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CQESilGHT DEPOSm



Abraham Lincoln

and New Constitutional
Governments



Third Part



Containing chapter on Washington
and Lincoln, showing what they ac-
compUshed in forming and perpetu-
ating constitutional government on a
republican basis



BARTOW Ay ULRICH

Press Club of Chicago



'16"

■fits



^^




BARTOW A. ULRICH. 1916



i^Mratian



To My

ALMA MATER,

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

This book, "Abraham Lincoln and New Constitutional

Governments," is lovingly dedicated.

To her I owe the unalloyed inspiration of loyalty and devotion to
the land of my birth, the United States of America, the brightest star
in the constellation of nations, where rational, enlightened and Chris-
tian liberty controls.

I wish that all native-born sons of foreigners, as well as sons of
citizens, and those from abroad making this their home, could have
the same spirit of intelligent patriotism instilled into their minds by
studying in this, or some similar institution of learning in the United
Statesi of America. It would be a sure preventative of disloyalty and
antagonism to the best system of government known so far to history.




Law Class, 1864.



Copyright, 1920
By
BARTOW A. ULRICH



JIN -3i92l
0)CU605364




THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER

Betsy Ross made it; Wasliiiigton adopted it, and Lincoln
preserved it
The tlag under which the earlier settlers in this country fought
when they threw off the yoke of foreign rulers; the flag that signalled
to the world the Declaration of Independence; the flag that triumphed
over slavery in this country and guaranteed perpetual liberty over
100,000,000 people; the flag that has stood for integrity and truth foi
nearly one and a half centuries is the flag that Betsy made. The
picture is printed above by the courtesy of Martin E. Buckley, author
of "Poems of Loyalty." This flag should be upheld and protected
from all its enemies and from dishonor by all who live beneath its
protecting influences. No advocate of Bolshevism, anarchy, nihilism,
national dishonor or sectionalism can raise the standard which de-
clares more for equality, integrity and liberty than the Star-Soangled
Banner. The people of all races and classes living beneath its pro-
tecting care need no better ensign than this flag to guard their rights
than the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United
States and the Star-Spangled Banner.

This flag is emblematic of all the rights that man can ask for in
the name of liberty, and it has never represented a debased currency
or sheltered intentionallv national dishonor, or treason.



INTRODUCTION

This book is a continuation of my former book, "Abraham
Lincoln and Constitutional Government," a volume of four hundred
pages published in 1916, during the World War, though commenced
prior to 1914. The last nation that had adopted a republican form of
government was Portugal, and I had its constitution translated and
used with other modern constitutions.

Now there have been formed a number of other constitutions
which have been collected and included in this third part. As others
are obtainable they will be sent if desired to the purchasers of this
book at a slight additional cost to cover their publication.

The object of both books is to demonstrate the advantages
which should obtain, if properly administered, of a strictly repre-
sentative form of government as definitely set forth in our constitu-
tion, in place of a personal or monarchical form of government
like those recently overthrown in Centra! Europe.

The further purpose is to instil into the minds of those needing
reliable information on this matter, now living in this country, and
those coming from other lands who expect to remain here, a proper
understanding of the fundamental principles incorporated in the
Constitution, and how they should be applied and adhered to by
great corporations and labor classes, as well as the general public.

If citizens abuse the privileges extended to those employed in
commercial enterprises of all classes, under our liberal form of
government, which lacks the autocratic and iron fist method of
imptrialistic governments it is no fault of the form of government.
Officials who administer the affairs of government periodically are
elected by the people, who have the right to exercise universal
suffrage.

An outline of the characters of two of our greatest statesmen
is included in this book as models to pattern after in future, Washing-
ton and Lincoln.

No nation has achieved more in the same length of time and
produced a larger amount of universal prosperity than the United
States of America under its present republican institutions. It is for
those now citizens, and those who willingly become citizens, as we
do not make citizens by force, to preserve our constitution in its
integrity and carry out honestly its fundamental principles, as well
as to guard it with all our ability, against all enemies from
within, as well as from without.

If the author has been able to ward off, or counteract, some
of the baneful influences which threaten the existence of our institu-
tions in various ways, he will have accomplished something for
the benefit of the citizenship of the nation.

The first and second part, as well as the third part, of my work
on government, should be studied and references examined, to obtain
a comprehensive view of the subject.

BARTOW A. ULRICH.



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It has been extremely difficult to obtain new and reliable material
for this book, covering the governments of the old world and
incidents relating to present conditions in Europe. The author has
had to rely upon "The Associated Press" reports more than to any
other source, for which he wishes to express his obligations as well
as thanks. Through the tireless labor of this efficient association,
he has kept in touch with events transpiring daily in all parts of
the world, and has been compelled to use this information freely in
order to facilitate his work.

