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THE LIBRARY

OF
THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA
LOS ANGELES




EDVMNSTANTONFICKES

- HIS BOOK -S



A HISTORY



OF



NOVA-SCOTIA,



OR



ACADI E.



BY

BEAMISH MURDOCH, ESQ., Q. C.



VOL. I.



HALIFAX, N. S. :

JAMES BARNES, PRINTER AND PUBLISHER.
1865.



PROVINCE OF NOVA-SCOTIA :

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on this Thirteenth day of March, 1865, BEAMISH
MURDOCH, of the City of Halifax, Esquire, has deposited in this Office, the
title of a Book, the Copyright of which he claims in the words following :
" A HISTORY OF NOVA-SCOTIA OR ACADIE, BY BEAMISH MURDOCH, ESQ.,-
Q. C."

JAS. H. THORNE, Defuty Secretary.






v, I



IN offering to public attention the first volume of this work,
I have to crave indulgence for many imperfections that I am
sensible cannot fail to occur in such an attempt. The great
amount of materials for history which the provincial assembly
have collected and preserved by means of the Record Com-
mission, were powerfully tempting to me, and my preposses-
sions as a Novascotian making strong impressions on my mind
of the value of my country and the interest of its early history,
I commenced, in 1860, the collection and arrangement of this
narrative. In its progress I have received the most friendly
aid and encouragement in every direction ; and having given
rny whole heart to the work ever since, I have every confi-
dence that it will prove useful as a record of the varying
events that have at length made Nova Scotia a happy, free
and intelligent province, progressive and prosperous, which
may she ever be. I am bound to express my thanks for sub-
stantial aid to the provincial government and assembly, and
individually to those who have furnished information, facilita-
ted my researches, and otherwise assisted my enterprise,
among whom I must name Thomas B. Akins, esquire, the
Commissioner of Records, The Hon. Joseph Howe, The Hon.
Dr. Charles Tupper, The Hon. W. A. Henry, The Hon. J.
McCully ; Henry C. D. Twining, esquire, clerk of Assembly ;
Hon. messrs. Ritchie, Shannon and McDonald ; Mr. Speaker
Wade ; Hiram Blanchard, esq. ; Rev. Mr. Rand, missionary



iv Preface.

to the Micmacs ; Rev. Mr. Patterson, of Greenhill ; W. A,
Hendry, esq., of the Crown Land office ; W. J. Almon, M. D. r
and W. S. More, esq., Halifax ; C. Mand6 Melan^on, esq.,
Clare ; C. B. Owen, esq., Yarmouth ; E. Rameau, Paris ; Rev,
Mr. Ballard, Brunswick, Maine ; Mr. W. Stevens and Messrs.
Compton, of Halifax ; Messrs. A. & W. McKinlay, Mr. Muir,
and Messrs. Hall & Beamish, Book-sellers, Halifax ; A. M,
Gidney, esq., of Bridgetown. From many others I have also
received friendly aid in this labor. The late Mr. Edward
Wallace, and the late Dr. Abraham Gesner, obliged me much
in my search for information,

I must apprize the reader that in the spelling of the names-
of places I have always followed the orthography of the book
or document from which I was at the moment preparing my
statements. There is, consequently, a frequent variation in
spelling the old Indian names of places, which is not to be
charged to negligence. The modes of spelling them have
varied at different periods. One of the most remarkable
instances of this is Canso, which has been spelt Campseau r
Canceaux, Cango, Canseau, &c. &c. Mines has been spelt
Menis and Minas, ana even Manis. Pisiguid, Pigiguit, Pizi-
quid, &c. Chignitou, Chignicto, Shickanectua. In extracts-
and quotations, I have generally adopted, as nearly as pos-
sible, the language, spelling, &c., of the time, not attempting
to correct or alter it, on the contrary desiring to preserve the
characteristic phrases and language of each period.

In the review of the people who inhabited Nova Scotia at
successive dates, the Micmacs, the French, and the English,
I have seen many shining and noble qualities displayed in
each successive age, both by leaders and followers. Some
faults they had some crimes were committed ; but we, who



Preface. v

succeed them, may be happy if we can shew the courage, the
endurance and generosity that are the attributes of the early
adventurers and settlers of Acadie. Some periods of our
history afford but little matter for connected narrative. At
other times interesting transactions occur which do not form
part of the regular sequence of events. In such cases I have
preferred to place them in appendices to the chapters, instead
of omitting them entirely, as I am anxious to preserve every-
thing of genuine interest that I have found in my enquiries.

