Barnard Shipp.

The history of Hernando de Soto and Florida; or, Record of the events of fifty-six years, from 1512 to 1568 online

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Narrative. The names are in the order the Spaniards came to them on their
journey. Where they are otherwise, it will be noticed.

The names from Ucita to Apalache, both inclusive, are from Tampa Bay
to Tallahasse ; those from Apalache to Cutifachique are from Tallahasse to
Augusta, in Georgia. Those from Cutifachique to Chiaha are from Augusta
to Rome, in Georgia. Those from Chiaha to Piache are on or near the Cooca
or Tallapoosa rivers, and are from Rome to near Montgomery, Alabama.
Those from Piache to Quizquiz are from Montgomery to a point near Delta or
Friar's Point on the Mississippi River. Casqui was on the St. Francis River,
Paeaha on the Mississippi and above the St. Francis. Quiguate was on the
Mississippi, and about a hundred Spanish leagues below Paeaha. Coligoa was
forty Spanish leagues northwest from Quigaute. From Cayas to Ayays, both
included, are on the west side of the Arkansas River, between it and probably
the Washita. From Guachoya on the Mississippi, just below the Arkansas,
to Naguatex, the places are between the Arkansas and Red. Rivers. All the
remaining places as far as Dayeao are between the Red River and the Trinity.



The Indian names :-


-




Ucita


Cale


Caliquen


MoeoQo


Ytara


Napatuca


Paracossi


Potano


Hapaluya


Acela


Utinama


Uzachil


Tocaste


Cholupaha


Axille



682


APPENDIX.




Vitachuco


Tascaluca


Tietiquaquo, chief


Uzela


on the Tallapoosa


fAYAYS


Anaica Apalache


PiACHE on the Alabama


fTutelpinco


Ochete and Ochus


Mavilla


fTianto


Capachique


Pafallaya


tNilco


Toalli


Taliepatava


*GUACH0YA


Achese


Cabusto


*Huasene


Tupaha


Chicaqa


*Quigalta


Altamaca


Alimamu [Alibamo]


Catalte


Ocute


Nicalasa, chief


Chaguate


Cofaqui


Saquechuma, chief


Aguacay


Patofa


*QU1Z-QUIZ


Pato


Aymay


*Aquixo


Amaye


CUTIFACHIQUE


Casqui on the St. Francis Naguatex on Red River


Chalaque


*Pacaha


Hacanac, chief


Xualla


CaluQa


Nissoone


Guaxula


Macanoche, woman


Lacane


, on the Chatahooohee


Mochila, ' '


Nondacao


Canasaqua


*Quigaute


Aays


JChiaha


Coligoa


Chilano


Chisca


Palisema


Socatino


fCoste


jTatalicoya


Guasco


{Tali


fCATAS


Naquiscoca


jCoQa


j-Tanico


Nacacahoz


Tallimuchase


TuUa


Daycao, the Trinity Riv.


Ytaua


Quipana


*Minoya


UlUbahali


Guahate


*Taguanate


Toasi


Anoixi


Tamaliseu ■> names


Tallise on the Tallapoosa Catamaya


Tapatu J- of the


Casiste "


fAutiamque


MicoandRiJ Mississippi.



Ochete was Ante, and was between "Apalache" and the sea. Ochus is
Achusse, the Bay of Pensacola. Chisca was north of Chiaha several days'
journey. It was in the gold region- of Georgia. Biedma calls Chiaha, Chisca.
CaluQa was northwest several days' journey from Pacaha. Coligoa was forty
Spanish leagues northwest of Quiguate. Dacayo was the furthest place west
that the Spaniards under Moscoso reached ; it was one hundred and fifty Spanish
leagues from Guachoya on the Mississippi, near and below the mouth of the
Arkansas. Chilano is put where it is to show its situation on the Aays ; it was
not seen on their route out, but on their return ; on which Chilano and Minoya
are the only new places mentioned. As all the others had been previously
mentioned, it was not necessary to repeat them, or rather those of them tlu-ough
which they passed on their return.



* On or near the Mississippi River.
t On or near the Arkansas Kiver.
]; n or near the Co(a River,





INDIAN NAMES.




