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Barthold Georg Niebuhr.

The life and letters of Barthold Georg Niebuhr. With essays on his character and influence online

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THE



LIFE AND LETTERS



or



BARTHOLD GEORGE NIEBUHR.



WITH



ESSAYS ON HIS CHARACTER AND INFLUENCE,



THE CHEVALIER BUNSEN,
AND PROFESSORS BRANDIS AND LORBELL.



NEW YORK:

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,
329 & 331 PEARL STREET,

F KAN KLIN SQUARE.

1852.



PREFACE.



No justification could be needed for offering to the En-
glish public a life of Niebuhr, but it seems necessary to
explain how far the present work can claim to be consid-
ered as such.

It is founded upon one entitled " Lebensnachrichten
A uber Barthold Georg Niebuhr," which is chiefly composed
N of extracts from Niebuhr's letters ; though a short nar-

01

a- rative, intended to explain these, and fill up the chasms

they leave in his history, is prefixed to each of the periods

into which it is divided. The principal editor of " Lebens-

O nachrichten" was Madame Hensler, Niebuhr's sister-in-

5 law, to whom most of the letters are addressed, and who

O thus states the views with which she performed her task :

. . . . " The reader will not need to be reminded that
the extracts from the letters form the most important part
| of the work.

u. "As I have already observed, these are not to be judged

k. from the point of view which would be taken by an editor

3 of Niebuhr's learned or general correspondence : such a

one would have made a very different and a much more

copious selection, and would probably, too, have followed

critical rules which were beside the aim of the present

work. This aim is simply biographical ; to communicate

whatever can throw light upon his natural capacities and



vi PREFACE.

dispositions, his mental development, his studies, his mode
of thought, his views of life, the State, art, and literature ;
his relations as a citizen, a friend, and a member of the
domestic circle ; his large and profound sympathies ; his
keen sense of the noble and beautiful ; his zeal for justice
and truth ; and, not less, his faults and weaknesses, for
these too, neither ought nor needed to be glossed over.
Mebuhr was not so poor in great and amiable qualities,
as to require an artificial light, in order to retain the es-
teem of those whose esteem he would have valued ; and
while his letters contain many beautiful traits which a
regard to others forbids us to publish, they contain nothing
which could have brought our friendship for him and our
love of truth into collision.

" Whether some of the letters retained might not have
been omitted, and others inserted with advantage, is a
point on which judgments will naturally differ

" The greatest possible care has been taken to avoid
any thing like indiscretion toward the living, or a profan-
ation of feeling, which Mebuhr would have regarded as
belonging to the inner sanctuary of the heart. Perhaps,
in some cases, this scruple has been carried too far (for
instance in omitting expressions of affection in the letters
to his betrothed), and possibly too, some things may un-
awares have been retained, in which one better acquainted
with the circumstances may perceive allusions that escaped
the selecter."

I believe none who have paid attention to the subject,
will deny, that the editor has, in the main, accomplished
her purpose, and presented a picture of Niebuhr as a man,
and in his private relations, which, in point of complete-
ness and fairness, is excelled by few biographies ; but it



PREFACE. vii

is equally certain that the account of his public career is
very incomplete, and by no means one that enables the
reader to perceive the relation in which Niebuhr stood to
his times. The biographical notices in the present work
are shorter than Madame Hensler's narrative on which
they are based, but they also comprise a considerable
amount of additional information, derived partly from
other publications, partly from conversation with intimate
friends of Niebuhr.* Several letters too have been added,
throwing additional light on his public life. Thus, it is
believed, that something has been done toward supplying
the deficiency alluded to, though far less than still re-
mains to be done. It was hoped that much more might
have been effected, but Niebuhr's memorials and dispatches,
as well as some valuable collections of his letters (espe-
cially those to Valckenaer and many of those to De Serre),
still remain inaccessible to his friends.