The leading idea with me has been to preserve from
oblivion the past occurrences in this province. The frequent
change of masters the misfortunes that have often retarded
its progress to civilization, and the varying effects that the
contests of two great and noble nations have had on its des-
tiny, will hereafter give scope for philosophical minds to
review, and for eloquent writers to expatiate on.

The task of collecting and reducing into annals facts of
interest, must naturally precede the more ambitious course of
history, just as the labor of the pioneers of this continent, in
clearing the forest, making roads and bridging streams, is an
essential requisite to lead eventually to cities, villas, and high
cultivation. If this work prove to be a useful preparation, as
a scaffolding for the erection of more diversified and elegant
structures, the labor I bestow on it will not have been useless.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I. P. I 12.

New France Acadie, its extent, climate and productions. Voyages of Dis-
covery. Visit of de la Roche to Sable island. DeMonts' patent.

CHAPTER II. P. 1324.

DeMonts voyage to Acadie in 1604. His survey of the coast towards New
England, Ste. Croix. Appendix DeMonts' commission from Henry 4.

CHAPTER III. P. 25 30.
Port Royal founded in 1605. De Monts visits it in 1606.

CHAPTER IV. P. 3142.

Poutrincourt his encounter with hostile Indians near cape Mallebarre. L'Es-
carbot his poetical turn. Champlain's order ' de bon temps' 1606. Member-
tou's war on the Armouchiquois. 1607. Poutrincourt returns to France. Appen-
dix Indian manners. Verses on the Indian names of places in Acadie.

CHAPTER V. P. 43 47.

Souriquois or Micmacs, Etchemins. Champlain begins his settlement at Q*t-
bec in 1608. Baptism of Indians in 1610. Biencourt visits France to seek aid
for the colony. Madame de 'Guercheville promotes a mission of Jesuits. The
English settle Newfoundland in 1610.

CHAPTER VI. P. 4852.

Voyage of the Jesuits. Discord as to burial place of Membertou. DeMonts
transfers his claims on Acadie to madame de Guercheville, 1611, 1612.

CHAPTER VII. P. 5363.

1613. Jesuits mission settle near Monts Deserts. They are attacked and cap-
tured by Argal, an English commander from Virginia. Argal erases and destroys
all monuments at Port Royal. Poutrincourt is killed in battle in France in 1615.
His epitaph.

CHAPTER VIII. P. 5472.

Companies formed for fishery and trade. Sir William Alexander obtains a
grant of Nova Scotia from king James ist. His attempts at settlement. The
Scotch fort near Goat island. Baronets of Nova Scotia. Company of New
France formed in 1628. Kirk takes Port Royal in 1628, and Quebec in 1629.

CHAPTER IX. P. 7383.

Claude de la Tour, and Charles Amador, his son. Claude captured by Kirk.
Charles de la Tour commands at cape Sable. Claude marries a second wife.
Endeavors to lead his son to surrender his fort to the English. 1631. Charles
de la Tour made lieutenant general of Acadie.



viii Table of Contents.

CHAPTER X. P. 74 gr.

Acadie restored to France in 1632. De Razilli sent there to take possession.
The Recollets return there in 1633. Grant to Latour. Jesuits' missions. Ap-
pendix 3d article of treaty of St. Germain, &c.

CHAPTER XI. P. 9297.

Discord between LaTour and D'aulnay after Razilli's death. 1638. Royal
letter to D'aulnay. Charles de la Tour visits Quebec in 1640. 1641. Royal let-
ter to arrest Latour. Latour seeks aid from Boston, 1642.

CHAPTER XII. P. 98108.

D'aulnay attacks Latour's fort at St. John in 1643. Charles Latour and his
wife escape to Boston. Debates there in consequence. Latour obtains aid, and
drives D'aulnay off from St. John. D'aulnay goes to France. Madame Latour
goes to Europe in 1644. Brings out three mercnant ships, with cargoes. Her
lawsuit in Boston, 1645. She defends St. John with success. Appendix Treaty
made by D'aulnay's agent with Massachusetts.