Indian names


mentioned by Garcilasso


in his "


Conquest of Florii


Hirriga or Hirrihigua Cofaqui




Chisca


*Muco(;o


Patofa




Chucagua


Urribaracuxi


Cofaciqui




*Casquin


Acuera


Talomeco




*Capaha


Ocaly


Chalaques




Quiguate


*Ochile


Chovala




Colima


*Vitachuco


Guachoula




Tula


Ossachile


leiaha




Utianque


*Apalache


Acoste




Naguatex


Capasi


*CoQa




Guacane


Ante


*Talisse




Anilco


Achussi


*Tascaluca




Guachoia


*Altapaha


Mauvila




Auche


Achalaque


♦GhicaQa




Aminoia


Cofa


*Alibamo




Q.uigualtanqui.




The upper world,


Hamampacha.




The lower world,


Ucupacha.




The devil,


Cupai.





683



Indian names, nearly all of the Peninsula of Florida, from the accounts of
Eibault, Laudonniere, Gourgue, and Fontanedo : —



Appalatcy


Mayara


Serranay


Chigoula


MoUua


AUimacany


Chenonceau


Olata Quae Utina


Maquarqua


Audusta


Cadecha


Hostaqua


Wayon


Chilili


Marracou


Hoya


fGuaragunve


Mathiaca


Touppa


Cuchiyaga


Calos


Stalame


Eclauou


Sarrope


Toya


Enacappe


Hiocaia


He Toya


Calany


Hiatiqui (interpreter)


lawas


Anacharaqua


Edelano


Couexis


Omitiaqua


Eneguape


Oude


Acquera


Patica


Maccoa


Moquoso


Mayaimi


Antipola Bonassou


Potanou


Guasaca


Paracoussy


Hyou (exclamation)


Coya


Satourioua or Satiroua


. Malico.


Astina


Athore


Omoloa


Enecaque


Thimogoa


Onathaqua


Esquine



* Names found on maps made at different dates. The Casquins were the Knskaskias ;
the Capnhas were the Qnappas or Cappas ; the Cayas were the Kanzas ; and the Quip-
anas were the Pawnees. These appear on the maps in their modern names, which,
in all probability, are hut corruptions of the originals.

t The Tillage of Tears on one of the Florida Keys.



684


APPENDIX.




Casti


Chiobimeque


Teguemapo


Nia Cubacani


Zertepe


Cutespa


Saraurahi


Sequene


Enempa


Iraoana


Tuchi


Onagatano


Apalou


Sinacsta


Canogacole


Tacadocorou


Calaobe


Mayajuaca


Homoloa


Guaya


Gardgumve, islands


Malica


Casitoa


Toco Baja^Chile


Seloy


Putun


Mogozo


Sieroa Pira (copper)


Luiseyove


Tampa


Olotoraca or Olotacara


Tonsobe


Tomo


Salinacani


Feaga


Sinapa


Saraeary,


Mayaca


Sacaspada


Catacouru


leaga, name of an island


Yagua


Cassine


Abolaohi


Muspa


Helicopile


Olagale


Coyovea


Tacatacourou


Guasaca-Es-Qui


Comachica


Sarabay


Tocobajo


Tavagueme


Tegesta


Sogo No


Ais


Crista or Chicora


Metamapo


Olacatano


Quate or Gualdape


Estame


Guacata


Otopali


Guevu


Se-le-te-ga.


Olgatano


Talesta





Tbe following dates show the progress that De Soto made in his expedition : —

1539. May 18th. Left Havana.

May 25th. Saw the land of Florida.

May 30th. Friday, landed in Florida.

Aug. 1st. Sets out on his expedition about this time.

Aug. 2d. Leaves Gale.

Oct. 27th. Arrives at Aniaca Apalache. Wintered.

1540. March 3d. Leaves Aniaca Apalache.
April 12th. Leaves Ocute.

April 26th. Arrives at Aymay, two days' journey, twenty-four miles
from Cofacique.
Departs from Cofacique.
At Coste.
Leaves Coste.
26th. At CoQa.
At Tallise.
At Mavilla.
Leaves Mavilla.
At Chioaca. Wintered.

1541. April 25th. Leaves Chicaea.

June 19th. At Pacaha. Rested forty days.

Aug. 4th. At Quigaute.

Dec. 1st. At Autiamque. Wintered.



3d.
2d.
9th.



May
July
July
July
Sept. 18th.
Oct. 18th.
Nov. 18th.
Dec. 17th.
April 25th.



FIRST PROTESTANT SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. 685

1542. Mar. 6th. Leaves Autiamque.
Mar. 29th. At Nilco.

April 17th. At Guachoya.
May 21st. De Soto dies.