Of the letters given in the " Lebensnachrichten," about
half have been translated. In the selection of these the
aim has been, while omitting those which could be inter-
esting only in Germany, and avoiding repetition, where it
was possible, to maintain the relative proportions which
their various topics assume in the original, and thus to
reproduce with faithfulness, on a smaller scale, the por-
trait there exhibited. Those who know the " Lebens-
nachrichten" will probably regret that none of Niebuhr's
letters on learned subjects have been inserted,,; but it
seemed desirable to confine this selection to those of
general interest, and should the present work meet with
a favorable reception, it is intended to publish, in another

* Such information as helped to explain or illustrate the letters has been
added in notes, in cases where it would have broken the thread of the nar-
rative if inserted in the Introductory Notices.



viii PREFACE.

volume, the letters referred to, together with the most
valuable portions of his smaller writings.

In reading Niebuhr's letters, it must be remembered
first, that they were hasty compositions addressed to his
most intimate friends, and hence in giving them to the
world, Madame Hensler has deemed it necessary frequent-
ly to omit single sentences or expressions, which explains
the somewhat abrupt and obscure style of many passages ;
and secondly, with regard to his political sentiments, that
it was necessary, in Germany, to observe great caution
in the publication of facts or opinions on such subjects ;
and therefore these letters give no complete view of what
he thought and felt, even on the passing events of the
day : nevertheless it may be hoped that he will not be
misunderstood in England, and that those who occupy
themselves with political questions will lay his words to
heart.

In conclusion, the translator begs to express the warm-
est acknowledgments to those friends of Niebuhr who
have aided in the progress of this work, especially to Efts
Excellency Chevalier Bunsen, without whose encourage-
ment and assistance it would never have been undertaken,
and to Professor Loebell, for his " Letter on Niebuhr's
Character as an Historian," and to Professors Brandis and
Welcker, to the former of whom it has been indebted for
most of the original information which it contains.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH.

FAOB

BIRTH. SKETCH OF HIS PARENTS AND NATIVE-PLACE. ILL-HEALTH.

CHILDISH AMUSEMENTS AND STUDIES. THE BOJES. INTEREST IN

POLITICS. ACQUAINTANCE WITH VOSS. EDUCATION. VISIT TO

HAMBURGH. STUDIES. LIST OF THE LANGUAGES HE KNEW 25

CHAPTER II.
COLLEGE LIFE.

THE UNIVERSITY OF KIEL. FRIENDSHIPS FORMED THERE. DR. HENS-
LEE. MADAME HKNSLER. LOVE OF THE CLASSICS 44

LETTERS.

1. To HI PARENTS. His Society at Kiel. Henslcr 46

2. Grief at Fichte's Defense of Revolution -. . .. 48

3. The Study of Philosophy. Geographical Questions. Hypo-

thesis respecting the earliest Colonization of Gjreece, &c
The Origin of Races 48

4. Books in Hand. Separation from a Friend who denied Free-

will ;... 51'

5. Plans of Study % . . 51

6- The Same 51

7. Mode of Life. Philosophy. Thibaut '....- 52

8. Introduction to Miss Behrens 53

9. A learned Lady -...-.. 53

10. Good Resolutions 54

1 1 . His future Vocation. Education 55

12. Justification of his Refusal to go into Society 56

13. Algernon Sidney. Dictating History of the Revolution .... 56

14. The Same 57

EUT1N AND THE SOCIETY THERE. THE STOLBERGS. THK REVENT- .^-^

LOWS. JACOBI. MOLTKE ( ***}

A* > '



x CONTENTS.

-

LETTERS.

PAGE

15. To MOLTKE. Corruption of the German Language by the Thirty

Years' War. Voss. Klopstock 60

16. Relative Importance of Grammatical Studies. Wolf. Jacobi.

Becomes Private Secretary to Count Schimmelman. Ac-
quaintance with Amelia Behrens 61

CHAPTER III.

RESIDENCE IN COPENHAGEN.

COUNT SCHIMMELMAN. LIFE AT HIS HOUSE. BECOMES SECRETARY

AT THE ROYAL LIBRARY. PLANS FOR GOING TO PARIS 64

LETTERS.