"The Empire Press Bureau of Great Britain" has also been a
source of information, and I wish to extend my thanks to it, as well
as the "Review of Reviews," "The Nation," "The Literary Digest,"
the "Hearst" papers, the "Chicago Daily Tribune," which I have
taken and read for fifty-five years; the "Chicago Evening Journal,"
the "Chicago Evening Post," the "Chicago Daily News," also the
"New York Times,'' and "Louisville Courier-Journal." I am also
indebted to Prof. J. J. Zmrhal, who recently returned from a visit to
the Czecho-Slovak republic, and is at present writing a series of
articles of great interest for the "Chicago Evening Journal," which
are used in part by consent of the writer.

BARTOW A. ULRICH.



CONTENTS.



PART III.



CHAPTER I.

U. S. Declaration of Independence _ __ — 1

China's Declaration of Independence _.... S

United States of Europe 5

Irish Declaration of Independence _ — — — 7

Senate Stand for Irish Freedom 8

Czecho-Slovak Declaration of Independence 10

Constitution of the German Republic — — — 13

Russian Soviet Constitution..- - — 44

Czecho-Slovak Constitution 60

Declaration of Paris . — - — 82

Honoring the Constitution._il _ _ — - - — 83

Eighteenth Amendment... _._ — _ 86

League of Nations - 91

Nineteenth Amendment — — 93

The New Earth _ 94

The True Light _ - 100

CHAPTER II.

Changing Monarchy to Democracy 103

Russia - _ _ - 108

Cause of Bolshevism - — 110

The Remedy .. Ill

CHAPTER III.
Germany 134

CHAPTER IV.

Washington and Lincoln 161-164

Gen. Robert E. Lee - 165-166

Cost of Revolution and Civil War _ _ 167-168

Cost of World War_„ 169

Italian Heroes Reach Tokyo 170-171

Prospect of Peace in China... 172-173

Poland and Her Ruler 174-177

Jugo-Slavia 177

Empire of Great Britain 178-188

Egyptian Delegation 189

Canada _ 190-191

Newspapers of Great Britain _ 192

Persia a Republic.- 193

World Tribunal .194

Czecko-Slovakia 195-197

General Wrangel 198

Execution of Czar and Family 199-200

Henry Ford (Goes Back to Pre-War Prices) 201-203



United States of Russia - 204

Labor Party to Remove Funds — — - — — -05

Reviews and Letters — — - — - 207-227

Bartow A, Ulrich - - - 228

August Louis Ulridh (Father of B. A. Ulrich). _ 229

Johann Heinrich Ulrich, grandfather of B. A. Ulrich _..... 231



PART L ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Preface vii

CHAPTER I.

First Meeting With Abraham Lincoln 1

Carl Schurz on Lincoln's Personal Appearance....- _ 3

Peter Vredenburg's Reminiscences 4

\ Fourth of Jojly in Heidelberg 4

\ Stephen A. Douglas _* 5

^^incoln On Temperance S

\ The Little Still-house 6

"^Lincoln On the Liquor Question 7

Called the Petty Practitioner of a Petty Town 8

The Lincoln-Shields "Duel" 9

The Springfield Bar .....* , 11

Lincoln's Rise From Obscurity 11

Lincoln and Douglas- 12

Horace White's Recollections ^ 13

Personal Appearance of Douglas 14

Lincoln's Associates at Springfield 16



CHAPTER II.

Organization of the Republican Party . 19

Founded On the Declaration of Independence 19

State Fair at Springfield, October, 1854 . . 19

The Name "Republican" _._ 20

Illinois Editors and the Nebraska Bill ». 21

Editors at Decatur Advised by Lincoln. 22

Lincoln Declines to Be a Candidate For Office 23

Pennsylvania Editors Meet at Pittsburg 23

Anti-Nebraska Convention at Bloomington, 1856 24

Call For a National Convention 25

First Republican County Convention 26

Resolutions of the Bloomington Convention 27

The "Lost Speech" 28

Delegates at the Bloomington Convention 29

The Bloomington Ticket — 31

"Deacon" Tyrell , 32

Republican Meeting In Rock Island. 32

"Germans Mostly Anti-Christians and Republicans" — 33



\



\ The National Election of 1856 33

■^Lincoln's Address at Chicago 34

Anniversary of the Republican Party __ 35

CHAPTER III.

s Chicago National Republican Convention, 1860 il

-^Lincoln Accepts the Nomination __ 38

Stephen A. Douglas . 39

Douglas Sustains Lincoln 40

Celebration of the Douglas Centennial in Chicago_j 42

CHAPTER IV.

Secession Cabal at Washington 45

Jefiferson Davis and Secession 47

Graft In the National Government , 51

^Lincoln's Characteristics _. 52

CHAPTER V.