De Soto just before, his death appointed Luis de Moscoso de Alvarado
Governor. Moscoso conducted the Spaniards one hundred and fifty leagues
westward to the Trinity River, which he reached about the 1st October, 1542,
and then returned to Minoya, where they spent the winter 1542-3. In March,

1543, was a great flood. They finished seven brigantines in June, 1543, and
July 2d, 1543, sailed from Minoya. The 18th July, 1543, they went to sea ;
Sept. 10th, 1543, they came into the river Panuco. The Spaniards wintered
at Apalache," Chicaca, Autiamque, and Minoya.

25th May, 1539, was PascadeSpirito Santo; hence Tampa Bay was formerly
called Spirito Santo Bay.



Note (30), page 504.

THE FIRST ATTEMPT OF PROTESTANTS TO FORM A RELIGIOUS
SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA.

In 1555, Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon, Knight of Malta, and Vice-Ad-
miral of Bretagne, given to the opinions of the new Sectarians, conceived the
project of forming, in America, a colony of Protestants. He was a man of
rare merit. To a superior mind, he joined all the knowledge that could be
acquired by study and reflection. He had, besides, given proof of courage on
more than one occasion. He presented his design to the court under the single
idea of forming a French settlement in the New World. He obtained from
Henry II. two 6r three vessels well equipped, which he filled with Calvinists,
left Havre de Grace in the month of May, and arrived on the coast of Brazil
in the month of November following. He did not exercise his usual prudence
in choosing a port. He landed upon a great rock, from which the tide very
soon drove him ; having advanced farther, he entered a river nearly under the
tropic of Capricorn, and took possession of a little island, in which he buUt a
fort, which he named Fort Coligny. Scarcely was the work begun, when he
sent his vessels back to France with letters, in which he gave an account to the
court of his situation ; and he sent with them others to some friends that he
had at Geneva. There were at that time in Brazil, several Normans who had
been shipwrecked upon the coast, and who, mingling with the natives, had
learned their language. Villegagnon attracted them to his fort, and made use
of them to trade with the Brazilians.

The Genevese, having received his letters, seized with eagerness the oppor-
tunity that presented itself of establishing themselves in a country where they
hoped to have the free exercise of their religion. Admiral de Coligny, to
whom Villegagnon had not failed to write, became deeply interested in this
afiair. He knew the zeal of an old gentleman, named Philippe de Corguille-
ray, but better known under the name of Dupont, who had retired to Geneva
to live peaceably in the exercise of his religion. The admiral solicited him



686 APPENDIX.

to consent to put himself at the head of those who should go to Brazil. The
old man, still more stimulated by the exhortations of Calvin, whose reputation
and authority had reached the highest degree among those who were opposed
to the Roman Church, made no difficulty to sacrifice his repose to the services
of his partisans.

With a chief of this importance, it was necessary to find men of willingness,
who would be disposed to abandon forever their country, ministers of religion,
artisans, and all the things necessary to lay the foundations of a new republic.
They found two ministers of known merit, and who, it was believed, would do
honor to the choice they had made of them. A multitude of persons of dif-
ferent conditions and ages went to present themselves to Dupont, in order to
leave with him ; but the old man, who was sincere, told them that in the
projected enterprise there would be one hundred and fifty leagues to travel by
land, and more than two thousand by sea ; and that on arriving at the end of
it, they would be obliged to do without bread ; to content themselves with
fruits and roots ; to do without wine, because the country produced none of it ;
in a word, that they would be obliged to live in a manner entirely different
from that of Europe. This picture made some of them change their minds ;
there were found but fourteen of them who persisted in the resolution of cross-
ing the sea, and going to expose themselves to the dangers and suffering that
awaited them in Brazil.

Dupont failed not to make them pass by Chatillon Sur Loing, where the
admiral had an estate worthy of his rank, in one of the most beautiful castles
of France ; the admiral encouraged them all by his exhortations and promises.
They afterwards repaired to Paris, where they found quite a considerable
number of Protestants, who determined to increase their company ; they after-
wards passed to Rouen, and made some recruits there. Hoping to discover
mines in the country where they were going, they had the precaution to take
with them some men who had a knowledge of that business. They repaired to
Honfleur, where they were to embark ; but the inhabitants, having learned that
they had celebrated the Lord's Supper during the night, contrary to the king's
ordinances, which did not permit Protestants to assemble except during the
day, massacred a great part of them. Those who were in a condition to work
the mines had the misfortune to perish, which caused much disappointment to
the chiefs of the enterprise, when they arrived in Brazil.