17. To MADAME HENSLER. Attachment to Miss Behrens 67

18. To MOLTKE. Announcing his Engagement 68

19. Position and Prospects at Schimmelman's. Grouvelle 71

20. On Moltke's Marriage 72

21. Low moral Tone of German Poets. Decline of Literature . . 73

22. To HIS PARENTS. Progress in the Study of Persian. Plan of

going to Constantinople 74

23. To MADAME HENSLER. Schimmelman's plan for a Government

Journal 76 /

24. Requisites for a Professor of Philology '\77y

25. Plans of future Life. Attachment to Amelia Behrens TS

26. Vindicating himself from the charge of idealizing his Friends 79

27. Dangers of the Scholar's Life. Mental Training of the An-

cients 79 /

28. Revolution of the 18th Fructidor v 81

29. To AMELIA. Anticipation of her Influence on his Character. . . 82

30. Grouvelle. Desaugiers. Friendships with Foreigners .... 82

31. To HIS PARENTS. Political Apprehensions 83 ^

32. Offer of a Professorship 84

33. Plans. Studies in the Library 84

N 34. To AMELIA. His Faults 85 /

35. To HIS FATHER. Society in Copenhagen. Politics 85 '

36. To" AMELIA. Effect of Weather upon the Spirits 87

37. To HIS PARENTS. Souza. Introductions in England 88

38. Visit to Hamburgh 88

EXTRACTS FROM HIS DIARIES. VISIT TO HOLSTE1N 89

CHAPTER IV.
JOURNEY TO ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.

JOURNEY TO ENGLAND. ACQUAINTANCE THERE. STUDIES IN EDIN-
BURGH. RETURN TO DENMARK. RECEIVES AN APPOINTMENT IN

COPENHAGEN 91



CONTENTS. xi
LETTERS.

PA0K

39. To AMELIA. The Journey .- . . , 95

40. Russell. Rennell. Sir Joseph Banks. ^-Want of Genius

among the English 95

41. The Works of Art in London. Schonborn 96

42. The Sights of London 97

43. Effect of the Changes of Nature upon the Mind. English

Political Writings 98^

44. The English Stage 100

45. Visit to Pope's Garden, , 100

46. To MOLTKE. The Citizens, Scholars, and Young Men of En-

gland. Resolutions 100

47. To AMELIA. Journey from London to Edinburgh 102

48. The Same 103

49. Opening Lectures at the University. Robinson. Hope. *f

Home. Gregory. Mode of Life 104

50. Mr. Francis Scott. Studies. Moorhouse 105

51. An unpleasant Acquaintance. The Scotts 107

52. ' National Character. Young- Men. Women 108 S

53. Want of Intimacy in English Friendships, and Neglect of the

Training of Children 1 09

54. His own Character 110 S

55. The English Character. Beautiful Influence of Physical

Studies. English Ideas of Germany Ill

56. Study of Philosophy in England

57. English Literature 113

58. Characteristics of the Scotch . . 114

59. Plans and Anticipations. Taylor the Infidel . : . 115

60. Interesting People 116

61. The Study of the Natural Sciences. Playfair 117

62. English Reserve 117

63. Visit to Dr. C . 118

64. The Same 119

65. Journey into the Highlands 120

66. The Same. A Scotch Farmer. Sir John Murray 120

67. Agricultural Class in Scotland 122

68. Return to Copenhagen : 122

69. Good Resolutions 123

70. Parents and Children. Pecuniary Circumstances 123



CHAPTER V.
OFFICIAL LIFE IN COPENHAGEN.

MARRIAGE AND SETTLEMENT IN COPENHAGEN. STOLBERo's CONVER-
SION. BOMBARDMENT OF COPENHAGEN. STUDY OF ARABIC. FRESH

APPOINTMENTS. RECEIVES PROPOSALS FROM PRUSSIA. CONSENTS

TO GO THERE . 124




xii CONTENTS.

LETTEES.