CHAPTER XIII. P. 109116.

1646. D'aulnay's commissioners negociate at Boston. The sedan chair.
D'aulnay again besieges St. John. Madame la Tour capitulates. D'aulnay
hangs the garrison. Madame Latour dies. Latour's misfortunes. 1648. He
visits Quebec. 1650. D'aulnay dies. Appendix Abstract of D'aulnay's com-
mission.

CHAPTER XIV. P. 117123.

1651. Latour restored to his authority as governor of Acadie, and receives
possession of the fort at St. John. 1652. Madame D'aulnay's compact with the
duke of Vendome. 1653. Marriage of Latour to D'aulnay's widow. Grant to
M. Denys of the gulf coast, from Canso to cap des Rosiers. Appendix Latour's
new commission abstracted. Contract of the duke of Vendome with madame
D'aulnay. Marriage contract between Latour and madame D'aulnay.

CHAPTER XV. P. 124132.

1654. Le Borgne's shipments and assumption of power as creditor of D'aul-
nay's estate. Adventures of Denis de Fronsac. He is made prisoner by le
Borgne. The English summon Latour, who surrendered. They besiege Port
Royal. Le Borgne capitulates. Laheve captured. Denys forced to give up
Chedabouctou to La Giraudiere. Returns to France, and is reinstated. A fire
ruins his commercial prospects. Appendix Articles of capitulation of Port
Royal in 1654.

CHAPTER XVI. P. 133139.

1655. Treaty of Westminster between England and France. Acadie granted
by Cromwell, to Latour, Temple and Crowne. 1657. Sir Thomas Temple made
governor of Nova Scotia by Oliver Cromwell. Le Borgne commissioned by the
French king. 1658. Le Borgne made prisoner at La Heve by the English.
1663. Grant of the islands of Madelaine, &c., to Doublet. Earthquakes over
the continent. Sagadahock granted to the duke of York. 1664. Louis XIV
established the Compagnie des hides Occidentales. Appendix Abstract of patents
from Cromwell, &c.



Table of Contents. ix

,

CHAPTER XVII. P. 140148.

1667. Treaty of Breda. Acadie restored to France. Temple ordered to sur-
render it. He objects to the boundaries claimed by the French. 1669. Peremp-
tory orders to give it up. 1670. He delivers possession. Appendix Descrip-
tion of the forts at Pentagoet and Gemisick given up.

CHAPTER XVIII. P. 149157.

1671. Grand-fontaine governor of Acadie. Proposes to re-establish the old
fort at St. John. Census of 1671. Settlement at Miramichi in 1672 or 1673.
1674. Death of Sir Thomas Temple. De Chambly succeeds Grand-fontaine.
Pentagoet taken by a pirate vessel. Indian wars in 1676 on borders of New Eng-
land. 1678. De Marson commands in Acadie, and is succeeded by M. de la
Valliere. Appendix Grants of Nachouac and Gemisick to Marson, and of
Chignictou to la Valliere, &c. A concession from Bellisle, as seigneur, on the
Annapolis river, to Martin and his son in 1679, given in full.

CHAPTER XIX. P. 158163.

State of the province in 1680. The English take possession for the fifth time.
Grant to Bergier & Co.. for shore fishery. 1682. La Valliere still in command.
Bergier settles at Chedabouctou. Pirates seize the fishing craft of the people of
Port Royal. Misconduct of la Valliere. Appendix Grants of seigneuries on
the St. John river in 1684.

CHAPTER XX. P. 164172.

1684. Violence and oppression of La Valliere. He is superseded. M. Perrot
made governor. He proposes to fortify Laheve. 1686. De Meulles visits the
different settlements of Acadie, and prepares a very full census. Treaty of Lon-
don. Neutrality in America stipulated. Appendix Extracts from de Meulles'
census, &c.

CHAPTER XXI. P. 173182.

