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Practical typewriting : by the all-finger method, which leads to operation by touch online

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at the end of a line, or single-letter affixes at the beginning of the next line.

Correct all errors by machine, making as few interpolations by pencil and pen as
possible. Before removal of a page from the machine read it through carefully, in a.
search for errors. Many of the petty mishaps of typewriting can be disguised by simply
reversing the paper, and making ingenious cori:"ections. For instance, a transposition of
letters calls for erasure, and the insertion of the letters in proper order. An omitted
letter is easily supplied if space remains ; otherwise it will need to be written a trifle above
the space it should occupy, shifting the paper a little to do this. Omitted words can be
written between the lines, and a caret made by lower-case v, after running the paper in
upside down. When no space is left between words (and this is a common neglect) draw
a fine line with the pen, to show where the division should be. Mistakes are likely to
occur, but be vigilant to hide them before the paper leaves the machine.

Address envelopes according to the form above given for the letter address, but
make full space between the lines. Eemember that every city address requires a street
number, and do not annoy the post-office department by unmeaning abbreviations.

(61.) MODEL LETTER FOR COPYING PRACTICE.

5 10 15 20 35 30 35 iO 45 50 55 60 65-

Boston, January 22, 1893.
Mr. JOHN Q. A. FLETCHER,

715 Blaekstone Street,
New York City.
Dear Sir :

We notified you some time since that we must re-
ceive a remittance from you by early mail on your account, which
is long overdue.

We sold you the merchandise in good faith, and expected you
to pay for it as you agreed at time of purchase. In regard to



PRACTICAL TYPEWRITING. 29

y:ur- claiming a discount, although we had no reason to suppose
tnat anything of the kind was promised you, still, rather than
have any trouble about the sale, we allowed your claim, expect-
ing that your account would then be settled at once; and we now
notify you, that as we have not heard from any of our numerous
demands for settlement, we shall put the case into the hands of
our attorney for adjustment.

If the goods were not satisfactory, you should have advised
us, and we would have been pleased to make them good; but you
made no claim of the kind until long after your account was due,
and when we sent a man to examine the goods he found that they
had been sold, and you had received the money for them. We are
disposed to be lenient with you, but there is a point beyond
which forbearance ceases to be a virtue.

Trusting that we shall receive a cheek from you by next
mail, we are

Yours truly,



LESSON XIV.
(62.) "chain" sentences for touch practice.

The fact that in the following sentences the last letter of a word is the first letter of
the word following, gives significance to the term " chain '" as above used. The object
is to provide an easy passage from one word to another.

After considerable familiarity with the Avriting machine, ordinary manipulation is
performed almost intuitively. The writer dashes into a word ; it is finished before he is
aware, and by a method he can hardl}^ analyze. This seems a strange statement, but
the same is true of much mental and manual behavior. The more we practice a given
action, the more it is done without apparent volition.

Touch Writing demands entire familiarity with the machine, and the ability to type-
write with accuracy. Begin writing these sentences slowlj-, locating the letters accord-
ing to the instructions of Lesson V. Develop confidence next after facility of writing,
for confidence stands for a great deal in Touch Writing. To speak heroically, we
would say, — Do not hesitate to venture into the battle of words, and to strike effective
blows right and left with decisive vigor !

Our requirements shall lead direct Citizens should desire enforcement

toward definite education. touching general laws.

Have every young gallant try your Develop proficient typewriting,

recipe. Attorney's submitted decisions suffi-

When next their right to ownership cient to oust them,

prevails. Freedom may yield direct to opposition.



30



PRACTICAL TYPEWRITING.



Curious symptoms showed Dr. Renfrew
what to prescribe.

Data about taxation never read de-
sirably.

Knowledge every year records some
error repaired.

Salvation never realized does satisfy
young girls.

Active, enduring, generous, sympathetic
citizenship.

Statistics seem more entertaining given
next to other reading.

Bad decisions seem most technical.

Possibly 3^ou ought to operate even
nearer rural localities.

The eminent traits Seward displays
silence envy.

Evidence even nugatorj"- yields some
effective elements.

This superintendent tends several
looms.



Cheap preparations seldom make even
nerve elixirs salutary.

Confined discoverers sorrow when new
worlds stand decoying.

Young gentlemen need definite encour-
agement.

RoUo ovei'heard Delia accept the en-
gagement.

Elastic cords stretched down near
Richard's seat.

Philharmonic concert this seasoir
nightly.

His strength has suffered desperate
encounters.

