Belfast Naturalists' Field Club.

Annual report and proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club online

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1906-1907.] 517

paid to Mr. Baring for his hospitality to the members of the
Club, and particularly for the special care and attention which
he had shown in the plants and animals of Lambay Island.

"fruits and vegetables."

At the last informal meeting of the Qub, which took place
on Wednesday evening, 27th March, in the Clubroom, Museum,
College Square North, Mr. Arthur Deane gave a short lecture
on " Fruits and Vegetables." The chair was occupied by Mr.
Robert Patterson, M.R.I.A. Mr. Deane commenced his thesis
^y stating that in the life history of a plant there were two
periods — the vegetable and the floral. The function of the
latter was to produce seed, and during the formation of seeds a
certain part of the flower persisted until the seeds were ripe, and
this was termed a fruit. No matter whether it was like a pea-
pod or an apple it was always called a fruit. He then pro-
ceeded to describe simple and compound fruits and the
infructescence. Fruits could be divided into those that were dry
and those that were fleshy. Ehry fruits were provided for dispersal
by wind, water, or to be carried away in the fleece of, passing
animals instead of falling in a dead calm beneath the parent
plant, and assisting themselves in the struggle for existence.
Fleshy fruits were usually adapted for carrying inside the bodies
of animals, and in such case* the seeds are protected by a
thick leathery coat, so that th«y will not be acted upon by the
gastric juices of the body of the animal, the warmth of which
often commenced the -process of germination. In different
fruits it was seen that different parts of the flower persisted to
form the flesh of such fruits as tomato, apple, orange, cucumber,
and strawberry. The colour assumed by ripe fruits often assists
in alluring animals by forming a great contrast to the back-
ground of green foliage, as the berries of the holly and the
strawberry. Another important point about fleshy fruits was that
before becoming ripe they were usually distasteful to animals, but
when the seeds were ready for dispersal the acids were changed
mto sugar, and so birds and other animals were attracted to eat
them. Examples of fruits were spoken of which appeared to

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518 CProc. B.N.F.C.,

be imperfectly understood. The cow-wheat was supposed to
resemble the cocoons of ants, and one observer stated that ants
do actually carry them to their nests, and if this was so the
seeds would find a fine germinating bed in the tilth of an ant
hill. It was possible to find in the fruit-head of the common
marigold three different kinds of fruits — some with wings, which
were evidently adapted for wind dispersal; others with hooks
for hanging on to the coats of passing animals, while a third
allured birds by resembling a green caterpillar. Vegetables
used in cooking were derived from any part of tha plant. The
tomato, cucumber, and marrow were given as examples of
fruits. The potato was an underground stem, which had
become a storehouse for reserve food material. Turnips,
beets, parsnips were examples where the taproot had become
modified, for during the first year they were stored with food,
but in the second year this food was utilised for the formation
of seed. In the asparagus it was the bud which was eaten, and
v.'hen asparagus v/as stringy it was due to the food-conducting
tubes or vascular bundles being well developed ; while Brussels
sprouts were simply small cabbages produced as buds in the
leaf axils on the main stem, while the white fleshy centre of the
cauliflower furnished an example of modified flowers. In the
discussion which followed Messrs. Robert Welch, G. Donald-
son, N. Carruthers, W. H. Gallway, C. Cunningham, and the
Chairman took part.


A lecture under the auspices of the Irish Field Club Union
was delivered in the Museum, College Square North, on
Tuesday evening, 9th April, by Professor Grenville A. J. Cole,
F.G.S., M.R.I.A., the well-known Dublin scientist, who chose
for his subject " Continental Glaciation." The chair was
occupied by the President (Mr. W. H. Phillips).