PAGE

71. To MADAME HENSLER. Stolberg's Conversion. Modern Protest-

antism 132

72. Nelson's Arrival 1

./ 73. State of Public Affairs. Schimmelman 1

74. The Same - 135

75. The Bombardment 135

76. State of the City 137

77. Truce. Loss of the English 1

78. To MOLTKE. On the Death of his first Wife 138

79. To ins PARENTS. Study of Arabic. State of the Jews under

the Macedonian Rule 139

To MOLTKE. Present Mode of Life. Study of Roman History.

Moltke's Visit to Italy. Public Affairs. Carnot 140

Love of Paintings. Style of Ancient Authors. Livy. Ci-
cero. Demosthenes. Thucydides 142

Melancholy Issue of the War. Mournful Anticipations re-
specting Germany 144

83. To HIS PARENTS. Departure from Copenhagen 145



CHAPTER VI.

THE PRUSSIAN CIVIL SERVICE.

ARRIVAL IN BERLIN. DEFEATS OF THE PRUSSIAN ARMY. FLIGHT TO

'MEMEL 147

LETTERS.

84. To HIS PARENTS. Consoling them under the present Calamities 147

85. To MADAME HENSLER. Proceedings in Konigsberg 149

86. State of Public Affairs. Intrigues 150

87. To STEIN. On Stein's Dismissal from Office 150

PROPOSALS FROM OTHER STATES. TAKES AN APPOINTMENT IN THE

COMMISSARIAT DEPARTMENT. VON SCHORN. HARDENBERG. PRIME

MINISTER. FLIGHT T6 RIGA. PROVISIONAL COMMISSION. OFFER

FROM KLEIN. STEIN's RETURN TO OFFICE 152

LETTERS.

88. To STEIN. Stein's dismissal. Public Affairs. Lord Hutchinson 156

89. Proposals from Russia 157

90. To HIS WIFE. Journey to Bartenstein 158

91 . Mournful Aspect of Affairs 1 58

92. The Same. Bennigsen 159

93. Negotiations with Hutchinson. Health 159

94. Negotiations with the Russians. Loss of Literary Leisure. . 160



CONTENTS. xiii

PAGE

95. To STEIN. Stein's Return to Office. Dislike to Division of Re-

sponsibility in Administration. Slavonic Literature. ... 161

96. To MADAME HENSLER. Retrospect. Justifying himself for

learning new Languages 163

PROVISIONAL COMMISSION. STEIN SENDS HIM TO NEGOT^ATS DUTCH

LOAN. UNSUCCESSFUL ATTEMPTS. VALCKENAER UNDERTAKES IT.

' STEIN'S PROSCRIPTION. ALTENSTEIN,' MINISTER. APPOINTMENT AS

MANAGER OF THE NATIONAL DEBT. DUTCH LOAN. HARDENBERG,

MINISTER. REFUSES TO ACT WITH HIM. - APPOIN.TED HISTORIO-
GRAPHER 165

LETTERS.

