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vour and the brave Roumanians y as the Crown
Prince, of sacred memory, once called them, will
again fulfil their duty honourably and loyally.

The Roumanians are proving once agam that
they are a perennial source of energy for the
dual Monarchy, upon which the Monarchy can
always count. There never was a traitor among
them and never will be".

M. Basil Goldis, formerly M. P. and a leader of
the nationalist party,at present headof religiousaft.iirs
and education in the ConsiliulDirigent atNagyszeben,
made the following declaration on Nov. 14, 1 »14
in the daily paper Romanul appearing at And:

"We must declare that, even when fighting in
lawful manner and with lawful weapons for the
safeguarding of our nationality and tor the possi-
bility of unimpeded political and economic deve-
lopment, we nevertheless always keep in mind that
there exist common interests between the Magyar
and Roumanian people and we are fully aware of
the great irtiportance of the Roumanian people in the
dual Monarchy. This is why the Roum.anian natio-
nalist party is convinced that it will not be diffi-
cult to lay open to the leading factors of the Mo-
narchy the rightful and patriotic tendency of its
nationalist program and so to settle the conflict
existing ever since 1867, the commencement of the
Constitutional Era, between the point of view of the
Hungarian Government and the necessities of life
of the Roumanians".

These patriotic proclamations of the leaders of
the Roumanians are backed by the whole educated
class. Every opportunity is seized for solemn decla-
rations of loyality, of patriotic feeling and (A' ro.-idi-
ness to help.

28 B. Jancsd

Headed by the lawyer, Justinian Pop, the Rou-
manians of Deva appeared before the deputy-prefect
of the county August 2, 1914, and on the part of the
Roumanians of county Hunyad presented a declara-
tion of io3^alty, begging him to forward it to Govern-
ment. This declaration contains a statement of eter-
nal loyalty and patriotism. Stress is laid on the fact
that now, in this most critical moment, all disputes
arising from the constitutional struggle are put aside.
All causes of disagreament are declared to have dis-
solved in the flame of patriotic enthusiasm. They all
declare solemnly their readinness for the utmost sacri-
fices so as to promote by all means a victorious
result, and to prove once more the fidelity of
the Roumanian people towards the crown and the
country. It is further on declared that the Rouma-
nians of HuQgary simply fulfil their duty when
rising to defend Hungary's King and their common
country. They desire to prove that they love their
country just as much as the Hungarians. If anyone
attempts to violate the territory of the country
they will find themselves face to face with the
Roumanians, ready to shed the last drop of their
blood in her defence.

Basil Osvada, the director of a bank at Vajda-
hunyad, declared at the same time in a public
speech that "the Roumanians conduct themselves
with the greatest possible patriotism and loyalty
in this war and are ready to shed their verj'^ last
drop of blood for the common country".

The lawyer Victor Popu delivered a declaration
bearing 42 signatures of the Roumanians living in that
district to the chief magistrate of the hundred of Puj
on the second of August, and the chief magistrate of
the hundred was requested to "inform his superiors
that the Roumanian educated classes in the district
are absolntly decided to help the Roumanian po-
pulation in fulfilling their duty towards their mother
country and their King. Joyfully the Roumanians put
their lives and their fortunes at the disposal of

Hung ary and Roumania 29

their country, for at this moment but one wish fills
the heart of every Roumanian, this being that the
crown of St. Stephen should triumph over its foes*.

In the county of Zilah, on the very same day,
a deputation led by Alexander Sotie, Greek Catho-
lic vicar, waited upon the Piefect of the county
and brought to his knowledge that "in these days
of supreme need the Roumanians of the county
consider it their duty to declare their sympathy
with the Hungarians and ask that the Government
be solemnly informed of the fidelity of the Rouma-
nians towards their ruler and of their readiness to
sacrifice everything on the altai of their country.
This is already proved by the readiness to take
up arms."

At the meeting of the General Assembly of county
Temes of Oct. 14, 1914, the Prefect moved the
proposition that the council should inform the So-
vereign that its members not only adhere loy-
ally to the Throne but are, without difference
of nationality or denomination, ready to make
the utmost moral and material sacrifices so as to
insure a victorous ending of the war. After this
proposal Aurelius Comsa, a leading member in the
county ot the Roumanian nationalist party, rose to
speak and declared that when the common country
was in danger, the unity existing between the
different nationalities always increased. The enthu-
siasm with which the Roumanian youths in the
hour of danger answered the summon to arms,
rivalling in this with the other nationnlities of the
country, shows best their patriotism and readiness
for all sacrifice. This occasion has again proved
the Roumanians to be the very truest sons of the
country and most loyal subjects of the dynasty.

