Mexico, and of other provinces. 4. Historical Commenta-
ries, from the year 1064 to 1521.

Fernando d'Alvarado Tezozomoc, an Indian of Mexico, wrote in
Spanish, a Mexican Chronicle, about the year 1598.

The Hon. Clement Markham, in a note to his translation of Cieza
de Leon, gives the following account of


Garcilasso de la Vega was born of noble parentage, in the city
of Badajos, in Estremadura. His great-grandfather was Gomez
Saurez de Figueroa, the first count of Feria, by Elvira Lasso de la


Vega. This lady was a sister of the famous Marquis of Santillana,
the charming poet, and founder of the great familj' of Mendoza.
She was maternal granddaughter of that G-arcilasso who, in 13t2,
received the surname of " de la Vega," in memory of a famous
duel fought with a Moorish giant, before the walls of Granada.
The lady's paternal grandfather was Don Diego Mendoza, tlie
knight who, in the battle of Aljnbarrota, with the Portuguese, in
1385, saved the life of King John First, by giving Mm his horse
when his own was killed under him.

The subject of this note was a second cousin twice removed of
Garcilasso de la Vega, the poet,* whose poems, with those of his
friend Boscan, were published in 1544.

So much for Garcilasso's descent, which is sufficiently noble and
distinguished. He was a young man of twenty -five years of age,
tall, handsome, polished, generous, and well-practised in the use of
arms, when in 1531, he set out for the New World, as a captain of
infantry, in company with Alonzo [Pedro?] de Alvarado, who was
returning to assume his government of Gauteraala. That famous
chief, on hearing of the riches of Peru, set out with a large fleet
from Nicaragua, and landed in the bay of Caragues, in March, 1534.
Garcilasso de la Vega accompanied him, and shared in all the ter-

* His ancestors from remote antiquity were persons of opulence and higli
consideration. They originally sprung from tlie mountains of Asturias. Don
Pedro Lasso was, in 1329, admiral of Castile ; his son, Garcilasso, arrived at
yet greater honors. He was made high judge, as well as chancellor of the
kingdom. The chancellor left two sons, Garcilasso and Gonzalo Ruyz, who, in
the grand battle of Salado, in 1340, were the first that, in spite of the Moors,
crossed the river.' The former was made lord chief-justice of Spain, as appears
hy the deeds of the year 1372 ; and this knight it was who, for his valor in
slaying a gigantic Moor that had defied the Christians by parading in the I'ega
or plain of Granada, with these words, "Ave Maria" fixed to his horse's tail,
took the surname of De la Vega ; and for his device, Ave Maria in a field d'or,
as is seen in the scutcheon of Garcilasso de la Vega, a son of one of the
brothers, who followed the party of King Henry against the king Don Pedro,
and was slain in the battle of Najara. — "Life of Garcilasso," the poet, by J. H.

' Abil Hassan, king of Morocco, of the dynasty of the Merinis, invited by the in-
hahit.ants of Granada, came and landed in Spain, followed by innumerable troops,
which he united to those of Joseph I. The kings of Castile and Portugal, united,
fought this great army on the borders of the Salado, not far from the town of Tariff.
This battle of the Salado, as celebrated in the history of Spain, as the victory of
Toloza, cost the lives of thousands of Moors. The battle of Toloza was fought in the
year 1212, and was the most important and brilliant victory ever .achieved by the
Christians over the Moors of Spain. Sixty thousand crusaders, from Italy and
France, repaired to the assistance of the Castilian king. — "Florian's Precis Historique
sur les Maures.^'