Fred Dow was sad despite eai-nest
tem])erance effort.

Wliat Tancred denies Sulla affirms.

Professor Rolfe exercises some eru-
dition.

Surely your reason need dishearten no
one.

Correct typewriting gives satisfaction.



(63.) TOUCH PRACTICE.

In this testimony the easy location of Q. and A. assists in getting bearings. This and
the other exercises pi-escribed for Touch Practice can serve for general discipline if
exceedingly expert writing is not the aim.



CROSS-EXAMINATION OF MRS. D.

Q. Where do you live ?
A. In West Roxbury.
Q. How long have you lived there ?
A. Twenty-four years.
Q. When did you go to live at Mr.
Randall's ?

A. I lived there from November, 1888.
Q. You remained there how long ?
A. Until August 1, 18Sy.



Q. Did you stay until they sold out ?
A. I did.

Q. Did you think of buying the furni
ture ?

A. Yes, sir.

Q. You wanted it ?

A. Yes, sir ; I

Q. You did not get it ?
A. Xo ; but I



PRACTICAL TYFEWRiriXG.



31



Q. But you (lid not get it I answer my
question.

A. IS;o, sir ; and (in an undertone) I'ni
glad I didn't.

Q. Were you a member at the time of
the Chestnut Square church ';

A. When I left Mr. EandaU's I was.

Q. Did you attend prettj- regularly ?

A. I did.

Q. How many times do you think you
were there ?

A. I could not tell you.

Q. During the summer of 18SS how
much were you in attendance ?

A. A great deal.



Q. Not regularly ]

A. I was a regular attendant.

Q. Every Sunday I

A. Most every Sunday.

Q. Were you not very irregular ?

A. No, sir, I was not.

Q. Whose Sunday School class were
you in ;

A. Mr. Frothingham's.

Q. Do you know if a record of the at-
tendance was kept t

A. I do not, sir.



(04.) LINES TO THE LONGFELLOW STATUE, BY GEORGE E. B. JACKSON.

The object of this exercise is to lead the writer to acquire facility in lifting the right
hand to turn the paper for a new line, and return to the keys without losing command
of them.



This sculptured form,
'Tis but the semblance.

And still, "tis he !
Amid the busy throng

Calmly he sits ;
Of all that pass along,

Heedless is he !
His gaze is fixed toward home.

He loved it well.
And yet he seeth naught !

His ears attent
To catch the rustling leaves

Of Deering's woods.
But still he heareth not !

Well hath the sculptor wrought.
Making the seeming — real,

The fiction — fact.
And, in enduring bronze.

His very form hath caught !



We, living, thee salute.

Sweetest of bards !
Thy voice hath ceased to be,

Yet, through the world,
Excelsior's flag unfurled.

Bears, in its strange device.
Thy name and fame !

Thy Psalm of Life still lives.
And to the weary gives

Its heaven-taught blessed words.
In pure Evangeline,

Th' unsullied life is thine ;
While from the Wayside Inn,

And Village Blacksmith's din,
Thy fancy weaves such forms

Of beauty and of grace.
That but to speak thy name

Sets all our hearts aflame,
And chief of bards we place

Our Longfellow !



32 PRACTICAL TYPEWRITING.

G-ENEEAL INSTRUCTIONS.

(65. ) The query is often made — Why are the letters of the key-banks arranged so iiTeg-
tilarly ? Aside from some mechanical difficulties which have to be overcome, the follow-
ing exhibit of the comparative frequency of letters in writing will explain the matter
somewhat : —



E,


1,000


A,


490


L,


270


D, 185


, w,


130


V,


60




T,


665


0,


480


c,


260


M, 140


Y,


100


K,


20


Z, (]


N,


505


I,


475


R,


260


F, 130


G,


85


Q,


8


X, 5


s,


495


H,


355


u,


185


P, 130


B,


60


J,


7





(66.) Scratching, erasing, x-ing, and otherwise correcting words looks badty ; ,?ome
employers will not accept such work. It can be avoided in a great measure if habits of
accuracy be cultivated from tlie very beginning.

(67.) Typewriting from dictation is exceedingly pretty work, and considerable sjjeed
can be attained if reader and writer are in harmony. Court reporters often dictate to
more than one operator alternately, keeping two writing contimiously, which is possible
after some practice. By so doing, the dispatch of matter is greatly facilitated.

(68.) When checking off (rectifying) typewriting by reading back to another, the
operation is hastened a little by calling the marks of punctuation, — "Com" "Sem_";
and when a period occurs say "New sentence,'' or " PaT-agraph," as the case may be.
Also say "' Quote " before and after a quotation.