97. To MADAME HENSLER. Journey from Memel to Landsberg. . . 172

98. Meeting with his Father 175

99. Thankfulness for the Blessings of the past Year 175

100. To MOLTKE. Different Kinds of Friendships. Reminiscence*.

Sismondi's Italian Republics. Circular Letters*
Vondel 176

101. To MADAME HENSLER. Sorrow for Denmark 178

102. King Louis Napoleon 178

103. Influence of the Mind on Bodily Health. Objects to be

aimed at in Charitable Institutions 179

104. To MOLTKE. On the Death of hia second Wife 180

105. To MADAME HENSLER. Political Anxieties. Countess Moltlce. 181

106. Moltke. Stein's Fall. His Character. Approaching Crisis 182

107. To MOLTKE. -Consolation under Trial. His own Future .... 183

108. Dislike of Medical Men. Mirabeau's *' Essai sur le Despot-

isme." Necker. Camot 185

109. To MADAME HENSLER. Intercourse. Faith. Stein 187

110. Stein's Proscription. Political Doctrines at the Present .

Conjuncture 188

111. To MOLTKE. Stein's < Character. Altenstcin. Retirement

from Public Life. Massillon's Writings. Schiller's
Thirty Years' Wat 189

112. To MADAME HENSLER. Valckenaer. Dutch Poets ..... 191

113. Visit to his Father. Reflections on Political Events. Ma-

jorian . . . . ' . . 192

114. Grief at the late Events. Schill 193

115. The same . . 194

116. Stay at Nutschau. Early Intercourse between Greece and ^

Rome. Mirabeau on Finance. Baader , 195*

117. Successes of the Tyrolese. Villers 7 197

118. Journey to Konigsberg. Ravages of War. Stein 198

119. State of Political Feeling. Schelling. Benvenuto Cellini.

Davy's Discoveries 200

120. Official Appointments. Plans 202

121. To HIS FATHER. Finance. Occupations 203

122. To MADAME HENSLER. Advantages of unrestricted Commerce 205



xiv CONTENTS.

PAGE

123. Dissatisfaction with the Ministry- Regret at the Sacrifice

of Learned Pursuits 205

124. Hardenberg. Intrigues 206

125. To HIS FATHER. Study of Arabic 207

126. To MADAME HENSLER. Opposition to intended Financial Meas-

ures 207

127. To MOLTKE. Account of Proceedings. Free Trade. New

Books : 208

128. To HIS FATHER. Salt's Expedition. Condition of the Abys-

sinians. Prospects of England 209

CHAPTER VII.

PROFESSORSHIP IN BERLIN.

RETURN TO A LITERARY VOCATION. PLANS OF STUDY. EXTRAORDIN-
ARY MEMORY. CHARACTERISTICS. OPENING OF THE UNIVERSITY.

LECTURES ON ROMAN HISTORY. SAVIGNY's ACCOUNT OF THEM.

INTERCOURSE. BEGINS THE HISTORY OF ROME. VISIT TO HOL-

STEIN. LITERARY LABORS. FRENCH INVASION OF RUSSIA. WISHES

TO ENTER THE ARMY. ESTABLISHMENT OF " THE PRUSSIAN CORRE-
SPONDENT 5 ' 210

LETTERS.