1687. De Menneval appointed governor. Instructions given to him. Garri-
son increased from 30 to 60 men. Governor to reside at Port Royal. Castin to
be checked. 1688. De Goutins appointed judge, $cc. His instructions. Marie
de Menou gives Port Royal to her half brothers and sisters the Latours. Castin
pillaged by governor Andros, of New England. Pirates on the Acadie coast
rob a Portuguese vessel. 1689. Capture of English fort at Pemaquid by the
Indians, Illicit trade between Port Royal and Boston. French vessels of war
seize English vessels for fishing and trading on the coast. 1690. Discords be-
tween governor de Menneval and the judge des Goutins. Appendix Certificate
respecting D'aulnay's improvements, buildings, &c., and his death. Grants of
Seignories in 1688 and 1699. Notice of de la Mothe Cadillac.

CHAPTFR XXII. P. 183193.

1690. Attack on English colonies from Canada. Phipps invades Acadie with
a squadron and 700 men from Boston. Menneval surrenders on terms. Phipps
violates the agreement, and, having pillaged Port Royal, abandons it. Neglect
of the French government to protect their settlements. Appendix Notice of
Sir Wm. Phipps. Canadian families of Bekancourt and Longueil. Phipps
attacks Quebec, and fails.



x Table of Contents.

t *

CHAPTER XXIII. P. 194207.

1690. Villebon arrives at Port Royal. Decides to occupy Jemsek, on the St.
John. Pirates pillage Placentia, Port Royal and Chedabouctou, and burn Port
Royal. They also capture the Union, the vessel which brought Villebon from
France. Villebon goes to Quebec, and thence to France. 1791. Returns as
Governor. Nelson and Tyng made prisoners. Appendix Acadie granted by
William and Mary to Massachusetts, in the charter of 1691.- Grants of
Seigneuries in Acadie in 1691-2-3. Marie de Menou's will. Notices of John
Nelson. His imprisonment in the Bastile, &c. Lahontan's remarks on Acadie.
Perrot's proposals.

CHAPTER XXIV. P. 208214.

1692. Expedition to capture Villebon's fort on the St. John fails to do any-
thing. Erection of English fort at Pemaquid. French vessels go there, but
withdraw. 1693. Villebon in command at Nachouac. 1694. Villieu leads 500
Indians against the frontier of New England, where they kill, pillage and burn.
Capt March violates a flag of truce.

CHAPTER XXV. P. 215225.

1695. Baptiste, in his privateer,makes prizes, resorting to the St. John river.
Villebon entertains Indian chiefs. 1696. Indians who came to Pemaquid to
treat of exchange of prisoners, killed by captain Chubb. Pemaquid is besieged
by French and Indians under d'Iberville and Bonaventure, assisted by Castin,
&c. Chubb surrenders. The fort is demolished. Cruel wars in Newfoundland.

CHAPTER XXVI. P. 226232.

Church's expedition to Chignecto. He burns, pillages, kills cattle, &c. New
England forces besiege Villebon in Nachouac, but, after hard fighting, withdraw.

CHAPTER XXVII. P. 233238.

1697. Villebon strengthens his fort Affairs of Indian frontier wars. An
English prisoner burnt alive, &c. &c. Appendix Treaty of Ryswick, (1697.)
Article of mutual restoration of territories between England and France.

CHAPTER XXVIII. P. 239 245.

1698. Chapel built at Narantsouac, (Norridgewock), on the Kennebec, where
the priest Ralle was stationed. Fishermen placed at Chibouctou, (now Halifax
harbor), by the company. A pirate appeared off St. John. Famine. 1699. Bas-
set claimed as a British subject. Is sent to France. His offences are stated.
Account of the fishing station at Chibouctou. Appendix Fort at St. John.
Extracts from despatches in 1698 and 1699, from Villebon, Thury, &c. Pirates
visit cape Sable and fort Razoir, (now Shelburne.) Homespun made here.
Price of provisions, &c.

CHAPTER XXIX. P. 246254.

1700. Resolution to transfer garrison and government from the river St. John
to Port Royal. Villebon's death. Villieu acts as commander. 1701. Brouillan
appointed governor. Arrives at Chibouctou, and then goes to Port Royal. He
demolishes the fort at St John. Praises the site of the fort at Port Royal.
Wishes to be lieutenant general of Acadie. Proposes many improvements and
makes many requests. Appendix Notices of M. Brouillan from Lahontan, &c.



Table of Contents. xi

CHAPTER XXX. P. 255260.