(69.) Literary work for publication makes a much better impression upon the
" reader," if neatly typewritten* ; indeed, some one has said that the compositor adds to
his prayers a sentiment commendatory of the typewriter.

(70. ) There has been some uncertainty regarding the permanency of typewriting.
We have seen legible print twelve years old, from ribbons when less was known about
preparing the ink ; but the legibility of writing of that age is variable. Non-copying
inks that are really pure carbon are practically indestructible, but some of the colors
do not endure. The so-called " Indelible Copying " is said to be the most durable.

(71.) A contributor to the Writer suggests, in substance, the following, to utilize the
ribbon and prevent it from curling :

Cut slots, about seven inches apart, in a strip of oil-board two inches wide, also a
narrow hole half way between these for the type to strike through. Run the ribbon

*" Manuprint ' is a recently coined word for such MS.



FB.ACTICAL TYPEWRITIKG. 33

through the openings, bend the oil-board under the frame of the machine at each end,
and that's all there is to it.

(72.) A few sheets of MSS. f or pubhcation need not be fastened together, altliough
they should be plainly numbered in the upper left-hand corner, with the name of the
• writer on the first page. Separate chapters may be fastened together— in such a way as
not to inconvenience the reader. (The Wriit^r.)

(Ta.) In MSS. for the printer it is best to leave a margin of one inch at the top of
each sheet, and of half an inch at the bottom. If plenty of space is left between the
hues, there is no need of wide mai-gins at the sides. (The WrUer.)

(74.) The following recipe for rib-boii ink has been tried and found satisfactory:

(\ Oz. Aniline Dye (of color desired).
Non-copymg,- -[ ^ :; A.l»l>ol.

14 " Fluid Gtycerine.

If a COPYING INK is desired, use no water, and make it 6 oz. of Glycerine instead.

This mixture should be applied to the ribbon evenly, of course, and the difficulty of
this operation makes it preferable to buy from the regular dealer, unless one has a great
many ribbons to re-ink.

(75.) Typewriting for photographic reproduction should be Avritten in I'ed, very
dark blue or green colored ribbon, green being preferred. ]\Iake interlineation in India
Ink. These colors \atI1 photograph readily, and if the photo-gelatine process is employed
the result AviU be satisfactoiy. There would seem to be an interesting future with re-
gard to printing from such reproduction.

(76.) Typefounders are now casting imitation typewriter type that does not copy
the faults of worn-out machines, and the printer can furnish a very good facsimile nf
typewriting.

(77.) Morgan's " Sapolio " is the best cleanser we have found to remove from the
hands stains caused by the typewriter ribbon.



PARTICULAR mSTRUCTION.

(78. ) It is not adAasable to cover the roller of the machine with thick paper, or use a
backing-sheet. Formerly the rollers were oftener made of soft rubber, which became



34 PRACTICAL TYPEWRITING.

badly indented after Init little use ; no^v the hai'd roller is more common, and just as good
results can be obtained without a backing-sheet. In fact, the typewriter is adjusted
properly when it leaves the manufacturei', and any addition to the circumference of the
roller increases its diameter distance, and tends to throw the writing out of alignment.

(79.) When feeding a number of sheets, with carbon paper between for multiplying
copies, the package should be allowed to enter between the rolls almost of itself, so as to
avoid wrinkling the carbon. 8uch work should not be scratched, as any outside mark
of erasure will coniimmicate to every slieet, and below the outside copy the writing will
be marred. It is Ijetter to x or / an error, and pass on.

(80.) When many duplicates are required, and the ribbon copy is not needed, the
ribbon reverser hook at the left can be placed in the middle slot, and the ribbon itself
moved out of the way. A number of faint impressions can be made witli the period, to
produce a dotted line, with the hook as above, and the ribbon in place.

(81.) Reduplication of typewritten text can also be made by an adaptation of the
Cyclostyle process, its application to the type-vn:iter being as follows : A backing of silk
is applied to a sheet of especially prepared paraffine paper, upon which the impression of
the types makes a stencil. This stencil is transferred to the Cyclostyle printing frame,
and many copies of a more or less excellent reproduction of typewriting can be executed
from it. If the successive steps of the process are well performed, the result will be sat-
isfactory ; but it takes some experience to prepare a cleai'ly defined stencil, and to print
from the same with invariable success.

