Bates Torrey.

Practical typewriting : by the all-finger method, which leads to operation by touch online

. (page 3 of 18)
Online LibraryBates TorreyPractical typewriting : by the all-finger method, which leads to operation by touch → online text (page 3 of 18)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

3 22 22 1 223 22 21 23 132 1421 23 21

de di dif dis em en ex for hyper il im

21 21121 2 1123 123 12 131 31 32 31 34 311

i 11 inter i n t r o mis n e n o n o b o c of op out

3121 431 4331 421 412 413 121 413 12 3212 321

over poly post per pre p r e t e r pro re semi sub

312 311 -3 1421 312 31 12413 21 2121

sue s u f super s y m s y n trans u n under

Other Preiixes : — arabi amphi ana ante . anti apo arch bio cata dia dys epi
equi fore homo hetero ig intra juxta meta mal micro mon mult neo para peri
retro sine subter sug sur sus.

(40.) AFFIXES. El

iiploy no


4 13 2

4 2 1

4 12

4 3

4 12


411 411 132

23 2





a n c e

a r

a r y ant b 1 e

c 1 e

2 13 2



2 11

2 12

231 113 11

13 3

12 4 2

c u 1 e



e n t

e n c e

est f

ul fy



13 2

21 3

2 22


21 1

23 1

23 1

2 31 2 3 1

23 2



6 ice

i n €

; ing

i n

i r

i s t i s h

i s k

23 1

21 1


32 3

32 2

3 11

22 11

2 G S

12 3



i V e




m e n t

m n y

n 6 s s

3 1

1 1

3 124



1 1

3 4 13

3 4 1

3 23 3

o r



t i n

t u d e


w a r d



Other Affixes :— ane


ade ancy

ard ate

dom ern

ese esque etb

I ia ile

ide ite

ize kind ledge

lite ly

ode oid

sion ster

stress teen ure.

— Neither will the Affixes be figured when compounded. But it must be remem-
bered that the last letter of the Prefix, or the first of the Affix, is likely to be influenced
by the fingering of the adjacent letter.



Before proceeding to miscellaneous words and general writing, a class of words is
presented below which are less easy to execute. They are, for the most part, instances
of the occurrence of consecutive letters fingered the same, but the gliding movement
from one to the other requires more nicety of calculation (particularly by Touch) than
the ordinary progression from key to key.


It has been said that acconliiig to the all-finger method all words can lie written
with equal facility. This is true if the letters scatter over the luanual, but words
■wherein the letters are bunched are a trifle more difficult to write, and those which
immediately follow deserve special pi'actice.

12 3 2 1 2


12 B 22 43

3 2 4 3 13

13 3





G r e w

4 113

4 12 1

3 2 11

1 2 4 1

4 13

2 1

a z u r e



n y m p h

a n s w

e r

4 1 4 122

1 12 2

3 3 13

12 12 2 1 2

3 4 4

a 4 u a t i c

h y 1) r i d


m i n i m u ni

s w a p

2 3 1343


2 3

2 13

12 4 1

4 2 12

21 2

m n p o 1




h u m a 11

p e r c e

i V 6

Trader aqueous dear great whole exploit Aztec retire sway excerjit eject
alert tether Xyanza biter craze subject molest omniscient junk exact minimize
hump umbrageous exegetic folks destniy ecstasy folio sweet police hominy
numb iminu_)eded sword humbly execute recondite jump imitate yolk eclogue
recoi'd hypnotize polo oligarchy hymnology loiter

On the other hand, when Touch writing is not the particular aim, and a more legato
style is preferred, a fasliion of writing awkward combinations, as indicated below, may
be adopted :

23 34 21 21 2 3 1212 3 2

These letter sequences are pairs fingered the same on the diagram, Init the privilege
of using the next best finger is granted any writer. With a good sense of hand and
finger position a lapse like this upon rare occasion need not be condemned, though if the
IXOORRECT (or exceptional) fingering precedes the correct, the caution is — be careful.


The polo pony jumped nimbly over the hedge. The whole police reserve was forced
to retire. The sacred lotus grows on the African Xyanza. They perceived that the sub-
ject was hypnotized, not killed. Hominy is regarded a sweet cereal. The oligarchy holds
sway over humble humanity. Umbrageous shade concealed the aquatic nymphs. The


trader witnessed gi-eat exploits in Aztec warfare. Dear Oliver, I liumbly record your
exact answer. Why imitate that recondite eclogue? It was biter cold in December.
The police eject those who loiter among the flowers. The crazy zealot made excerpts
from the hymnology of his creed. Pliny was able to hold sway with the sword, though
his force was sadly decimated. The hybrid grew in aqueous-looking soil. No decent
or discernmg student will practice deceit.