On August 5, 1914 a deputation of Orthodox Greek
priests and teachers led by Dean Daian (Greek
Catholic) appeared before the royal commissioner
at Kolozsvar and asked him to notify to the Govern-
ment their declaration of loyalty. The speaker of the

30 B. Jancsd

deputation declared that the leaders of the Rouma-
niau people of the county are not only doing
their utmost to uphold the loyalty and the patriot-
ism of their fellow countrymen but are all ready to
sacrifice their lives for their country and their King.

At Gryulafehervdr also a deputation appeared be-
fore the prefect of the county and the leader Tecu-
lescu, a Grreek Oriental dean of Roumanian natio-
nality, asked that the prefect should inform the
Government of their loyal feelings.

But not only the larger towns and the centres
of counties or hundreds were scenes of patriotic
demonstrations; such occurred in many out-of-the-
way places where the Roumanians rivalled even
the Hungarians in love of their country.

The Magyar, Roumanian and Saxon inhabitants
of the village Teke (county Kolozs) arranged on
July 31 a demonstration, in which the priests of
all denominations represented read the Manifesto of
the King to his people on the occasion of the war
breaking out and, rousing by speeches the enthu-
siasm of the hearers, they declared it to be the
duty of every one, without difference of nationa-
lity, to unite and to defend the throne and their
common county. The same scene repeated itself a
few days after at the meeting of the Roumanian
Cultural League in the village M6cs.

Thus patriotism showed itself in an imposing man-
ner all over the country where the Roumanians
lived, thus proving that at the outbreak of the war
enthusiasm seized the Roumanians just in the
same manner as it did all the other nationalities
living in Hungary.

The patriotic Roumanian press, especially the
official gazette of the Roumanian national party,
the Bomanul, wrote in a similarly enthusiastic

The Roumanian papers busied themselves with
particular pleasure with recording the heroism of
the troops of Roumanian nationality, aiming not

Hungary and Roumania 31


only to make it clear before the Roumanian people,
that their sons fought with a heroism deserving
every recognition, but also that their attitude was
by far superior to that of the Hungarian soldiers
fighting together with them and therefore, if the
Monarchy's Army should come victoriously out of
the war, the Roumanian soldier would have a
much greater merit in it than the Hungarian soldier.

"Look — writes the Romanul in an article on
the 28-th July 1914, entitled "Soldatul roman" —
how they rushed to their garrisons on the very
day, when at dawn the drums brought the marching
order of the Emperor. With what strong determina-
tion did they tear themselves from their wives,
who clasped their arms aroviiid their necks. How
gaily did they, by singing and dancing, shorten
the road leading from their native villages, the
road which led them into a foreign country
poisoned by hate, where only cartridges awaited
them. Who fears death? Nobody in the Rouma-
nian villages knows of a single deserter".

The same paper on August 7*^, in an article
entitled "Ostasul Roman" gives a vivid account
of the enthusiasm of Roumanian youths joining
their colours. The article was inspired by a speech
of Mgr. Radu, Greek Catholic bishof of Nagyvarad,
delivered to the soldiers starting for the field of
battle from that town.

In an article: "Vitejia romanesca" ihe Romanul
mentions with pride the great appreciation of the
Austrian-German and Hungarian papers show for
the heroism of the troops of Roumanian nationality
on the Galician front. In its number of the 2(3''^
of September it refers to the declaration of Roda
Roda, the war correspondent of the "Neue Freie
Presse", about the bravery of the Roumanian
soldiers in the actions at Grodek and about the
brotherly feelings existing between them and their
Hungarian comrades. On the 8*'' October in an
article entitled "Ostesul roman*, it reproduces an

32 B. J a ncs 6

article of the "Pester Lloyd" which mentions the
bravery of the soldiers of Roumanian nationality
during the fight in Galicia.