(82.) Many duplicates can also be made by use of the Hectograph ribbon, which
writes copy that can be multiplied upon the gelatine (Hectograph) pad. The so-called
lithograph ribbon also produces copy that can be transferred to stone, from which many
reproductions may be printed.

(S3. ) Some operators have two ribbons on the reels at the same time, copying and
non-copying ; and for the execution of fancy writing a variety of colored ribbons of short
lengths may be pinned together, and used as occasion may require.

(84. ) When directing envelopes, or writing the superscription of a letter, print the
name or names in capitals (which is easy to do if one has a knee-shift), and the remain-
der of the address in lower case, — city or town, county and state, in the order named.
If there be street number or postoffice box, it follows the name, in lower-case, next
below.



PRAC TFCAL TVPEWFdrTXd.



35



(85. ) To direct envelopes nipidly, liave the Envelope-holder, and insert more than one
between the rolls at once ; at the same time giving the roller lever a certain number of
lifts as each envelope is inserted, so as to bring the fu'st one to the proper line for print-
ing— tliis to be decided by the size of the envelope and tlie length of the address. When
one is written and removed insert another, give the I'oUer the requisite number of tiu-ns,
and the envelope next to be written upon will come round to the proper place.

(SO.) When writing half space between the lilies it adds to the appearance of the
page, and to legibility, if full space lie made between paragraphs.

(87.) AVrite the body of telegrams, cablegi'ams ami the hke, in capitals. It adds to
the general effect of legal documents to write atteslutioii clauses, affidavits, acknowl-
edgments, citations of law, etc., half s])ace.

(88.) After a ribbon has become somewhat worn and curled, it can be tnrned to
advantage. To economize the ribbon, adjust so that the type will siiike along the edge
nearest the operator ; and Avhen this part is exhausted, move the ribbon over so as to
utilize the unused portion.

(89. ) To write a title or sentence equally distant from the margins, count the letters
(and spaces) in the phrase, subtract this sum from the amount total of the machine scale,
and divide by two. The result will be the figure on the front scale at which the writing
should begin.

EXPEDIENTS AND DIRECTIONS.

(90.) The owner or operator of a typewriter should possess some mechanical inge-
nuity to make his machine work always at its best. We are ungallant enough to record
the fact that lady operators rarely understand how to take care of the machine. We add,
however, that this is not a fault, but due to the misfortune thai, their training does not
lead in that dii-ection. But the typewriter is not coni]ilicated, and. it is of advantage to
the operator to have a full knowledge of its pecuharities ; he should know his own
machine at least, learn to adjust it to his own touch, watch and tend it carefully, and so
make it more of an assistant to him than it can be to any other person.

(91.) For persons who prefer a knee-shift at the right (like an organ swell) we
suggest the following, which we have used many years with entire satisfaction : Buy at
any hardware shop a 0-inch half-strap hinge and a 11-iiich screw-pulley. Insert the
pulley at the left of the table drawer, and the hinge at the right so as to clear the iron



36 PRACTICAL TYPEWRITiyXi.

legs of the table. Bore an inch hole through table and base-board, attach a strong cord to
the shift-key bar where the pull comes, pass it through the auger holes, over the pulley
and to the right, attaching to the pendent hinge. Screw a piece of wood to the hinge
for a knee brace, and the result is a cheap and effective capital-shift ai-rangement that
works easily, surely, and does not wrench the machine.

(92.) An old machine will write out of alignment because of wear, apart from that
of the type meclianism ; but single types -\vill sometimes get out of line in a compara-
tively new machine. To I'emedy the fault prociire a pair of aligning pliers, and proceed
as follows : After establishing a standard, as, for instance, n, o and i, nialve i strike
through the exact center of o, compare the letters that have lines in coiumon,
(h and n, O and C, o e c b d q p, i 1 1 j f , etc., are examples,) and those of a series should
coincide, or be made to, in the greater i:)art of the outline. With a cori-ect basis estab-
lished, it is not very difficult to study out the alignment problem, though it is best to ex-
periment on an old machine. To align rapidly and well requires considerable experience,
and it is, of course, better to employ an expert.

(93.) It will be found, when practicing by touch, that the key in the upper right-
hand corner, marked "lower case," is often in the way. We have never discovered
any particular use for this key, and of late have removed it, because of an occasional
collision with the little finger.