The numerals occupy the upper bank of keys, and are fingered with less regard for
method, though it is expected that all the fingers shall be employed, and hand position

(44.) Lower case 1 is the proper character for figure one. Never use the letter I for
a figure, except in Roman notation like II, IV, VTI, XLI.

(45.) The capital stands for the cipher upon most machines.

(46.) Fractions are represented by use of the / (shilling mark) when the machine has
no fractional type like i, \. A hyphen is sometimes preferred, as 3-4, 5-S, 11-12.

(47.) Point off large sums into groups of three figures each by the comma, as
937, 480, 2 J 8, YlO. Employ the period for the decimal point, as .07. Strike the period
very lightly at all times, on account of its relatively small face. The marks of punctua-
tion located among the letters have systematic finger attack, but those in the upper bank
are fingered less regularly.

(48.) To lift a letter or figure a trifle above the line, push back the front carriage-
rod the least bit with the left hand, and hold firmly in the unnatural position while
striking the key. In this way may be produced such effects as i, 6',- 3'*, 4"', 12'", 417%
90°, H'SO*, M', V" Winkle. This can also be made a makeshift to supply omissions when
scant space is granted ; as, Thes° men, or Th^se men.

(49.) In tabular work it is wise to begin the columns of figures on multiples of some
number decided upon, as 5, 10, 15, or 3, 6, 9, 12, etc. This obviates much caj'riage-
hfting, and assists the memory in placing ditto-marks, if any are needed.

When planning tabulation, write the longest line first, or estimate from it. It is
sometimes of advantage to insert a title after the column it is to head has been arranged.
To accomplish this, the platen must be reversed with nice calculation. (See Par. 3.)



For examples of tabular writing, see pages 63, (U and C>."), and other specimens of
the fac-simile. The beginner should practice the simple tabular forms in order to acquire
a familiarity with the range of the scale and its bearing upon such work ; also experi-
ment with head lines, titles, etc. (see Par. 89) ia order to attain skill in arrangement,
and a quick perception of the relations of space and text which should characterize
the page.

(50.) Write each of the following examples several times. Remember the scale
number where a word or figure group to be underscored begins, adjust the carriage-
pointer to that mark Avithout turning the platen, and make the underscore by shifting
to upper-case and striking the middle key of the upper bank. Also Avatch the scale
carefully when Av^riting processions of figures, in order that the units may fall under
units, tens under tens, etc.



•1 ) 8 8 , S 8 8
2 ,ii , 2 2 2

12 3,456

9 8 7 , f, .5 4


8 9
■J 1


18)58,925(3,273 "/.s

-t 9
13 2
1 ii 6

6 5
1 1

{d) $50,000, 3i, 5i, £7. (The L crossed by the hyphen stands for =£,) M crossed
by three hyphens = l.uOO ; a crossed by shilling-mark = at (see Par. 125) ; c crossed by
shilling-mark = ctnt.






10 M lbs.





8 '•• "





12 " "





30,000 lbs.


















Hour Angle
Apparent Time
Mean Time .

Greenwich Mean Time
Chronometer No. 1 .
Chronometer fast








59'" 38.88

. 10




2 47.4





56 51.4



53 31.3





3 20.1





42 51.2

39 30. S





The fingering of the prefixes and afiixes has already been given, and will not be
repeated- in this exercise. Write each word many times, until every word can be
executed without the least hesitation. The same woi'd should always be fingered in the
same way.