The same Romanul repeats on the 14^^^ Sep-
tember 1914 the following utterance of the regi-
mental surgeon Ozako (a Hungarian) who served
in the Bruderman Army, about the behaviour of
the soldiers of Roumanian nationality: "I saw the
wonderful attacks of our Hussars and the rush
of the Hungarian infantry, but what the Honved
regiment of Deva, composed purely of men of Rouma-
nian nationality, accomplished surpasses all efibrts of
imagination. I cannot describe it, for nobody would
believe it. The officers could not keep them back.
The mocz (mountaineers) rushed like tigers upon
the enemy and destroyed them with their bayonets,
with the butt end of their rifles or even with their
bare hands. I could never have imagined men
fighting with such enthusiasm and such valour."

In its issue of the 14*^ December, 1914 the
Romcmul publishes a letter from Major Georg^e
Flesarm of the Austro-Hungarian Army, himself
of Roumanian nationality, saying the following
about the heroism of the Roumanians : ;,The well-
known heroism of the Roumanians is insur-
pas sable, I too am proud of it." In its issue
of December 22 Major Barbini writes with great
acknowledgement of the courage of the 33.
Inf.-Rgmt. of Arad, composed of men of Rou-
manian nationality. In its number of the 31*^ De-
cember it publishes a declaration of the Archduke
Frederick, Commander in Chief of the Austro-Hun-
garian Army, about the behaviour of the Inf.-
Rgmt of Nagyszebeu, whose men were nearly all
Roumanians, at the battle of Prizdborg. "It was
wonderful what the men of the 31. Rgmt. ac-
complished. According to the reports presented to
me a single batallion of this Regiment, under the
leadership of a lieutenant, took Prizdborg by
storm." '

Hungary and Roumania 33

In its issue of January 5, 1915, the Romanul
reproduces a letter from a lawyer and officer
of the reserve, published in the Naqyvdrad^
who writes, that the commanding general, an old
Austrian soldier, had tears of joy in his eyes, when
he saw the men of Roumanian nationality of the
Militia-Rgmt: of Lugos attacking in Servia. An
Austrian Lieutenant-Colonel said the following:
"These militiamen are ideal soldiers. They have
now been three days in service without grumbUng,
and make astounding marches."

Basil Goldis, at present head of the office for
religious and educational afifairs of the Conziliul
Dirigent at Nagyszeben writes in the Romanul in
its issue of January 7. 1915, under the heading
of "Priu moarte la viata" (Through death to life) the
following: "The hour of sufiering has returned
Roumanian youth, at the call of the Emperor, fling
itself into the murderous fire. The blood, lost by
traditional heroism, will save the Throne and the
Country. The sacrifice graciously received by Heaven
will save our Roumanian race also."

But not only on the front did the Roumanians
of Hungary take a great share in supporting their
country; at home they did their best and, according
to their pecuniary abilities, made every sacrifice in
economic matters. The Roumanian press urged them
to this financial sacrifice just as well as it urged
them to fulfil their duty in the line of fire. At the
time of the issue of the first War loan the
Romanul in its issue of November 7. 1914
under the heading "Bancile si imprumutul de
rAsboi" (The Banks and the War-loan) says :
The result of the subscription ought to be the
thermometer of the public enthusiasm. We do
not doubt, that they will soon perceive abroad
the solidarity which unites every subject of this
country in these hard times . . . We Roumanians

22—24. 3

34 B. Janes 6

shall, according to our economic forces, fulfil our
duty to such an extent as will astonish our

The same paper writes from Kardnsebes that
the readiness to suscribe the War-loan is great. The
former "Bansdgi vagyonkozosseg* (Co-proprietors of
the Banat),the bench of bishops of the Orthodox Greek
Church, and private people suscribed fair amounts.
The gymnasium at Karansebes — mostly Roumanian
youths, all children of poor labourers, collected
2000 crowns for the war-loan, those of the VIII
class bought a share of the 100 Crowns Bonds,
which they offered as a patriotic donation to their
school. The Directors of the school bought war-
loans for 8000 crowns out of the school-funds.
The teachers subscribed separately.

The Roumanians therefore behaved in everything
just as the Hungarians or, with few exceptions,
like every true son of his country. True, there
were some exceptions who, contrary to the totality
of the Roumanians, took a different view of the
war. There were some amongst the leading men
of the Roumanian national party, who fled to
Roumania to take part in tha agitations against
the Monarchy. Ladislas Lucaciu and Octavian
Ooga belonged to these. But what the Roumanians
themselves thought about these exceptions may be
illustrated by the following quotation.