129. To MADAME HENSLER. Goethe 219

130. Savigny. Pamphlets of the 17th Century 219

131. Effect of his opening Lecture 220 i/

132. Early Civilization of Western Europe 221 /"

133. Account of his Occupations 221

134. The Existence of pure Disinterestedness. Goethe's Theo-

logical Essay 222

135. The Danes. History of Rome 224 -

136. De Serre 225

137. Detention of Letters. Aspect of Public Affairs. Impres-

sions received from Museum of Natural History 225

138. Goethe's " Dichtung und Wahrheit." Madame de Stael. . 226

139. The Same. Mode of Life 227

140. Schleiermacher's Views of the Ancient Philosophers 227

LETTERS FROM GOETHE TO NIEBUHR ON RECEIVING THE FIRST VOLUME

OF THE HISTORY OF ROME 228

x!41. To MADAME HENSLER. Episodes hi History 230

142. Inequality of Style no Fault 230 y

143. Johannes Muller 231

144. State of Public Affairs 231

145. Wilhelm Meister. Goethe's Mental History. Animal Mag-

netism 232

146. State of Public Affairs , 233

147. The Same. Klopstock and his Times 234



CONTENTS, v xv

fAOE

148. To V**. On Religion. Our Mental History. Rationalism.

Mysticism-. Catholicism. The Future of the Church . 235

149. To MOLTKE. Society in Berlin. Reception of his History.

Ideal of Historical Writing 239 y

150. To MADAME"HE*SLER. The aim of Wilhelm Meister. Oersted . 241

151. Reviewing Plato 241

152. Effects of War. Antique Works in Glass 242

153. To PERTHES. On the Birth of a Son. Decline of Art after

Raphael. English Policy 243

\ 154. To JACOBI. History of his own Intellectual Development. . . . 244 V

LETTERS FROM GOETHE TO NIEBUHR ON RECEIVING THE SECOND VOL-
UME OF THE HISTORY OF ROME 247 V

155. To MADAME HENSLER. Herder. Public Health 249

156. To PERTHES. Studies in old German. Goethe's Autobiogra-

phy. Julian 250

157- To MADAME HENSLER. State of Public Affairs 251

158. The same. Return of th French from Russia 251

159. The same 1 253

160. State of General Enthusiasm 253

161. To PERTHES. Neander's "Julian." Goethe and the Catholic

Sacrament . . 253

162. To MADAME HENSLER. The War of Liberation 254

163. Training for the Army. Instances of Patriotism. General

York 255

164. To PERTHES. Political Anticipations. Arndt's "Landwehror

Landsturm" 257

165. To MADAME HENSLER Wish to join the Army 257

CHAPTER VHI.
RETURN TO PUBLIC LIFE.

EMPLOYED IN CENTRAL ADMINISTRATIVE COUNCIL. NEGOTIATIONS

WITH ENGLAND. ILLNESS IN PRAGUE. RELATIONS WITH STEIN.

MISSION TO HOLLAND. VISIT TO HOL3TEIN. THE RIGHTS OF PRUSSIA. '

ILLNESS OF HIS WIFE. DEATH OF HIS FATHER 259

LETTERS.

166. To MADAME HENSLER. Employments. State of Public Affairs 262

167. Retreat after the Battle of Bautzen 263

168. Heroism of the Prussians. Journey to Reichenbach .. 266

169. To THE PRINCESS LOITISA. Mournful Aspect of Affairs. Rela-

tions with Stein. Hardenberg 267

170. To MADAME HENSLER. Stay at Reichenbach. Proposed Mis-

sion to England 269

171. To PERTHES. Condition and Prospects of Hamburgh. Prus-

sian Soldiers . . . 270



xvi CONTENTS.

PAGE

172. To MADAME HENSLER. Fears for Holstein. Noble Spirit of

the Nation 272

173. Conditions of the Peace.- Madame de Stael . . . 273

174. Stay in Amsterdam. Defeats of the Allies. Character of

the Dutch 274

175. - The War in France 276

176. Prospects of France 277

177. Behavior of the Russian Troops in France. Prospects of the

Bourbons 278 *

178. Selfishness of the Dutch 279

179. French Literature 280

180. Aspect of Holland after the War 280

181. To PERTHES. Evil of French Influence 281

182. Essentials to a Pteform of the Church 282

183. To MADAME HENSLER. Lessons to Crown Prince. Aspect of

Berlin. Relations with France 282

184. Aspect of Europe. Lessons to Crown Prince. Hume and

Gibbon 283

185. State of the new Prussian Provinces. Italy 284

186. Style and Punctuation. England in the Middle Ages .... 284

187. Congress of Vienna 285

188. Society in Berlin. Illness of his Wife 286

189. Animal Magnetism. Apprehensions about the War 286

190. On the Death of his Father . . .287



CHAPTER IX.
RESIDENCE IN BERLIN UP TO JULY, 1816.

DEATH OF HIS WIFE. APPOINTMENT AS EMBASSADOR TO ROME.

STUDIES AND WRITINGS. VISIT OF MADAME HENSLER. SECOND

MARRIAGE 289

LETTERS.

191. To MADAME HENSLER. His Bereavement. Journey Home . . 292

192. State of Mind , 293

193. Plans of Employment in Rome. Heyne 294

194. Resolutions. Heindorf. Belief of his Vocation to States-

manship 295

195. To PERTIIES. Mission to Rome 296

196. To BRANDIS. His Loss. Attachment to Prussia. Anticipa-

tions 297

197. To MADAME HENSLER. His own dangerous Illness 298

198. Funeral of his Wife 299

199. Measures for the Reform of the Catholic Church. Own

Character 299

200. Pleasure at her Consent to accompany him to Rome. De-

cline of Literature 300

201. Appointment as Royal Commissioner. Servian Poetry . . . 301



CONTENTS. ivii

PAOE

202. The Same r. ...... 302

203. The Limitation of the Will 302

204. Fronto. III Health 303

205. Fronto. Marcus Antoninus . . . 304

206. The Plague in Italy 304

207. The Same 304

208. Heindorf. The Journey .' 305

209. The Same 305

210. Departure from Berlin .' 306

CHAPTER X.