Professor Cole, in the course of his lecture, said that
despite local cycles of increase and decrease, they were familiar
everywhere in Europe with the fact that glaciers are shrunken

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1906-1907.] 619

remnants of those that formerly spread far into the drift-
covered lowlands around their mountain chains. They had,
moreover, in Europe and North America widespread traces of
still larger and broader ice flows when these areas suffered
from what might be called continental glaciation. The plain
of Northern Germany, from the Baltic to the Saxon hills, was
thus cumbered with glacial drift, resting on surfaces that now-
adays persuaded them of the passage southernward of con-
tinuous ice. Whether such continental ice thrust out the
waters of a shallow sea, or whether it moved over dry land
previously dry, was of little moment in comparison with the
question of its extensive invasion of lands far from its own
gathering ground. Some hints as to the aspect and conditions
of the lowlands during such invasions might still be found on
the comparatively temperate margins of Spitzbergen, Alaska,
and Greenland. The enormous amount of material carried
within continental ice was especially impressed on observers in
Greenland, where practically no moraines appeared upon the
surface. This material was partly stratified by dragging move-
ments in the ice, and was re-arranged in fan deltas and drum-
lins by the swirls of water as the ice began to melt away. A
large part of their glacial deposits in Ireland must be ascribed
to continental glaciation. The facts of such glaciation in olden
times, notably those of the widespread Permian glaciation,
which was illustrated in the present lecture, threw them
farther and farther into the dark as to a cause for climatic
changes of such magnitude. (Applause.)

Professor Cole's lecture was illuminated by a number of
very beautiful slides of ice-floes and glaciers from nearly all
parts of Europe, Africa, and America, and also striated rocks
from different parts of Ireland.

Some discussion followed, in which Madame Christen,
Professor Gregg Wilson, Messrs. William Gray, ^At.R.I.A., R.
Welch, M.R.I. A., A. Milligan, and W. J. C. Tomlinscxi took

A vote of thanks to the lecturer, on the motion of Professor
Wilson, seconded by Mr. R. Welch, was heartily passed.

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520 CProc. B.N.F.O.,

The election of four new members — Miss Ethel M. Webb,
Messrs. Charles S. M'Neill, F. Balfour Browne, M.A., and
George Raymond — concluded the proceedings.


The Forty-fourth Annual Meeting was held in the Museum,
College Square North, on 17th April — the President (Mr. W.
H. Phillips) occupied the chair. The Secretary (Mr. W. H.
Gall way) read the Annual Report. The Treasurer (Mr. W. H.
Phillips) submitted his Statement of Accounts. The Rep>orts of
the Librarian and Geological Section were read by Mr. J. L* S.
Jackson ; the Botanical Section Report was read by Mr. N.
Carrothers, and the Report of Sub-Committee who adjudicated
on collections submitted in Competition for prizes offered by
the Club, was read by Mr. R. Welch.

The President formally moved the adoption of the reports
and statement of accounts, which was seconded by Mr. N. H.
Foster, Vice-President, who congratulated the Club on its im-
proved membership and general prosperity, and the reports
were passed.

A hearty vote of thanks was moved by Mrs. Fennell and
seconded by Mr. William Gray to the retiring President (Mr.
W. H. Phillips). And, on the motion of Mr. William Gray,
seconded by Mr. Robert Patterson, a cordial vote of thanks was
accorded to Mr. W. J. C. Tomlinson ; both motions being
heartily ijupported by the members, and carried by
Mr. W. J. Fennell moved, and Mr. Robert Welch
seconded, that Mr. Robert Patterson, M.R.LA., be elected
President, which was passed.

Mr. T. Anderson proposed, and Mr. H. E. Brothers
seconded, that Mr. Nevin H. Foster, M.B.O.U., be re-elected
Vice-President, which was also passed.

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1906-1907.] 521

Mr. W. H. Phillips was re-elected Treasurer, on the
motion of Mrs. Fennell, seconded by Mr. George Donaldson.

Mr. J. L. S. Jackson was re-elected Librarian, on the
motion of Mr. Robert Bell, seconded by Mr. W. R. Pim.

Mr. W. H. Gallway and Mr. J. N. Milne were elected Hon.
Secretaries, on the proposal of Mr. Arthur Deane, seconded by
Mrs. Courvoisier.

The following were elected Members of Committee : —
Messrs. Robert Bell, N. Carrothers, George Donaldson, W. J.
Fennell, M.R.I.A., W. A. Green, H. C. Marshall, Hugh
Lamont Orr, W. J. C. Tomlinson, Robert Welch, M.R.I.A., and
Professor Gregg Wilson, M.A., D.Sc, M.R.I.A.