The Liga CuUurala of Bukarest held an as-
sembly on Dec. 29. 1914, where it was decided to
change its name and the purposes it followed till
that date. Up till now it fought only for the culttiral
union of the Roumanian race, henceforth it will
fight for its political union. By this the Liga Cul-
turala took its stand on the basis of irre-
dentism, until then, repudiated, and subsequently
it ranged itself among those social organisations
which, since the outbreak of the World-war,

H uyigary and Ro u mania '_ 35

endeavoured to *^ain the public of Roumania for
tlie idea of war against Austria-Hungary, and thus
induce the Government of Roumania to declare war,
and all this is in the interest of Greater Roumania,
whose boundaries should extend to the river Tisza.
To show that the Roumanians of Hungary were
in accordance with them, they elected Ladislas
l.ucaciu and Octavian Goga as members of the
Directing Committee on Jan 3. 1915. The official
paper of the Roumanian national party, the '^Ro-
manul'" informed the Liga Culturala as well as
Lucaciu and Goga, of its view of the case, writing
as follows:

"It was always the principle of the Roumanians
of Hungary never to interfere in the affairs of Rou-
mania, but they also expected that Roumania should
not interfere with those of the Roumanians of Hun-
gary. Whenever they tried to do this, they always
brought trouble upon the aspirations of Hungary's
Roumanians, Roumania may follow the foreign policy
that suits her, she will be responsible for it, but it
is our duty to inform our brothers of Roumania
of our thoughts and feelings regarding the Euro-
pean conflagration, so that they may not be mis-
taken in their calculations about this matter. Regard-
ing events in the Liga culturala we consider
it our duty most earnestly to affirm that the Rou-
manians of Hungary will under all circumstances
be faithful to their country and to the glorious
dynasty of the Habsburgs".

"Faithful to the throne and country, hundreds
of thousands of Roumanian soldiers have shed
their blood with acknowledged heroism. This
heroism and patriotic attitude is the only lode-star
of the Roumanians of Hungary that can guide
them and their leaders in their actions and prin-
ciples. These bloody sacrifices show that it is their
firm conviction, born of the national instinct of
self-preservation, that the only real danger mena-
cing their national existence is Slavism. If our


36 B. Jancsd

brothers of Roumania think otherwise, it is their
affair. But it is not Lucaciu's or Goga's busi-
ness to make politics for the Roumanians of Hun-,
gary. If they are desirous to take part in political
actions and propaganda in Roumania they ought
first to expatriate themselves and to declare that
they will no more take official part in the politics
of the Roumanians of Hungary. These must make
their own politics, by themselves and at home,
and if anyone wishes to direct them in whatever
way, he must stand at the head of this people and
be responsible for it and before them. The Com-
mittee of the Roumanian national party cannot
represent any other policy than the totality of the
Roumanians of Hungary are making, having pro-
fusely shed their blood for the throne and country.
We are convinced that Messrs. Lucaciu and Goga
have already found time to send in their, resignations
to the President of the Committee*.

This stand-point was held by the Roumanians
even when Roumania, to, accomplish her national
ideal. Greater Roumania, on the 28^^^ of August 1916
declared war on the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy^
who had been her ally for 35 years.

On the 21^* of September 1916 the Roumanian
Orthodox Greek bishops, by name : John Pap of
Arad, Michael Christea of Kardnsebes and Basil
Mangra, vicar of the bishopric of Nagyvarad, sent
the following pastoral epistle to their respective
congregations :

*To our great sorrow Roumania has not kept
her promise of loyalty, has treacherously broken the
seals of the Alliance and has seized arms against
her brothers who have been fighting for two
years with incredible heroism a fight for life and
death against the enemies of the Monarchy. Those
who cross our frontiers with cunning words on their
lips and with the intention to rob in their hearts,

Hungary and Roumnnia I 37

are not our brothers, but our most insidious ene-
mies, who, to satisfy their savage greed, kill their
children and pjirents. Yes, our brothers of yester-
day are, because of their godless greed, to-day
our greatest and most abominable enemies. The
voice ot blood and nature's law constrain us to
mercilessly oppose them".

