Benjamin Brawley.

A Social History of the American Negro Being a History of the Negro Problem in the United States. Including A History and Study of the Republic of Liberia online

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man - Negro or otherwise - is a criminal, he is an enemy of society, and
society demands that he be placed where he will do the least harm. If
execution is necessary, this should take place in private; and in no
case should the criminal be so handled as to corrupt the morals or
arouse the morbid sensibilities of the populace. At the same time simple
patriotism would demand that by uplifting home surroundings, good
schools, and wholesome recreation everything possible be done for Negro
children as for other children of the Republic, so that just as few of
them as possible may graduate into the criminal class.

Another matter, closely akin to this, is that of the astonishing lust
for torture that more and more is actuating the American people. When in
1835 McIntosh was burned in St. Louis for the murder of an officer, the
American people stood aghast, and Abraham Lincoln, just coming into
local prominence, spoke as if the very foundations of the young republic
had been shaken. After the Civil War, however, horrible lynchings became
frequent; and within the last decade we have seen a Negro boy stabbed in
numberless places while on his way to the stake, we have seen the eyes
of a Negro man burned out with hot irons and pieces of his flesh cut
off, and a Negro woman - whose only offense was a word of protest against
the lynching of her husband - while in the state of advanced pregnancy
hanged head downwards, her clothing burned from her body, and herself so
disemboweled that her unborn babe fell to the ground. We submit that
any citizens who commit such deeds as these are deserving of the most
serious concern of their country; and when they bring their little
children to behold their acts - when baby fingers handle mutilated flesh
and baby eyes behold such pictures as we have suggested - a crime has
been committed against the very name of childhood. Most frequently it
will be found that the men who do these things have had only the most
meager educational advantages, and that generally - but not always - they
live in remote communities, away from centers of enlightenment, so that
their whole course of life is such as to cultivate provincialism. With
not the slightest touch of irony whatever we suggest that these men need
a crusade of education in books and in the fundamental obligations of
citizenship. At present their ignorance, their prejudice, and their lack
of moral sense constitute a national menace.

It is full time to pause. We have already gone too far. The Negro
problem is only an index to the ills of society in America. In our haste
to get rich or to meet new conditions we are in danger of losing all of
our old standards of conduct, of training, and of morality. Our courts
need to summon a new respect for themselves. The average citizen knows
only this about them, that he wants to keep away from them. So far we
have not been assured of justice. The poor man has not stood an equal
chance with the rich, nor the black with the white. Money has been
freely used, even for the changing of laws if need be; and the
sentencing of a man of means generally means only that he will have a
new trial. The murders in any American city average each year fifteen or
twenty times as many as in an English or French city of the same size.
Our churches need a new baptism; they have lost the faith. The same
principle applies in our home-life, in education, in literature. The
family altar is almost extinct; learning is more easy than sound; and
in literature as in other forms of art any passing fad is able to gain
followers and pose as worthy achievement. All along the line we need
more uprightness - more strength. Even when a man has committed a crime,
he must receive justice in court. Within recent years we have heard too
much about "speedy trials," which are often nothing more than legalized
lynchings. If it has been decreed that a man is to wait for a trial one
week or one year, the mob has nothing to do with the matter, and, if
need be, all the soldiery of the United States must be called forth to
prevent the storming of a jail. Fortunately the last few years have
shown us several sheriffs who had this conception of their duty.

In the last analysis this may mean that more responsibility and more
force will have to be lodged in the Federal Government. Within recent
years the dignity of the United States has been seriously impaired.
The time seems now to have come when the Government must make a new
assertion of its integrity and its authority. No power in the country
can be stronger than that of the United States of America.

For the time being, then, this is what we need - a stern adherence to
law. If men will not be good, they must at least be made to behave. No
one will pretend, however, that an adjustment on such a basis is finally
satisfactory. Above the law of the state - above all law of man - is the
law of God. It was given at Sinai thousands of years ago. It received
new meaning at Calvary. To it we must all yet come. The way may be hard,
and in the strife of the present the time may seem far distant; but some
day the Messiah will reign and man to man the world over shall brothers
be "for a' that."