3 14 2 12
Over charge

2 11
De murr age

2 12 13

S t e r 1 i n g


123 22122 12

Com mis s i o n Dividend

2 4 14
Equa tion

412 1

Prim age

2 14 1

En dorse ment Draft

pro miss ory

12 11
de bent ure

123 34 2

bill'lad ing

4 1 2 4 3


32 3

as sess ment

4 121224

princip al

dis count

23 14 31


in t e r est

4 12 12 12

p r e m i u m

132 2
in voice

4 1221
audit e d

2 14 112

Ex change

14 3

B a 1 a n c e

2 3 .1 1 3 2
Re course

2 1421 14

1 2

An n u i t y

2 12 21

Ac count

2 11

C u r r e n t

12312 1

chart er-party re gister ed

143 12 2
ad valorem

2 11
per cent age

113 2 2 1
broker age

13 4 1 2 12

re ceiv able

2 11
in debt ed ness

ne goti able

34 12 1

col later al

3 2212 13
under writers

32 11
con sign ment


Other Commercial Terms : inventory salvage merchandise manifest assets
voucher usury bond trustee cargo transit check average tonnage consign tariff
customs tare debit surety drawer storage duty staples entry returns export
rebate factor protest failure policy market advices security capital telegram cash-
book Avharfage transfer currency traffic deficit suspense dispatch, sundries, quota-
tion endorse solvency freight shipment finance importation schedule revenue
maturity renewal acceptance clearance assignment attachment dissolution dupli-
cate foreclosure reference guarantee investment liquidation remittance resources
secretary signature warehouse account- sales


Let us see if the broker will know the endorsement. How long before the interest
on the premium-note will be due ? You Avill not get half the commission you deserve. It
is a good business policy to make an inventory annually. After you examine the
collateral, advise lue at once. We are unwilling to discount the draft. Keference was
had to the bill-lading of the merchandise. A balance appeared when the account-current
was audited. The coupons of the debenture bonds are negotiable if registered. The
principal consignment was sold to-arrive for a small percentage over the^?'0 raia figures.
The semi-annual assessment of the underwriters did not put to the credit of the policy
either a dividend or reversionary additions. Charter-party, salvage, demurrage and
manifest, are terms pertaining to the merchant marine. The indebtedness was receiv-
able in sterling exchange. The item of primage upon the invoice was an overcharge.
The manufacturer directed his stenographer to telegraph the secretary of the company
to negotiate for a stock of supplies ; but learning that the price of exchange had
advanced, that sales of merchandise were slow, and an average consumption could not
be guaranteed, he refused to affix his signature to the despatch. The consignee was a
good customer, but declared he could not realize a satisfactory profit unless quotations
were given by telegraph.




221 3314-11 121 4E4 211

Subject Accompany Convention Acquaintance

1413 2411 2 12214 232

Advance Magnitude Affirmative Recollection

312 1 31221 24121 123212

OminouB Ordinary Equitable Intelligible

2413 143 12 1413243 121 4332

Marshall Financial Fortunate Proposition

2321323 1321213 34214 12431221.

council misfortune operation extraordinary

12344121 2223141312 31211 414 3212 24

jeopardy memorandum con stitu tion qualifications

2 133 13121 321 2 24

know ledge gener al ly pro seen tion anti cip ate

12 3131 21321 214321 41214

d i f f i c u 1 1 u n i f o r m 1 y u n import ant ex a m i n a t i o n

214212 3 2 14 212 222

discharge obligation introduce prediction

232 14113 1334 2312

election arrangement developed accordingly

Sincerely independent citizens patient service opulent apprehension property

valiant privilege Colorado mollify excellency surrender beginning refreshing
northwestern acknowledge controversy testimony.


The qualifications of the marshal led to his election by the council. The magnitude
of the financial operations in this country is extraordinary. To the best of my recollec-
tion I made his acquaintance at the convention. My knowledge of the ^arrangement put
the prosecution in jeopardy. It was fortunate to know the subject jin adyance. It


-would be difficult to introduce a more equitable arrangement. Unimportant memoranda
accompanied the proposition. The examination developed uniformly affirmative testi-
mony. The prediction was ominous of misfortune. Generally it would be wise to
discharge such an obligation. The constitution was intelligible to the ordinary citizen.
Valiant service will mollify his excellency. We sincerely acknowledge that the exercise
was refreshing to the patient. The beginning of the controversy excited some appre-
hension. There are many independent citizens in northwestern Colorado.