Diimetrius Badiiy Greek Catholic Bishop of Nagy-
varad. having received his invitation to the sitting
of tlfe Upper House too late to attend, sent on
the 3'"'* of September 1916 the following telegram
to the President of that assembly:

"l very much regret that having been absent
from my residence it was only to-night I received
the invitaiion to the session of the Upper House
to-morrow, and the shortness of time makes my
])resence there impossible and prevents me from
expressing, in the face of recent events causing us
such deep sorrow, in my own name, in the name
of my priests and the whole of my diocese in
accordance to our patriotic feelings, our unalter-
able faith and devoti%n to the high Throne, the
glorious Dynasty and the Holy Crown of Hun-

Two days later, on September 5. one of the
leading men of the Roumanian national party in
Hungary, Stephen C. Pop — at present Minister
for Transylvania in the Government of Bucarest —
made, in the name of the above mentioned party,
and empowered by it, the following declaration of
loyalty :

"It is with profound surprise we have heard that
our neighbour Roumania has joined the ranks of
our enemies. We are astonished, for we should ne-
ver have thought it possible that Roumania sh(mld
turn against the Monarchy, in which several mil-
lions of Roumanians live as loyal subject? enjoying
the greatest prosperity under the rule of the glo-
rious Habsburg Dynasty. We conceived it impossible
that Roumania should ally herself with that Russian

38 [ B. Jancs 6

Empire, which menaces mostly the existence of
the Roumanian race, for just Roiimania's history
gives proof of Russia's ingratitude and perfidy for
a thousand years.

"The Roumanian population of Hungary has for
a thousand years worked in a brotherly manner
together with the Magyars, to defend the country
against evjery external enemy, and as everybody ack-
nowledges in the present war also, the Roumanian
soldiers by their bravery have given proof, of their
fidelity to the country and the throne.

"Those who stayed at home united with the Ma-
gyars in making every necessary sacrifice, so as
to ensure the victory of the army. The loyalty of
Hungary's Roumanian-speaking population and the
love of its country never can be vanquished. Even
the unexpected declaration of war on the part of
the Roumanian Kingdom cannot alter this. Hun-
gary's Roumanians will continue to defend their
country and the apostolic throne against every
attack, wherever it may come from.

"This I considered it my duty to declare, not as
if it were possible for anyone within the Monarchy
to doubt the fidelity of the Roumanians, but because
I consider it necessary to make this fact clear to
the minds of those in authority in foreign countries
who seem to have supposed that in this new phase
of the Great War, the loyalty of Hungary's Rou-
manians might waver for a moment. I beg the
Honourable House to take due notice of this decla-

In a Note presented to the President of the
United States at the beginning of 1917, the Entente
Powers declared the liberation of various nationa-
lities living under a foreign yoke to be the aim
of the war. This, however, the Roumanians
living in Hungary interpreted as an interference
in their own affairs and, far from agreeing,
they presented to the Prime Minister a solemn

Hungary and Roumania 39

declaration, which they desired should be submit-
ted to the Sovereign.

This declaration bears the signature of all the
Roumanian bishops of both Greek denominations,
dignitaries of the Greek Churches, archdeacons,
canons and deans, professors, the most esteemed
leaders of the Roumanian educated classes, etc. and
besides these there figures also the name of Theo-
dore Mihali, vice-president of the Roumanian nation-
alist party. Altogether a hundred and eighty of the
most notable Roumanians signed this declaration.

''Since the Note addressed by the Allied States
to the President of the United States — so runs
this protest — mentions among the objects of the
war the deliverance of some nationalities, the Rouma-
nians among others, from a foreign rule, the Entente
is ^vorking against the integrity of our country.

*We, the leaders and representatives of all Rou-
manians living in Hungary, in the name of our
people, raise a solemn protest against being consi-
dered by anyone as living under a foreign' yoke.
We Roumanians are free citizens of Hungary and
citizens endowed with perfectly equal rights. There
exists in Hungary not a single law that recognises
any difference between the rights and the duties of
the Magyar and non-Magyar populations.

"For centuries the Roumanian population has
clung with love and fidelity to this country, hallowed
by the blood of their ancestors. The loyalty towards
the anointed monarch and the fidelity towards the
royal family are old Roumanian virtues. Imbued
with such feelings, we have fought for a thousand
years together with the Magyars for the defence of
the Holy Crown, and the fact that our youth is doing
the same and that its blood is shed in torrents today,
proves that we remain unchanged and our enthu-
siasm makes us ready for every sacrifice. The em-
pire of the Crown of Saint Stepen is not a foreign
yoke to us. We do not need to be delivered, we

40 B. Jancsd

adhere to the integrity of our Hungarian Father-

** This decided point of view of ours is not the

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