Events of the War . 55

Fort Sumter 59

President Lincoln's Proclamation Calling for Troops 59

The Cabinets of Lincoln and Davis Compared 61

CHAPTER VI.

Colonel Ellsworth and the Marshall House Tragedy 67

Last Reunion of the Ellsworth Zouaves-___ 74

Poem Written at the Time of Ellsworth's Death 70

Poem Written at the Commencement of the Civil War 75

CHAPTER VII.

'^Lincoln Intuition and Character , , 79

Farewell Address at Springfield , 82

First Message to Congress, July 4, 1861 82

Need of Preparation 83

The Call For Troops ^ 84

The Draft Riots 85

Vallandigham's Arrest 86

CHAPTER VIII.

General McClellan and General Grant 89

Lincoln Praises Grant— 90

Meade Reproved 91

The Kind of Whiskey Grant Drank Good For Others 91

Lincoln Again Praises Grant— 92

I Lincoln's Humanity . 93

CHAPTER IX.

The Trent Afrair.__ 97

The Treaty of Ghent gg



I



Lincoln's Desire For Reconciliation 99

Thanksgiving Proclamation, 1863 100

The Gettysburg Address 100

Proclamation of Thanksgiving For Union Victories 101

Lincoln's Faith In God 101

>Jational Fast Day, 1861 102

\ Belief In Prayer 103

. 104



\ The Question of Slavery-



.\



CHAPTER X.

InfJuence of West Point On Democracy 109

College Training Versus the Declaration of Independence 110

CHAPTER XI.

Emancipation of the Negro In the United States and Other

Countries 117

Ambition of Jefferson Davis and Other Southern Leaders 118

Northern Leaders Stood For Liberty and Union 119

The Nations Abolish Slavery 120

Czar Alexander II. and the Emancipation of the Serfs— 122

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation 124

Negro Fellowship League Celebrates— 127

Reminiscences of the Rebel Conspiracy to Burn Chicago 127

CHAPTER XII.

Thesis on Government Used as Campaign Document in 1864 _.... 129

The National Republican Convention of 1864 129

A Lincoln Story — "More Light and Less Noise" 130

The Discontented Four Hundred 131

Letter to Greeley 131

CHAPTER XIII.

The Presidential Campaign of 1864 — An Original Campaign

Document 133

Speech Before the Athens Union League 139

New Year's Address, 1865 142

CHAPTER XIV.

bLast Interview With Lincoln : 145

Counting the Electoral Vote — 146

Lincoln's Response to the Committee of Notification 147

CHAPTER XV.

President Lincoln Enters Richmond 149

Capture of Jefferson Davis 150

Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln 151

xii.



PART II. CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT.
Preface i

CHAPTER I.

Comparison of Different Forms of Government 155

CHAPTER II.

Representative Democracy 157

Divine Right of Kings 160

CHAPTER III.

The Imperial Trust 163

Waechter's Project of a Federation of the States of Europe 165

The Passing of Royalty 167

CHAPTER IV.
The New Representative Democracy 169

CHAPTER V.

Events Leading to the Birth of the Nation 175

Adoption of the Constitution 177

Powers of the Government 178

De Tocqueville On the American Judiciary 180

Constituent and Law-Making Power 181

\ Chief Justice Marshall On the Judicial Power 182
Lincoln and the Dred Scott Decision 186

The "Grandfather Clause" 187

Cabinet Officers and Congress— , 189

Power of the Executive 192

The Referendum 192

The Civil Code of Switzerland , 193

Stability of Our Constitution 194

Part of Washington's Farewell Address 195



\c



CHAPTER VI.

riticism On Constitution 197

State and National Control 200

Department of Agriculture 201

Letter of H. D. Sackett on Forest Taxation in the U. S 202

Mormonism :_ 199

Conservation Applied to Children 206

Limitation of State Constitution 211

CHAPTER VII.

National vs. State Sovereignty 213

Reconciliation 219

Growth of the South 218



CHAPTER VIII.

\ Causes Which Led to the Rebellion . 221

\ Honorable Robert T. Lincoln's Letter... _ 223

^Abraham Lincoln, Loyal to the Constitution 223

Writ of Habeas Corpus Suspended - _.. — 225

vinfluence of Our Constitution 225

The Holy Alliance and the Monroe Doctrine - 227

Pan-Americanism and the Monroe Doctrine 229

Origin of the Step 230

Pan-American Growth - 230

Mr. Hall On the New Monroe Doctrine Argued Before Political

Science Academy v 232

President Wilson's Latin-American Policy 232

We Must Not Retrograde 233

CHAPTER IX.