213 121 -4123 123 212

In dustry Re quis ite Pro fes sion Trans cend ent

1212 1 13 2 3223 213 121214

Function Families Discussed Generations

43243 222 432 2 1224

Pleasure Decided Proportion Com munication

322 23211222 3 S2 2 11 3 13 2212 21

Science Countries Neighbors Individual

3 2 121 24 3 4B2 22 4 1 1214

1 i b e r ty calamity meanness admiration

4142123 13212 3 1442 4412

practice bounds happiness comparison

43121 122 3 2 31412 3 221 3 214

pover ty fideli ty statesmen ob serva tion

3341211 12412 4123 3212 3 341

slavery gratitude requisite legislators

lCil2 3 41 3 221223 1321 41212

honesty anxieties extorted acquirement

131122 3133 43321 32 14

tongue bestowed powerful obligation


After this exercise can be written readily, though perhaps in a manner somewhat
mechanical, because of earnest striving for the correct fingerings, and all the require-
ments of graceful procedure — the learner may venture letter writing. Follow the Form
for Lettin-, par. 63, putting the same minutely into effect by copying the typewritten


model on p. 60. (See also the specimens of letter addresses, p. 68.) Other letters for
simple copying practice may be found on pp. 05, 96, 119-122. In all such copying culti-
vate the habit of reading coherent phrases, and writing the same with fluent manipula-
tion in an uninterrupted movement from the beginning to the end of the phrase, rather
than with a spasmodic pounding out of single words. If the matter be dictated by
another, Avhich is an excellent way to promote speed, insist that phrases be read, and
with as good elocution as may be possible.

Knowledge in any art or science, being always the fruit of observation, study, or
practice, gives in proportion to its extent or usefulness, the possessor a just claim
to respect. We do, indeed, often see all the outward marks of respect bestowed upon
persons merely because they are rich or powerful ; but these, while they are bestowed
with pain, are received with pleasure. They drop from the tongue or beam from the
features, but have no communication from the heart. They are not the voluntary
offerings of admiration or of gratitude ; but are extorted from the hopes, the fears, the
anxieties, of poverty, of meanness, or of guilt. Nor is respect due to honesty, fidelity, or
any such qualities ; because dishonesty and perfidy are crimes. To entitle a man to
respect, there must be something of his own doing, beyond the bounds of his well-known

duties and obligations To the functions of statesmen and legislators is due

the highest resiaect which can be shown by man to anything human ; for not only are
the industry and talent, requisite in the acquirement of knowledge, still greater and far
greater here, than in the profession of the law ; but, of the application of this knowl-
edge, the effects are so transcendent in point of magnitude as to place them beyond all
the bounds of comparison. Here it is not individual persons with their families, friends
and neighbors, that are affected ; but whole countries and communities. Here the
matters to be discussed and decided on are peace and war, and the liberty or slaveiy,
happiness or misery, of nations. Here a single instance of neglect, a single oversight, a
single error, may load with calamity millions of men, and entail that calamity on a long
series of future generations. {Cohhett.)


(57.) LEGAL.

33 41212. S 23 32112 211

accessory premises assignee perjury

4S421121 1212 121 121231241

plaintiff de fend ant de murr er ad ministrat or


1231 211 121 12 3 121

felony executor conveyance shei'iff

4332 2122 12 2321323 22

deposition evidence counsel decision

123-14 3 4121234 2 1 32432 3141112

trespass quitclaim release statute

14 2 11 4324 2 2 321412 12 3 1

arraign p 1 e n d i n g mortgage intestate

?1412 2 2 21 12 3 1 31fl212Sl

chancery indictment digest superior

4232 21123 1224121 312421

appellee duress affidavit abstract

Other Legal Terms : abej^ance alibi caveat citation client codicil collusion
contempt jurisdiction indenture legacy ordinance precedent probate rebuttal
referee argument replevin testator requisition witness lien declaration litiga-
tion judgment verdict mayhem


121 2114 42 132 32 12 2 43 2 313 2112

vertebra pectoral secretions biceps cellular cuticle

13434 3 2 23 2 21 123 1 Si514 '2 21 33 2

protoplasm abdomen intestine ligament pigmentary osseous

1212 143213 441234 2 31413 414341123 1212 4

t e g u m e n t v a s c u 1 a r patella corpus c 1 e phalanges tibia

1113 34 2 241 12121 423 12 3 24 2123 1234

em b r y o re s p i r a t o r y tuber c 1 e pelvis c a r t i 1 age filament

113243 242 1 21412 12 141132 4 41411 3 13 13 233

t li o r a X macerate cranium ganglia p li a r y n x tonsils

22 2 11412 2 121143 312112 312 414122 411412 212313

membrane cerebral sternum lymphatic d i a p h r a g m mucous

Other Anatomical Terms : lamhiae parietal occipital dentition tympanum
ventricle foramen orifice alimentary dyspepsia humerus capsular auricle
peduncle flexion sclerotic maxillary gustator}' fibula follicle pulmonary dis-
section scapula capillary mesentery carotid lingual bronchial clavicle gastric,
labial epilepsy gangrene myopia eczema fistula catalepsy asthma pleurisy
quinsy medulla vesicle vivisection




The most widespread use of the writing machine is for correspondence, taken for
the most part from dictation, either by the agency of shorthand or direct to the type-

Typewriting has oeen declared as difificult to teach as shorthand, and so it may be
considered in the sense that complete instruction ' embraces not only a command of the
mechanical features of the machine, and the technique of its keyboard, but likewise a con-
stant education in grammar, spelling and punctuation, as well as numberless helps
toward rhetorical expression.