Suggestions of suitable places to be visited during the
coming Summer Session having been put forward, the following
were elected members: — ^Miss Clara Patterson, Mrs. Robert
Patterson, Miss E. Johnston, Messrs. John Parkhill, S.
Johnston, and W. Chambers, which concluded the proceedings.

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522 LProc. B.N.P.O.,

-^ RULES -^


Belfast Naturalists Field Club,


That the Society be called '*The Belfast NATrRALisxs' Field



That the object of thia -Society be the practical study of
Natural Science and Archseology in Ireland.


That the Club shall consist of Ordinary, Corresponding, and
Honorary Members. The Ordinary Members to pay annually a
subscription of Five Shillings, and that candidates for such
Membership shall first pay an entrance fee of 6/-, and be proposed
and seconded at any meeting of the Club, by Members present, and
elected by a majority of votes of the Members present.


That the Honorary and Corresponding Members shall consist
of persons of eminence in Natural Science, or who shall have done
some special setvice to the Club ; and whose usual residence is not
lees than twenty miles from Belfast. That such Members may be
nominated by any Member of the dub, and on bein^ approved by
the Committee, may be elected at any subsequent Meeting of the
Club by a majority of the votes of the Members present. That
Corresponding Members be expected to communicate a Paper once
•within every two years.

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1906-1907.] 528

That the Officers of the Club be annually elected and consist
of A Preeident, Vice-iPreeident, Treasurer, Librarian, and two
Secretaries, and ten Members who form a Committee, and shall
hold not less than eight Meetings in the year. Five Members to
form a quorum. No Member of Committee to be eligible for
re-election who has not attended at least one-fourth of the Com-
mittee Meetings during his year of office. That the office of
President, or that of Vice-President, shall not be held by the same
person for more than two years in succession.


The Committee may from year to year appoint a Sectional
Committee as may be considered desirable to further original
investigations in any one or more departments of the Club's work.
Each Sectional Committee to be composed of six Members of the
dub, not less than two being Members of the Club's Committee.
No financial responsibility to be incurred by the Sub-Committ«e or
any Officer of the Club without the previous approval of the Club's
Committee. Any Sectional Committee may elect its own Chairman
and Secretary from iis Members.


That the Members . of the Club shall hold at least Six Field
Meetings during the year, in the most interesting localities, for
investigating the Natural History and Archeology of Ireland.
That the place of meeting be fixed by the Committee, and that
tive days' notice of each Excursion be communicated to Members
by the Secretaries


That Meetings be held Fortnightly or Monthly, at the discre-
tion of the Committee, for the purpose of reading papers; such
papers, as far as possible, to be original and to treat of the Natural
History and Archaeology of the district . These Meetings to be held
during the months from November to April inclusive.


That the Committee shall, if they find it advisable, offer for
competition Prizes for the best collections of scientific objects of
the district ; and the Committee may order the purchaee of maps,
or other scientific apparatus, and may carry on geological and

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524 [Proc. B.NJ'.C.,

archffiological searches or ezoavations, if deemed advisable, provided
thai the entire amount expended nnder this rule does not exceed
the sun of £10 in any one year.


That the Annual Meeting be held during the montJi of April,
when the Report of the Committee for the past year, and the
Treasurer's FHnancial Statement shall be presented, the Committee
and Officers elected, Bye-laws made and altered, and any proposed
alteration in the general laws, of which a fortnight's notice shall
have been given, in writing, to the Secretary or Secretaries,
considered and decided upon. The Secretaries to give the Members
due notice of each intended alteration.


Members of other Irish Field Clubs, residing temporarily or
permanently in or near Belfast, may be enrolled Members of the
Club without election or entrance fee on production of a voucher
of membership of another dub, and without subscription for the
current year, on production of a receipt showing that such sub-
scription has been paid to another dub. Failing the production
of euch receipt, the usual subscription for the current year to be
paid to the Treasurer on enrolment. The names of Members so
admitted to the dub to be published with the notice of meeting
following the dafte of their enrolment.


That, on the written requisition of twenty -five Members, de-
livered to the -Secretaries, an Extraordinary General Meeting may
be called, to consider and decide upon the subject mentioned in
such written requisition.