Unless an adequate volume is to be devoted to the work, any bibliography
of the history of the Negro Problem in the United States must be
selective. No comprehensive work is in existence. Importance attaches to
_Select List of References on the Negro Question_, compiled under the
direction of A.P.C. Griffin, Library of Congress, Washington, 1903; _A
Select Bibliography of the Negro American_, edited by W.E.B. DuBois,
Atlanta, 1905, and _The Negro Problem: a Bibliography_, edited by Vera
Sieg, Free Library Commission, Madison, Wis., 1908; but all such lists
have to be supplemented for more recent years. Compilations on the
Abolition Movement, the early education of the Negro, and the literary
and artistic production of the race are to be found respectively in
Hart's _Slavery and Abolition_, Woodson's _The Education of the Negro
prior to 1861_, and Brawley's _The Negro in Literature and Art_, and the
_Journal of Negro History_ is constantly suggestive of good material.

The bibliography that follows is confined to the main question. First of
all are given general references, and then follows a list of individual
authors and books. Finally, there are special lists on topics on which
the study in the present work is most intensive. In a few instances
books that are superficial in method or prejudiced in tone have been
mentioned as it has seemed necessary to try to consider all shades of
opinion even if the expression was not always adequate. On the other
hand, not every source mentioned in the footnotes is included, for
sometimes these references are merely incidental; and especially does
this apply in the case of lectures or magazine articles, some of which
were later included in books. Nor is there any reference to works of
fiction. These are frequently important, and books of unusual interest
are sometimes considered in the body of the work; but in such a study as
the present imaginative literature can be hardly more than a secondary
and a debatable source of information.


I. General References

(Mainly in Collections, Sets, or Series)

Statutes at Large, being a Collection of all the Laws of Virginia from
the first session of the Legislature, in the year 1619, by William
Waller Hening. Richmond, 1819-20.

Laws of the State of North Carolina, compiled by Henry Potter, J.L.
Taylor, and Bart. Yancey. Raleigh, 1821.

The Statutes at Large of South Carolina, edited by Thomas Cooper.
Columbia, 1837.

The Pro-Slavery Argument (as maintained by the most distinguished
writers of the Southern states). Charleston, 1852.

Files of such publications as Niles's _Weekly Register_, the _Genius
of Universal Emancipation_, the _Liberator_, and DeBow's _Commercial
Review_, in the period before the Civil War; and of the _Crisis_,
the _Journal of Negro History_, the _Negro Year-Book_, the _Virginia
Magazine of History_, the _Review of Reviews_, the _Literary Digest_,
the _Independent_, the _Outlook_, as well as representative newspapers
North and South and weekly Negro newspapers in later years.

Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science
(some numbers important for the present work noted below).

Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law edited by the Faculty of
Political Science of Columbia University (some numbers important for the
present work noted below).

Atlanta University Studies of Negro Problems (for unusually important
numbers note DuBois, editor, below, also Bigham).

Occasional Papers of the American Negro Academy (especially note
Cromwell in special list No. 1 below and Grimké in No. 3).

Census Reports of the United States; also Publications of the Bureau of

Annual Reports of the General Education Board, the John F. Slater Fund,
the Jeanes Fund; reports and pamphlets issued by American Missionary
Association, American Baptist Home Mission Society, Freedmen's Aid
Society, etc.; catalogues of representative educational institutions;
and a volume "From Servitude to Service" (the Old South lectures on
representative educational institutions for the Negro), Boston, 1905.

Pamphlets and reports of National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People, the National Urban League, the Southern Sociological
Congress, the University Commission on Southern Race Questions, Hampton
Conference reports, 1897-1907, and Proceedings of the National Negro
Business League, annual since 1900.

The American Nation: A History from Original Sources by Associated
Scholars, edited by Albert Bushnell Hart. 27 vols. Harper & Bros., New
York, 1907. (Volumes important for the present work specially noted

The Chronicles of America. A Series of Historical Narratives edited
by Allen Johnson. 50 vols. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1918 - .
(Volumes important for the present work specially noted below.)

The South in the Building of the Nation. 12 vols. The Southern
Publication Society. Richmond, Va., 1909.

Studies in Southern History and Politics. Columbia University Press, New
York, 1914.

New International and Americana Encyclopedias (especially on such topics
as Africa, the Negro, and Negro Education).


(Note pamphlets at end of list; also special lists under III below.)

Adams, Alice Dana: The Neglected Period of Anti-Slavery in
America (1808-1831), Radcliffe College Monograph No. 14.
Boston, 1908 (now handled by Harvard University Press).

Adams, Henry: History of the United States from 1801 to 1817. 9
vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1889-90.

Alexander, William T.: History of the Colored Race in America.
Palmetto Publishing Co., New Orleans, 1887.