1702. Death of Wm. 3, and accession of Queen Anne. War declared against
France and Spain. Bostonians threaten to hang captain Baptiste, but Brouillan,
by threats of reprisal, saves him. Rumors of an attack by the English on Port
Royal in the ensuing spring. Brouillan's offer to take Boston. Complaints and
quarrels in the garrison at Port Royal. Brouillan's purchase of Hog island. His
building there. Accusations of immoral conduct against Brouillan and Bonaven-
ture.

CHAPTER XXXI. P. 261271.

Royal decree of 20 March, 1 703, settling disputes about the principal seigneu-
ries in Acadie, particularly the claims of the Latour family, and the division of
their grants ; also Pedigree of the Latours of Acadie. Marquis de Vaudreuil
made governor at Quebec, and Joseph Dudley in New England. Siege of Casco
by Indians under French leaders. Petty wars on frontiers and in Newfoundland
between English and French. Brouillan encourages privateers to resort to Port
Royal. Different charges against Brouillan. Affair of madame Freneuse and
Bonaventure. Appendix Singular letters of Cyprian Southack.

CHAPTER XXXII. P. 272277.

1704. Church again attacks Acadie. Destroys the dikes at Mines. His
squadron and army go to Port Royal. Skirmishes and retreats. He burns, des-
troys and pillages Chignecto again. Colonel Hilton destroys chapel and wig-
wams at Norridgewock. Brouillan goes to France. His defence against charges.

CHAPTER XXXIII. P. 278282.

1705. Marriage of Duvivier. Madame Freneuse. BoflRventure in charge ot
the government. Brouillan returning from France, dies on board the Profond,
near Chibouctou. Interment of his heart near Port Royal.

CHAPTER XXXIV. P. 283 298.

1706. Exchange of prisoners between Boston and Port Royal. Penalties on
Rowse and others for trading with French enemy, inflicted by Assembly of Mas-
sachusetts, annulled by the Queen. Subercase governor of Acadie. Des Gou-
tins and Bonaventure acquitted of charges. 1707. Expedition from Boston to
besiege Port Royal. Besiegers, defeated by Subercase, retire.

CHAPTER XXXV. P. 299 308.

Subercase gives unfavorable opinion of the Indians. 1708. His correspon-
dence with Dudley. Affair of madame de Freneuse. Wars in Newfoundland.
Subercase employs privateers, who take many prisoners from the English.

CHAPTER XXXVI. P. 309 319.

1710. Francis Nicholson commands land and sea forces that sail from Boston
to besiege Port Royal. Summons Subercase. English invest the place. Suber-
case surrenders. Agents sent to Canada to give notice of the capture. Nicholson
leaves a garrison there under colonel Vetch. Appendix Articles of capitula-
tion, &c.



xii Table of Contents.

CHAPTER XXXVII. P. 320 329.

1711. Complaints of inhabitants of Port Royal to the marquis de Vaudreuil.
Garrison of Annapolis reduced by sickness, &c. Massacre of English troops by
Indians at Bloody creek. The fort invested by French inhabitants and Indians.
Gaulin sends to Placentia for aid to subdue the place. Fort reinforced by 200
men of the New York levies. Canadian troops disbanded, and siege abandoned.
Expedition against Quebec from England under General Hill and admiral Walker.
Meet with shipwreck, and return.

CHAPTER XXXVIII. P. 330 339.

1712. Controversy between Ralle and Boston missionary. Treaty of armistice
England and France. 1713. Treaty of Utrecht. Queen Anne's letter in favor
of the French inhabitants. Newfoundland given up by the French, and Louis-
bourg, in cape Breton, founded. Arguments as to the advantage of St. Anne.

CHAPTER XXXIX. P. 340 346.

1714. Costabelle having surrendered Placentia to colonel Moody, becomes
governor of Cape Breton. Nicholson offers the Acadians the option to take the
oath, and become British subjects. They prove refractory. Death of queen
Anne. Appendix Census of persons who were transferred from Placentia to
Louisbourg. Census of Port Royal.

CHAPTER XL. P. 347 356.

1715. Nicholson's letter concerning Nova Scotia. Louis XIV dies. 1716.
Capt. Armstrong's report on the fort at Annapolis, &c. Conference at Arow-
sick. Indian claim to territory asserted by the missionary Ralle. Death of
colonel Church. Colonel Richard Philipps appointed Governor of Nova Scotia.
1718. Project of Coram to build a town at Chibouctou, &c.