MISSION IN ROME.

JOURNEY. DISCOVERT OF THE INSTITUTES OP GAIT'S. RESEARCHES

AND DISCOVERIES IN THE VATICAN. POLITICAL RELATIONS INTER-
COURSE. THE GERMAN ARTISTS 307

LETTERS.

210. To MADAME HENSLER. Account of the Journey from Ratisbon

to Munich. Warzburg Cathedral and MSS. Nuremberg.

Ratisbon 309

211. To NICOLOVIUS. Feelings on leaving Germany. Jacobi. Sail-

er. The Catholic Church 313

212. To MADAME HENSLER. The Tyrol. Innspruck. Hofer.

Speckbacher 315

ACCOUNT OF HIS VISIT TO SPECKBACHER . 317

213. To SAVIGNT. Discovery of the Institutes of Gaius at Verona. . 319

214. To MADAME HENSLER. The higher Classes, and Scholars of

Italy. Antiquities. Ill-health of his Wife. The Old
Masters 321

215. Arrival at Rome. Aspect of the City. Misery of the People 324 \A

216. To SAVIGNY. Mode of Life. Aspect of Rome. Works of Art.

Temi 325

217. To MADAME HENSLER. Society in Rome. Absence of his

Books 328

218. Brandis. Fragments of Cicero . . 329

Vjl9. On continuing the History of Rome 329

220. Impressions of Rome. German Artists. Mode of Life ... 330

1817.

REVIEWS OF HIS HISTORY. BIRTH OF A SON. DANGEROUS ILLNESS.

BEKKER - 332

LETTERS.

221. To MADAME HENSLER. Reminiscences. Pain of being in a

Foreign Land. Italian Language 333



xviu CONTENTS.

PAGE

222. To JACOBI. Catholicism. Goethe's Life 334

223. To MADAME HENSLER. On Education. Brandis 335

224. To NICOLOVIUS. The Climate and Condition of Rome 336

225. To MADAME HENSLER. State of the Romans. Literary La-

bors 339

226. To SAVIGNY. Modern Legislation. Goethe's Life. The Ger-

man Artists. Goethe's Views of Art. Description of
Niebuhr's House 341

227. To MADAME HENSLER. Reminiscences 348

228. Birth of his Son 349

229. Education 349

230. Baptism of his Son 349

231. Reminiscences. Faith. Catholicism 350

232. The Poor and Pauperism 352

233. His own dangerous Illness 353

234. Bekker 354

, 235. Health of Rome. Studies. Political Demonstrations .... 354

/ % 236. To SAVIGNY. Josephus 355



1818.

POLITICAL COMMOTIONS IN FRANCE AND GERMANY. BIRTH OF HIS

ELDEST DAUGHTER. APPOINTMENT OF A CLERGYMAN TO THE EM-
BASSY 356

LETTERS.

237. To MADAME HENSLER. The State of Public Affairs 358

238. Reminiscences. Harms'.s Theses. Creeds and Test* of

Faith 359

239. Political and Ecclesiastical Affairs 361

I/] 240. Bunsen. Brandis. Animal Magnetism. -Spirit of Cathol-
icism 361

241. The Weather. Harms's Theses. Essentials of Christianity 362

242. Proselytizing Efforts of the Catholics. Cornelius 364

243. To NICOLOVIUS. Church Reform 364

' , 244. To SAVIGNY. Efforts of the Catholics. Edition of Gaius.

Bavarian Constitution. Political Movements. GSrres . 365

245. To JACOBI. The Weather. Moral and Social Condition of the

Romans. Dearth of Intellectual Intercourse. The Ba-



Online LibraryBarthold Georg NiebuhrThe life and letters of Barthold Georg Niebuhr. With essays on his character and influence → online text (page 1 of 71)