(94.) JSfever allows a typewriter to squeak for want of oil ; neither pour on oil
when it is unnecessary. It is not difficult to find where oil is needed, though now and
then there Avill be an elusive squeak, — possibl)^ that of a key-bar-spring under the back
part. Tip up the machine and run the nose of the oil-can down all the springs ; or find
the noisy one, and lubricate that. Another exasperating one to find is that of the front
caniage-rod which the shift-key governs. Sometimes, too, the top of the cog arm (si^ac-
ing rack) at the back will rub against its gviard, and cause a squeak.

(95.) The mechanism that governs the ribbon movement should be kept clean and
well oiled. This works by indirect influence of the carriage tension spring, and it is
essential that it should act freely so as not to impair the carriage motion.

(9(1.) Benzine is handy to have, not only to clean the types but to thin the oil in
the lubricated parts. It is wise to apply benzine once to oil twice.

(97.) The types may be cleaned just as they lie in the basket ; for this purpose use
a stiff hand-brush of good size. When the ribbon is new, ifeCcOoBbDd89G, etc.,
become filled, lift the types and remove the dye (dirtj with a pin, or by tapping the brush
against them vigorously.



PRACTICAL TYPEWRITIXG. 37

{\)^.) Care shcailii ije exertised to have the carriai^-e and fnigor-action tensions
reciprocal. If the carri.ige-spring pull« too hard, the cogs will not let go readih" ; if the
dog-spring is too stiff, the cogs are held unduly and the carriage obstructed. The car-
riage spring should be regulated to the least possible power to pull the carriage along as
rapidly ac each key is depressed, and tlie key and space-bar tension adjusted to " second
the motion."

(99.) When many sheets are ran into the ma-chine, with carbon paper between
for reduplication, tlie ahgnment of the printing can be maintained by stretching a wide
rubber band upon the track of the front carriage wheel ; the added thickness of paper
adds to the diameter of the roller, which alters the relation of the type-bars to the same,
and makes it necessary io lift the carriage a trifle.

(100. ) Eublier l)ands may also be stretched across tlie top of the type-basket to keep
the riblion from curling. Have a care to adjust the band so not to cause friction with
the ribbon moA^ement.

(101. ) To renew the rubber feed-bands, loosen the screws holding the axle of the
front band- wheels, also the screw of the left scale-arm support ; then slip off the bands
through the openings made. Be careful when retux'iiing the axle-rod to set the screws
tightly, l)ut not spread the carriage frame to the extent of impeding its movement.

(102. ) It is not generally known that a letter-key and the ca})ital-shift can be struck
at one and the same time to produce a capital. Try it, and save time !

(103.) The manifolding power of a writing machine is of prime importance." Lit-
erary workers should always prepare MSS. for publication in du])licate ; then if the
original be lost in transit, or if it be rejected by the publisher and not returned to the
author, the latter will have a copy at hand.

History has furnished many instances of the destruction in a moment of the labor of
years. We have an acquaintance, an astronomer, who lost his whole computation of a
Transit of Venus by fire, and was obliged to work many months to calculate another.
The effects of the Chicago and Boston fires have lasted long after, because valuable
records and papers were burned, and no duplicates exist anywhere.

(101.) In order to make the underscore double, after striking it as usual, draw the
shift-rod (front) a little toward the operator, and while holding it firmly— iiroceed as
before.

(105.) In taking letter- press copies of typewriting the tissue sheet should be
moistened more tha]i for ink writing. Many press copies can be taken from the same
writing, if the ink be plentiful and the tissue thoroughly wetted. Such copies are con-
venient w^hen the making in duphcate of a long letter has been overlooked.

* Some offlce.s file away carbon duplicates of letters instead of taking- press copies.



3g PRACTICAL TYPEWRITING.

(106. ) New attachments for the typewriter are constantly appearing ; those of recent
oriQ;in are,— the thumb-screws for regulating finger and dog tensions ; the improved dog
that iiJlows the carriage to be pushed back without raking tlio teeth of the spacing-
rack; the arrangement at tlie left for lifting the spacing-rack, and allowing th(.^ carriage
to be set at any point on the scale— (being in addition to the right-hand thumb-piece for
the same purpose) : and the various knee-shifts.

We predict the invention at a not distant day of a device to return the carriage to
point of beginning, turning at the same time the roller for a new line. All such im-
provements, if of a pra.ctical character, tend to equip the machine for exceedingly fast
work — and perhaps for verbatim reporting, if of a not too exacting kind.

ADDITIONAL KEMABKS.

(107.) A very fair estimate of the number of "words in a page of manuprint can lio


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Online LibraryBates TorreyPractical typewriting : by the all-finger method, which leads to operation by touch → online text (page 4 of 18)