CHAPTER XLI. P. 357361.

1719. Commission of colonel Philipps. He goes to Boston, and attempts to
get to Nova Scotia in vain. Spends the winter at Boston. Appendix Notices
of governor Philipps.

CHAPTER XLII. P. 362372.

1720. Governor Philipps arrived at Annapolis. The French unwilling to take
the oath of allegiance. Swears in ten councillors, and two subsequently. He
issues proclamations to the people, offering them the privileges of British sub-
jects, and directing them to choose deputies or representatives. Six deputies
chosen from Annapolis river. With Philipps' consent, the inhabitants send dele-
gates to M. St. Ovide de Brouillan, governor at Louisbourg. Reply of the people
of Mines to the governor's proclamation. Philipps' interview with the Indian
chief of the river Annapolis. His letters to Vaudreuil and to the Secretary
of State, &c.

CHAPTER XLIII. P. 373 385.

Visit of Indian chiefs from St. John at Annapolis. Indians attack and pillage
the English at Canso, (August, 1720.) Philipps writes to St. Ovide respecting
oath of allegiance. Indians rob Alden, a trader, of his goods at Mines. Troops
sent to Canso. Appendix Grant of the island of St. John. Letter of St. Ovide
and Demery to governor Philipps.



Table of Contents. xiii

CHAPTER XLIV. P. 386397.

1721. Philipps claims the Kennebec as boundary of Nova Scotia. Number
of deputies increased for Cobequid and Mines. General court to sit four times a
year established. Lieut. Washington complained of by governor Philipps. Bad
state of the Fort. Conference intended at Arowsick island between Indian
chiefs and the governor of New England. Indians attended 200 armed ; Castin
and the Jesuit LaChasse with them. The governor of New England did not
appear. They left him a letter, stating outrageous terms. Philipps visits Canso.
Appendix Description of Annapolis, &c., by Mascarene.

CHAPTER XLV. P. 398 406.

1722. Indian war. Mr. Newton, and Mr. Adams, junior, captured, and after-
wards ransomed. The Indians capture many English vessels on the coast. Phi-
lipps sends out two vessels, who recapture most of the vessels and their crews.
Indians kill several persons at Canso. Death of the Regent Duke of Orleans in
1723-

CHAPTER XLVI. P. 407 421.

1724. Indian war continues on borders of New England. A party of Malecite
and Micmac Indians attack Annapolis. They kill two of the garrison. An
Indian hostage killed in retaliation. Father Charlemagne banished. Indians
attack and take a vessel at Mocodome, (Country harbor.) Indians assemble at
Mines, designing mischief. Over 200 men, under Harman and other officers, in
New England, march on Norridgewock, which they destroy, killing the priest
Ralle and many of the Indians. Appendix Examination of father Charlemagne
and others, of father Isidore, &c. &c.

CHAPTER XLVII. P. 422433.

1725. Cessation of arms agreed on between commissioners of Massachusetts
and Eastern Indian chiefs. Armstrong, lieut. governor, arrives at Canso from
England. Mascarene appointed Commissioner for Nova Scotia at intended
treaty. Newton and Bradstreet sent to Louisbourg to confer with St. Ovide on
grievances. Wreck of le Chameau near Louisbourg. Armstrong proposes to
make Canso the seat of Government. Dummer's treaty concluded with the
Indians. Death of Vaudreuil. Beauharnois succeeds him. Appendix Treaty
with the Indians made at Boston 15 Dec'r., 1725. Narrative of three French
gentlemen who came by land from Quebec. &c. &c.

CHAPTER XLVIII. P. 434 441.

1726. State of the garrison. Treaty ratified by Indian chiefs at Annapolis.
Armstrong yields to the desire of the French inhabitants, who accordingly take a
conditional oath of allegiance not to be obliged to bear arms, ever since which
they called themselves ' Neutral French.' Gaulin apologizes, and is pardoned.
Lieut, governor Doucett dies. Appendix Mangeant, who fled from Canada,
receives protection. Nicholes' sentence. List of Indians from New England to
St. John's river, &c.



xiv Table of Contents.

CHAPTER XLIX. P. 442 449.

1727. Armstrong commissions some French inhabitants as public officers.



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