As far as the business letter is concerned, the principal subject for attention should
be the form of arrangement. A typewritten letter should preserve the formalities.
While a single set way may not please all, yet no Avide range should be given to individual
preference ; and we suggest a form of letter structure, arranged within the bounds of a
reasonable propriety, which we are certain will displease but a very few. It is the form
most in vogue among typewriters. Although circumstances may require a variation
from this in some minor details, still we would not recommend the business writer to
venture too much originality, because it is a conspicuous fact that poorly constructed
business letters have been a sad reproach to typewriting in the past.


35 . ... Place written from and Date.

Feed paper for two full spaces.

. . . . Name of Person or Firm, title, etc. ) ( Usually half space

5 . . . . Street address or post-office box. v I between lines

10 ... . City or Town address, and State. ) ( of address.

Feed paper one full space.

. . . . The Superscription (" Dear sir ").

One full space.

15 ... . Body of Letter ; full space between lines.

25 ... . The Subscription ("Yours truly ■■').

Three full spaces for signature.

60 ... . Title (Pres., Sec'y ) of signer, if any.

Full space.

. . . . P. S. (Postscript) if any, written half -space.

■ * So many mongrel words, like typist a,nA tijiKwritist, have beea introduced, we propose a fixed designation
ot— typewriter, to mean the person who writes, uad irriting machine, the device.


111 the foregoing, dose reference must be had to tlie Scale, and the writer will do
well to memorize the directions of the Form. Below the same procedure is illustrated
after the fashion of a real letter :

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 GO 05

Minneapolis, Minn., Julv 15, 1M>4.
Messrs. TUFTS & HALL,

13 Winnebasset Street,

Providence, Rhode Island.

Gentlemen :

Your esteemed favor of the lOth instant received, and in reply to
the same Avould say

P. S.—

Permit me to add. etc.

Your truly,


Every letter should have a date, and the person addressed a title of respect, if he
has no pi-ofessioual title. For the address as a whole, the rhomboid form makes the
best appearance. See example ;


No. 15 Algonquin Street,

Indianapolis, Indiana. \


Pi-esenting the name in capitals, with half-space between the lines, gives a stylish
effect, but that is not imperative. It is a matter of taste, the same as the setting
of an advertisement. Taste likewise has to be exei'cised when the name may be long
and the place short, or vice versa. Oftentimes two lines will look better than three,
but at all hazards preserve the terraced look, both by a marshaling of material, and
by clever spacing.

On the other hand, if the subordinate part of the address be very brief, resort may
be had to a shape like the following, which is far handsomer than to leave an unsightly
gap at one side :

S a c o . Me.

When the name of the person or concern is written in capitals, all titles, etc., take
lower case, except as to their initial letters. Drop full space to the superscription, as


the form directs, and begin the body of the letter where the carriage may stop after an
off-hand hfting of the lever. The pointer will mark about 15 of the scale, but regular
paragraphs thereafter indent to 5, in imitation of type composition. So much for the
manner of the letter. The matter now deserves a passing notice.

Supposing the letter to have been dictated, then it were well for the typewriter to
peruse his notes, and decide wisely how to arrange the same, before touching finger to
keyboard. Haphazard action will not do; there is a form for guidance, and good diction
to be regarded. If a business letter, it must bear a business aspect, and embody com-
mercial expi'essiois.

Paragraph occasionally, not only according to the sense, but for an improved appear-
ance, when the sense will allow, moi'e than demand. It goes without saying that all
typewriting must be obedient to correct grammar, spelling and punctuation. Write
dates in figures, and sums of money the same, unless a more formal style is required,
when letters may be emjaloyed. A short letter should be full space between the lines.
Make one space after the comma, semicolon and colon. Leave no single-letter prefixes'

1 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Online LibraryBates TorreyPractical typewriting : by the all-finger method, which leads to operation by touch → online text (page 3 of 18)