That the Committee may be empowered to exchange publica-
tions and reports, and to extend the privilege of attending the
Meetings and Excursions of the Belfast Naturalists* B^eld Club to
Members of kindred societies, on similar privileges being accorded
to its Members by such other societies.

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1906-1907.] 525


I. The ezcorsion to be open to all Members, each one to have
ihe privilege of introducing two friends.

II. A Chairman to be elected as at ordinary meeting*.

m. One of the Secretariei to act as Conductor, or, in the
absence of both, a member to be elected for that purpose.

IV. No change to be made in the programme, or extra expense
incurred, except by the consent of the majority of the Members

V. No fees, gratuities, or other expeneee to be paid except
through thje Conductor.

VI. Every Member or Visitor to have the accommodation
assigned by the Conductor. WJhere accommodation is limited,
consideration will be given to priority of application.

VII. Accommodation cannot be promised unless tickets are
obtained before the time mentioned in the special circular.

Vni. Those who attend an excursion without previous notice
will be liable to extra charge, if extra cost be incurred thereby.

IX. No intoxicating liquors to be provided at the expense of
ihe Club.

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526 CProc. B.N.P.C.,

£j:cbande0 of procee2)ind0«

Aberdeen Working-men's Natural History and Scientific

Tranfiactions, No. 5, 1905-1906.

Bath Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club.
Proceedings, Vol. XI., Part 1, 1906.

Belfast — Natural History and Philosophical Society.
Report of Proceedings, 1906-1906.

„ Ulster Journal of Archaeology.

Vol. XII., Parts 2, 3, 4. Vol. XIIL, Part 1.
Berlin — Helio Abhandlungen und Mitteilungen, 1905.
Berwickshire Naturalists' Club.

Proceedings, Vol. XIX., Part 2, 1904.

Brighton and Hove Natural History and Philosophical Society.

Annual Report and Abstracts of Papers, 1905.
Bristol Naturalists' Society.

Proceedings, Vol. I., Part 2, 1905.
Cardiff Naturalists' Society.

Report of Transactions, Vol. XXXVIII., 1904-5.
Dublin — Royal Irish Academy.

Proceedings, Section B, Vol. XXVI., Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
C, Vol. XXVI., Part« 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8, 9.

„ Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland.

Journal, Vol. XXXV., Part 4. Vol. XXXVI., Parts 1,

2, 3, 4.

Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian

Report, Vol. XVII., Parts 3, 4, 5.

Edinburgh Field Naturalists' and Microscopical Society.

Transactions, Vol. V., Parts 1, 2, 3.
Edinburgh — Botanical Society.

Transactions and Proceedings, Vol. XXIL, Parts 1 and 2.
„ Geological Society.

Transactions, Vol. Vm., Part 3.

Frankfort — Bericht der Senckinbergischen Naturforschenden.

Gesellschaft, 1905.
Glasgow Natural History Society.

Report and Proceedings, 1901 and 1902.
,y Philosophical Society.

Proceedings, Vol. XXXVII., 1906-1906.

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1906-1907.3 527

Hamilton Association.

Journal and Proceedings, 19(W-1906.

Hertfordshire Natural History and Field Club.
Transactions, Vol. XII., Parts 7, 8, 9.

Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club.

Transactions, Vol. III., Parts 3 and 4.

„ Public Library.

Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society.

83rd Annual Report, 1902 and 1903.
Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society, Geological Section.

Excursion to North-East of Ireland.

Leiden — Sgravenhage Rijks Enthographich Museum.
Report, 1905-1906.

Limerick — ^Journal of Field Club.

Vol. m.. Part 10.
Liverpool Geological Society.

Proceedings, Vol. X., Part 2.

„ Naturalists' Field Club.
Proceedings, 1905.

London — British Association for the Advancement of Science.
Report of the South Africa Meeting, 1905.

„ British Museum Publications.

Guide to Fossil Mammalia and Birds.

Economic Zoology, 1st and 2nd Report.

Blood-sucking Flies and How to Collect them.
Magdeburg Abhandlungen und Berichte, 1906.
Manchester Field Naturalists' and Archaeologists' Society.

Report and Proceedings, 1905.

„ Microscopical Society.