rible hardships and suffering of the subsequent march to Riobamba.
After the convention with Almegro, and the dispersion of Alva-
rado's forces, Garcilasso was sent to complete tlie conquest of the
country round the port of Buenayentura. He and his small band
of followers forced their way for many days through dense unin-
habited forests, enduring almost incredible hardships, and finding
nothing to repay their labors. He displayed much constancy and
endurance, and persevered during a whole year, but, having lost
eight}' of his men from hunger and fever, he was at last obliged to
retreat. He was nearly drowned in crossing the river Quiximies,
and, after many other strange adventures and narrow escapes, he
reached the Spanish settlement of Puerto Viejo, and went thence
to Lima, where Pizarro was closely besieged by the insurgent
Indians. He then marched to the relief of Cuzco, and afterward
accompanied Gonzalo Pizarro in his expedition to the Collao and
Charcas. On the arrival of Taca de Castro in Peru, Grarcilasso de la
Vega joined him, and was wounded in the battle of Chupas. When
Gonzalo Pizarro rose in rebellion against the viceroy Blasco Nunez
de Vela, Garcilasso and several other loyal knights fled from Cuzco
to Arequipa, and thence up by the deserts to Lima, in order to
share the fortunes of the viceroy. But when they arrived at Lima,
that ill-fated and wrong-headed knight was gone, and the whole
country was in favor of Gonzalo Pizarro. The fugitives, there-
fore, concealed themselves as best they could. Garcilasso was
lodged iu the house of a friend, and afterwards hid himself in the
convent of San Francisco. Through the intercessions of friends,
Gonzalo Pizarro granted him a pardon, but detained him as a
prisoner until he escaped to the army of Gasca, on the morning of
the battle of Xaquxaquana, galloping across the space between the
two camps at early dawn, on his good horse Salinillas. He afters
wards resided at his house in Cuzco until the rebellion of Giron
broke out in 1554, when he once more showed his loyalty by escap-
ing in the night, and joining the royal camp. Aftei" the fall of
Giron, Garcilasso de la Vega was appointed corregidor and gover-
nor of Cuzco, where he appears to have devoted himself to the
duties of his office, and, amongst other good deeds, restored the
aqueduct which brought a supply of water from the lake of Chin-
chiru, for a distance of two leagues, to irrigate the valley of Cuzco.
His house was a centre of hospitality and kindness, where the
conquerors fought their battles over again in the evenings, while
Garcilasso's wife, the inca princess, and her friends dispensed their
numerous charities. Both he and his wife were engaged in acts of
beuevolgnce, and in collecting subscriptions for charitable purposes


during the time that he held office. It is said that in one night
they raised thirty-four thousand five hundred ducats for a hospital
for Indians. When Garcilasso was relieved of his charge, the Juez
de Residencia, who came to review his administration, honorably
acquitted him of the charges which were brought against him, and
he retired into private life. He died at Cuzco, in the year 1559,
after a long illness.

Garcilasso de la Vega was married to a Susta or inca princess,
who was baptized under the name of Isabella in 1539. She was the
daughter of Hualpa Tupac, a younger brother of the great inca
Huayna Oapac. By this lady he had a son, the well-known histo-
rian, who was born at Cuzco in 1540. After his father's death, the
3'oung Garcilasso Inca de la Vega, who had received his early edu-
cation at a school in Cuzco, went to Spain. This was in 1560, when
he was just twenty years of age. He fought against the rebel
Moriscos, under the banner of Don John of Austria, and afterwards
settling at Cordova, devoted himself to literary pursuits. He wrote
a history of the conquest of Florida, and the two parts of his Com-
mentarios Reales were published in 1609 and 1616. An excellent
second edition appeared at Madrid in 1722. His memory was well
stored with the recollections of his youth, when he had learned tiie
history of the incas from his mother's relations, and of tlie conquest
from his father's old companions in arms. He also quotes largely
from Cieza de Leon, Goraara, Zarate, Fernandez, and Acosta, as
well as from the manuscript of the missionary Bias Valera, a most
important work, which was destroyed when Lord Essex sacked the
city of Cadiz. No man, therefore, could be better qualified

TO write a history of the early civilization of the mOAS AND

of the conquest op Peru by the Spaniards. He has been inval-
uable to me in explaining and illustrating the text of Cieza de
Leon ; and in gratitude I have therefore devoted a long note to an
account of his father. The Inca Garcilasso died in 1616, at the
advanced age of seventy-six, and was buried at Cordova.


Garcilasso de la Vega, the Peruvian historian, was the son of the
preceding and Nusta, niece of Huayna Capac, and granddaughter
of the inca Tupac-Yupanqui. He was born at Cuzco in 1540.
From the circumstance of his descent from the family of the incas,
he adopted the title of inca, naming himself Garcilasso Inca de la



Peru, during the fifteen years succeeding the birth of Garcilasso,
was the theatre of wars, conspiracies, persecutions, and revolts.
In the midst of such scenes Garcilasso had but few opportunities
of education, and he says : " I lay the fault of my deficiency upon
the civil wars which existed in tlie Indies during my youth. Lite-
rature was then no longer cultivated, and we applied ourselves to
arms. We learned horsemanship, and I abandoned myself to this
exercise with some of my companions, who have acquired much
distinction there, and have become excellent horsemen." In 1560
Garcilas-so went to Spain, and embraced a military career, distin-
guishing himself in various encounters, and reaching the rank of
captain under the command of Don John of Austria. But the
vengeful court of Spain did not forget that Garcilasso, the father,
had embraced the revolutionar3'^ side, and followed in all his dan-
gerous enterprises Gonzalez Pizarro ; and hence distrust rested
upon the son, who, in consequence, despairing of ever attaining to
eminence in his career, or of fixing upon any other occupation which
seemed suited to his birth, threw up his commission and retired to
Cordova, where he devoted himself to literary pursuits.

The results of his literary labors were the first part of his Royal

Online LibraryBarnard ShippThe history of Hernando de Soto and Florida; or, Record of the events of fifty-six years, from 1512 to 1568 → online text (page 24 of 75)