The commotion of the inhabitants of Honfleur caused them to hasten their
departure ; they embarked upon four vessels, which the king had caused to be
equipped. They took with them five young women, and a woman to govern
them, and six youths, who were to learn the language of the country, to familiar-
ize themselves with the savages. The equipage might amount to three hundred
persons. Lery, from whom we borrow the greater part of what we have to
say, was of the number.

After having experienced terrible tempests, the three vessels arrived the 16th
February, 1557, in view of America, near the country of the Margajas, who
were allies of the Portuguese. They tired some cannon, and sent the boat ashore.
A troop of savages advanced to the border of the shore ; they showed to them
from a distance knives, mirrors, combs, in the hopes of obtaining provisions
from them. The savages comprehended what they asked, and were eager to



FIRST PROTESTANT SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. 687

bring refreshments. Six of them entered the boat, with a woman, and per-
mitted themselves to be conducted to the vessels.

The next day, fearing to push too far their confidence in these barbarians
whom they knew not, they weighed anchor, in order to follow the land.
Scarcely had they made nine or ten leagues, when they found themselves be-
fore a Portuguese fort, named St. Esprit. The Portuguese of the garrison,
recognizing a Portuguese caravel, which the French Protestants had picked up
on their route, fired some cannon-shot at them, to which they replied with much
vigor. They continued to advance towards a place named Tapemiry, the in-
habitants of which did not give any signs of hate to the French, they coasted
the habitations of many savages, they met many isles, and arrived upon the
lands of the Topinamboux, allies of Villegagnon. These savages, recognizing
the flag of France, showed their joy by a thousand demonstrations of friend-
ship. The French did not hesitate to anchor. Besides the refreshments which
they received from the savages, they had a good fishing. They sailed again,
and in a little while entered the river of Kio Janeiro : it was the 7th of March,
1557.

Villegagnon and his men, who had retired to a small island of the river, has-
tened to reply to the cannon of the vessels, and comprehended that succors had
arrived. The eagerness to meet was equal on both sides ; the squadron having
advanced to the borders of the island was there received with hearty acclama^
tions. The pleasure which they reciprocally enjoyed in seeing one another,
caused the one to forget a year of solitude and ennui, and the other, the dan-
gers which they had experienced in.their voyage, and, to felicitate each other
for their common happiness, they returned thanks to Heaven for it.

The new-comers went afterwards to visit Villegagnon, who awaited them in
a room. After reciprocal embraces, their chief said to him that they had come
to this country to establish in it a reformed church according to the word of God.
He replied that all his efibrts would be to second their intentions ; then raising
his hands to heaven, he added : " Lord, I thank thee for having sent what I
so long desired." Then turning to his new companions, he fontinued in these
terms : " My children, for I would serve you as a father, this place should be
a safe asylum for the persecuted Protestants of Europe." Afterwards he gave
orders for all his people to assemble in a place designated, with those who had
just arrived, to perform divine service and to hear a sermon which was de-
livered by one of the clergymen who had accompanied Dupont. They had
quite a frugal repast ; everybody went to labor on the fort which was being
built. This work was continued during a month, and was never interrupted
except to pray and to eat.

Villegagnon, a zealous partisan of the doctrine of Calvin, desired to establish
in the colony a discipline conformable to the laws of his reform, but he found
obstacles to it ; disputes arose, and became so warm, that they agreed to send
to France, in order to consult Calvin. While waiting his reply, Villegagnon
made very severe laws among his companions, and had them executed by his
example and his firmness. He married the five young women whom they had
brought with them, to the five young men, and forbid, under penalty of death,
all the Christians of the colony from cohabiting with any Indian woman or



688 APPENDIX.

girl. He, however, permitted them to marry those who were instructed or
baptized.