The Thirteenth Amendment _ 237

The Fourteenth Amendment - 238

The Fifteenth Amendment 240

The Sixteenth Amendmen t 241

The Seventeenth Amendment _ 242

The Proposed Referendum 244

The Proposed Female Suffrage _ 244

The Proposed Federal Control of Child Labor _ 244

Hobson's Proposed Amendment For Nation-Wide Prohibition 244

Resolution to Extend Suffrage to Women 245

CHAPTER X.

Switzerland _ _ 247

The Swiss Federation _ _. 248

Constitution of the Swiss Federation _ 250

The Swiss Confederation 250

The Landegemeinde _ _ _._ ._ 256

CHAPTER XI.

Portugal _ _ _ 261

Revolution of the 5th of October, 1910, by A. C. Courrage ..._. 263

Constitution of Portugal _ 263

CHAPTER XII.

France, a Republic _ 283

Constitution of France, 1791 _ _ 284

The Brumaire Decree, 1799 _ _ 285

Constitution of 1799 _ 286

Senatus-Consultum, 1804 _ ._.. 286

Napoleon Compared to Washington _ _ 287

Louis Napoleon.. 294

Imperial Policy of Louis Napoleon 291



Adolph Theirs on Modern France History — 295

The Present Constitution 299

The Civil Code..._ 307

Arstide Braind — Formed a New Ministry, 1916 308

President Poincare Predicts End of War _ — 309

Anniversary of Franco-Prussian War — _ 309

See New France Rising Out of War..- 311

CHAPTER XIII.

Constitution of Norway _ 315

Introduction by Peter B. Olson _ 315

OTHER CONSTITUTIONS.

China 333

Japan ._ _ 336

German Government _ _ _. 339

Prussia _ 341

Ottoman Empire _ 370

New Zealand _ 386

Iceland _ _ 395

Belgium , _ 397



I



DECLARATIONS OF INDEPENDENCE



CHAPTER I

In Congress, July 4, 1776

A DECLARATION BY THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED
STATES OF AMERICA, IN CONGRESS ASSEMBLED

WHEN, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for
one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them
with another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the
separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's
God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind re-
quires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the
separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident: — That all men are cre-
ated equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain
unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit
of happiness. That, to secure these rights, governments are instituted
among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the
governed; that, whenever any form of government becomes destruc-
tive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it,
and to institute a new government, laying its foundation on such
principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall
seem, most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence,
indeed, will dictate, that governments long established should not be
changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience
hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer while evils are
sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which
they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpa-
tions, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce
them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to
throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their fu-
ture security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies;
and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their
former systems of government. The history of the present King of
Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all
having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over
these states. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and nec-
essary for the public good.

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his
assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly
neglected to attend to them.



DECLARATIONS OF INDEPENDENCE

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right
of representation in the legislature — a right inestimable to them, and
formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, un-
comfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records,
for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his
measures.

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing,
with manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause
others to be elected, whereby the legislative powers, incapable of
annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise;
the State remaining, in the mean time, exposed to all the dangers
of invasions from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for
that purpose obstructing the laws for the naturalization of foreigners;
refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and rais-
ing the conditions of new appropriations of lands.

He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his
assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers.

He has made judges dependent on his will alone for the tenure of
their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms
of officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us in times of peace, standing armies, without
the consent of our Legislatures.

He has afifected to render the military independent of, and su-
perior to, the civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction
foreign to our constitutions, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving
his assent to their acts of pretended legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;

For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any
murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States;

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;

For imposing taxes on us without our consent;

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury;

For transporting us beyond seas, to be tried for pretended of-
fenses;

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring
province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarg-
ing its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit in-
strument for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies;



DECLARATIONS OF INDEPENDENCE



For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws,
and altering, fundamentally, the forms of our governments;

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves
invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his
protection, and waging war against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our towns,
and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign merce-
naries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny,
already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely
paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head
of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high
seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners
of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.

He has excited domestic insurrection among us, and has en-
deavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless
Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished
destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for re-
dress in the most humble terms; our repeated petitions have been
answered only by repeated injurj'. A prince whose character is
thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be
the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in our attentions to our British
brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by
their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us.
We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigratio'n and
settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and mag-
nanimity; and we have conjured them, by the ties of our common
kindred, to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably inter-
rupt our connections and correspondence. They, too, have been deaf
to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore,
acquiesce in tlie necessity which denounces our separation, and hold
them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace,
friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of
America, in General Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme
Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name
and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly
publish and declare. That these united colonies are, and of right ought
to be, free and independent states; that they are absolved from all
allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection be-



DECLARATIONS OF INDEPENDENCE

tween them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally
dissolved; and that, as free and independent states, they have full
power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish com-



Online LibraryBartow A. (Bartow Adolphus) UlrichAbraham Lincoln and constitutional government (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 24)