Transactions and Annual Report, 1905.

Marlborough College Natural History Society.
Report No. 54, 1905.

Montevideo — Museo Nacional.

Annals, Series 2, Parts 2 to 11.
„ Geograpfia Fisica y Esferica Del Paraguay.

Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society.

Transactions, Vol. VIII., Part 2, 1905-1906.

North Staffordshire Field Club.

Report and Transactions, VoL XL., 1905-1906.

Nottingham Naturalists' Society.

Report, 1905-1906.
Nova Scotian Institute of Science, St. John's, Nova Scotia.

Proceedings and Transactions, Vol. XI., Part 2, 1906-1906.

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528 fPro«- BJT.P.C.».

Perthshire Natural History Society.
Vol. IV., Part 3, 1906-1906.

Peru — Boletin del Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minas, Nos. 22, 23,.
27 to 46.

Stavanger 'Museum.

Aarstberetning fur 1905.
Toronto— Canadian Institute.

Tftmaactions, Vol. VIII., Part 1.

U.S.A. — Boston Society of Natural History.

Vol. XXXI., Parts 2 to 10; Vol. XXXTI., Parts 1 and 2.

„ Brooklyn — Institute of Arts and Science.

Cold Spring Harbour, Monographs Nos. 3, 4, and 6.

„ California — ^Academy of Sciences.

Geology, Vol. I., ParU 1 to 10; Vol. II., Part 1.
Botany, Vol. I., Parts 1 to 10; Vol. n., Parts 1 to U.
Behr Memorial.

„ Chapel Hill N.C.— Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society^

Journal, Vol. XXII., Parts 1, 2, 3, 4.
„ Chicago — Academy of Sciences.

Bulletin, IV.

U.S.A. — Chicago— Field Columbian Museum.

„ Cincinnati — ^Lloyd's Library.

Bulletin and Mycological Notes, No. 7, Part 4, 1903

„ New York — Academv of Sciences.

Annalfi, Vol. XVI., Part 3, 1905.
„ Philadelphia — Academy of Natural Sciences.

Proceedings, Vol. LVI., Parts 2, 3, 1904; Vol. LVU.^
Parts 1, 2, 1905.

„ Rochester Academy of Science.
Proceedings, Vol. IV., 1904-5.

„ Staten Island Natural Science Association.

Proceedings, Vol. IX., Parts 2 to 10.
„ St. Louis — ^Academy of Sciences.

Transactions, Vol. XIV., Parts 7, 8 ; Vol. XV., Parts 1 to 5^

„ Tufts College, Medford, Mass.
Studies, Vol. II., Part 1.

„ Washington — Government Printing Ofiices.

Detached Papers by various Authors (4).
„ Washington — Smithsonian Institute.

Annual Report, 1905-1906.
„ Wisconsin Geolop;ical and Natural History Survey.

Bulletins, No. 13.
Queensland — Annals of Museum, No. 6.

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1906 1907. J


Xi8t of riDcmbera

Any change in the Address of Members should be at once noticed
to the Secretaries by Post Card,

Ibon. Aembets.

Jones, Prof. T. R., F. R.S., Penbryn, Chesham Bois Lane, Chesham,

Jjapworth, Professor Charles, LL.D., FR.S., The University,

Plankett, Thomas, M R.I A., Enniskillen.

Correspon&tno roember.

Holdea, J, S , m.d., Sudbury, Suffolk.

Xtte /Dember.

Ewart. Sir W. Q., Bart., Gienmachan, Strandtown.

©rbtnari? /Dembera.

Abraham, J. T., 47 South

Abraham, Mis. J. T., 47 South

Adams, John J., M.D., Ash-
ville, Antrim.

Adams, Rev. W. A., B.A.,

Agnew, Miss Jean, 120, Dun-
cairn Gardens

AJlJbon, George H, 19 Sliort

AJlingham, R., 30 North St.

Anderson, Sir Robert, J.P.,
Donegall Place.

Anderson, Thomas, Embleton,
Osborne Park.

Andrew, J. J., L.D.S., Univer-
sity Square.

Andrews, Miss, 12 College

Andrews, Miss M. K., 12 Col-
le^^ Gardens.