This conduct of Villegagnon seemed to announce that he was going to be an
apostle of Calvin, but they saw him suddenly change his religious opinions.
The day of Pentecost having been appointed to celebrate the Lord's Supper,
he said that St. Cyprien and St. Clement had written that water must be put
in the wine, and required them to conform to this practice ; he undertook to
convince the assembly that consecrated bread was not less useful to the body
than to the soul. He claimed afterwards that salt and oil should be mingled
with the water of baptism, and that an ecclesiastical minister could not marry
a second time. One of the clergymen, wishing to make a display of his knowl-
edge, undertook on his side to deliver a public discourse, which increased
the trouble and division. The disorder went so far, that Villegagnon, with-
out awaiting the reply of Calvin, renounced suddenly the opinion which he
had of him, declared that he regarded him as a heretic devoid of the faith.
From this moment he ceased to show friendship for the Protestants. He
limited the duration of a sermon to half an hour, although he rarely assisted at
it. They finally believed that he had been dissembling to that time. They
claimed that the cause of this so sudden change on the part of Villegagnon was
a letter which he had received from the cardinal of Lorraine by a vessel which
had arrived at Cape Frio. This prelate severely reproached him for having
abandoned the Roman religion, and fear induced this officer to hold a difl'erent
conduct. Lery, who was a zealous Calvinist, asserts that Villegagnon became
so vexed, that he swore every instant by the body of St. James ; that he would
punish all those who dared to reply to him with firmness ; that no one dared to
approach him. Finally he rendered himself so intolerable, that several of the
French formed the project of casting him into the sea. This conspiracy was dis-
covered, and the conspirators he put in irons. Having learned that one named Le
Roche was one of the chiefs, he had him laid on his back upon the ground, and
caused so many blows with a stick to be given him upon his belly, that this
unfortunate man lost his breath by it. His cruelty not being satisfied he had
him turned upon his belly, and ordered that they should give him as many
blows upon his back. He forced him afterwards to go to work.

Those who composed the colony conceived so violent a hate against Ville-
gagnon, that they would have put him to death, but for the fear of displeasing
the Admiral de Coligny. They contented themselves with not inviting him
any more to their meetings, and with celebrilting the Lord's Supper without
him. This conduct in regard to him so enraged him, that he declared that
he would no longer suffer the Protestants in his fort, and he forced them to
leave it.

These unfortunate beings, after having passed eight months in a fort which
they had helped to build, were obliged to retire to the sea-shore to await the
arrival of some vessel. They would have been exposed to all the horrors of
famine if the savages, more humane than Villegagnon, had not brought them
provisions. They passed two entire months in this condition, without having
other resource than the kindness of these Indians. It was during this time
that Lery made the observations which he has given in his voyage.

These French fugitives named the place where they had retired, la Brique-



FIEST PROTESTANT SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. 689

terie. They built cabins there, and formed the design of establishing them-
selves there, if they should receive sufficient assistance from Europe, and if
they could withdraw themselves from the authority of Villegagnon, who was
invested with the orders of the king. This officer, seeing that a part of those
who appeared to remain attached to him abandoned him to join the Protes-
tants, fearing a total desertion, forced them to leave, and wrote to the captain
of a vessel that was in these parts that he could take them on board. He even
sent them a discharge signed with his own hand. Lery asserts that he had the
cruelty to remit to the captain a casket in which was an action against all the
Protestants, and that he ordered the first judge to whom he should deliver it
in France, to arrest them all, in order that they all might be burnt as heretics.
They all embarked, and their vessel sailed the 4th of January, 1 558. Their
number might amount to forty-five men, both sailors and passengers. They
arrived at the port of Blavet, the 2Gth of May, after having experienced all
the misfortunes to which they were exposed upon the sea. From thence they
repaired to Hennebon, a little town of Bretagne, which was distant but two
leagues from it. There they were menaced with another danger, of which
they had no suspicion. The casket in which Villegagnon inclosed his action
against them, was delivered to the judges of this town: but Dupontknew some
of them, as much attached to the church of Geneva as he. They informed
him of what was going on, and, far from regarding these odious accusations,
they suppressed them, and rendered acts of kindness to those whose destruc-
tion they could have occasioned.

A short time after the departure of the Protestants, the Portuguese attacked
Fort Coligny, drove Villegagnon from it, and took possession of it. Villegag-
non returned to France, where he was one of the most cruel persecutors of the
Calvinists. As a reward he obtained a commandery of Malta named Beauvais,
in Gatinois, near St. Jean de Nemours, where he died in the month of Decem-
ber, 1575.. (Richer.)



THE END.



44






Online LibraryBarnard ShippThe history of Hernando de Soto and Florida; or, Record of the events of fifty-six years, from 1512 to 1568 → online text (page 75 of 75)