Bailie, Richard, 6, Jubilee

BarkL^y, Jamts M., 24, Wel-

lingUn Place.
Barrett, J. H., Holy wood.
Baxter, James, Midland Rail-
way Co.
Beattie, R^v. A. H., Pori-

Beck, Miss, 2 Osborne Terract^,

Beck Mias Emma, Hampton

Terrace, Rugby Road.
Bell, Dr. Elizabeth, 83 Great

Victoria Street.
Bell, Robert, 64 Xewington

A venue.
Bell, E. George, Bellevue, Lur-

Berry, Major R. G., M.R.I. a..

Army Service Corps, Vic!

toria Barracks.

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[Proc. B.N.P.CJ.,

Best, James, 2 Wellington

Bigger, Francis J., M.R.I. A.,
Anirie, Antrim Road.

Blackwood, Miss S., 90, Eg-
lantine Avenue.

Blackwood, W. B., 30 Elm-
wood Avenue.

Blair, Mrs., Fernlea, Glenburn

Blair, Edward S., Rusheen,

Glenbum Park.
Blair, Mrs. Edward S., Rusheen,
Glenbuim Park.

Boyce, Joseph, 29 India Street.

Boyd, J. St. Clair, M.D., Chats-
worth, Malone Road.

Boyd, J. St. Clair, Jun., Chats-
worth, Malone Road.

Boyd, Miss, The Laurels, Cul-
tra, Holywood.

Boyd, W. C, Hazelbank Villa,
Ravenscroft Avenue.

Boyd, (ieorge A., 3 Willow-
kink Gardens, Antrim Rd.

Bradford, Samuel, Cherry-
valley, Knock.

Braithwaite, W. T., Dublin

Braaidon, Hugh B., 2 Welling-
ton Place.

Brenan, Rev. S. A., B.A.,
Strand House, Cushendun.

Brett, Sir Charles H., Gretton
Villa South.

Brifitow, Ven. Archdeacon, St.
James' Rectory.

Brothers, H. E., Annsville,
Glenbiirn Park.

Brothers, Mrs. H. E., Anns-
ville, Glenbum Park.

Brown, Jolm, F.R.S., Long-
hurtst, Dunmurry,

Brown, Thomas, 102 Donegall

Browne, W. J., M.A., Temple-
more Park, Londonderry.

Bruce, Mrs., Thomly, Holy-

Bulla, Charles, 21 Maryville

Bitt-gess, Mrs.

Burrows, W. B., Ballynafeigh

Caiwell, John Y., Woodlawn,

Campbell, D. C, Templemore
Park, Londonderry.

Campbell, Wm. M., 34, Eglan-
tine Avenue.

Carmody, Rev. W. P., Carrow-
dore, Donaghadee.

Carrothers, Nathaniel, 146
Stranmillie Road.

Carson, J. C, 8 Wellington

Carson, John, Walmer Terrace,

Cheyne, H. H., Roseneath,

Christen, Madame, St. Imier,
Brig o' Gaim, Ballater,

Christian, W. M., 278 Ormeau

Christy, William, 81 Enfield St.

Clarke, Mrs. John, Lindisfame,

Cleland, Alex. M*I., Macedon,
Green Road, Knock.

Cleland, Mni. Annie, Macedon,
Green Road, Knock.

Cleland, James A., Bemagh.
West, ^lalone Park.

aeland, W. W., 66, Wellington

Cochrane, Robert, M.R.LA., 17
Highfield Road, Dublin.

Cocking, Miss C. E., Martin-
bank, Huddersfield.

Cocking, Miss M. A., Martin-
bank, Huddersfield.

Coleman, J., 2 Roeehill Ter-
race, Queenstown.

Ooetigan, William, 4 Great Vic-
toria Street.

Cotter, *" Robert, 3 Lanriene
Terrace *

Cotter, J. S., B.A., 25 Soiith

Cottney, John, Clogher, Hills-

Coulter, Mrs., Bangor.

Coulter, George B., Donegall

Courvoisier, Mrs., 4 W'indeor

Courvoisier, Miss Y., 4 Windsor

Online LibraryBelfast Naturalists' Field ClubAnnual report and proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club → online text (page 43 of 44)