Armistead, Wilson: A Tribute for the Negro, being a Vindication
of the Moral, Intellectual, and Religious Capabilities of the Colored
Portion of Mankind, with particular reference to the African
race, illustrated by numerous biographical sketches, facts,
anecdotes, etc., and many superior portraits and engravings.
Manchester, 1848.

Baker, Ray Stannard: Following the Color Line. Doubleday, Page
& Co., New York, 1908.

Ballagh, James Curtis: A History of Slavery in Virginia. Johns
Hopkins Studies, extra volume 24. Baltimore, 1902.

White Servitude in the Colony of Virginia. Johns Hopkins Studies,
Thirteenth Series, Nos. 6 and 7. Baltimore, 1895.

Bassett, John Spencer: Anti-Slavery Leaders of North Carolina.
Sixth Series, No. 6. Baltimore, 1898.

Slavery and Servitude in the Colony of North Carolina. Johns Hopkins
Studies, Fourteenth Series, Nos. 4 and 5. Baltimore, 1896.

Slavery in the State of North Carolina. Johns Hopkins Studies, XIV:
179; XVII: 323.

Bigham, John Alvin (editor): Select Discussions of Race Problems,
No. 20, of Atlanta University Publications. Atlanta, 1916.

Birney, William: James G. Birney and His Times. D. Appleton &
Co., New York, 1890.

Blake, W.O.: The History of Slavery and the Slave-Trade. Columbus,
O., 1861.

Blyden, Edward W.: Christianity, Islam, and the Negro Race. London,

Bogart, Ernest Ludlow: The Economic History of the United States.
Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1918 edition.

Bourne, Edward Gaylord: Spain in America, 1450-1580. Vol. 3 of
American Nation Series.

Brackett, Jeffrey Richardson: The Negro in Maryland: A Study of
the Institution of Slavery. Johns Hopkins Studies, extra volume
6. Baltimore, 1889.

Bradford, Sarah H.: Harriet, the Moses of Her People. New York,

Brawley, Benjamin: A Short History of the American Negro. The
Macmillan Co., New York, 1913, revised 1919.

History of Morehouse College. Atlanta, 1917.

The Negro in Literature and Art. Duffield & Co., New York, 1918.

Your Negro Neighbor (in Our National Problems series). The
Macmillan Co., New York, 1918.

Africa and the War. Duffield & Co., New York, 1918.

Women of Achievement (written for the Fireside Schools under
the auspices of the Woman's American Baptist Home Mission
Society). Chicago and New York, 1919.

Brawley, Edward M.: The Negro Baptist Pulpit. American Baptist
Publication Society, Philadelphia, 1890.

Bruce, Philip Alexander: Economic History of Virginia in the
Seventeenth Century. 2 vols. The Macmillan Co., New York,

Cable, George Washington: The Negro Question. Charles Scribner's
Sons, New York, 1890.

Calhoun, William Patrick: The Caucasian and the Negro in the
United States. R.L. Bryan Co., Columbia, S. C, 1902.

Chamberlain, D.H.: Present Phases of Our So-Called Negro Problem
(open letter to the Rt. Hon. James Bryce of England), reprinted
from _News and Courier_, Charleston, of August 1, 1904.

Cheyney, Edward Potts: European Background of American History.
Vol. I of American Nation Series.

Child, Lydia Maria: An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans
Called Africans. Boston, 1833.

The Oasis (edited). Boston, 1834.

Clayton, V.V.: White and Black under the Old Regimé. Milwaukee,

Clowes, W. Laird: Black America: A Study of the Ex-Slave and
His Late Master. Cassell & Co., London, 1891.

Coffin, Joshua: An Account of Some of the Principal Slave Insurrections,
and others, which have occurred, or been attempted, in the
United States and elsewhere, during the last two centuries,
with various remarks. American Anti-Slavery Society, New
York, 1860.

Collins, Winfield H.: The Domestic Slave Trade of the Southern
States. Broadway Publishing Co., New York, 1904.

Coman, Katherine: The Industrial History of the United States.
The Macmillan Co., New York, 1918 edition.

The Negro as a Peasant Farmer. American Statistical Association
Publications, 1904:39.

Commons, John R.: Races and Immigrants in America. The Macmillan
Co., 1907.

Coolidge, Archibald Cary: The United States as a World Power.
The Macmillan Co., New York, 1918.

Cooper, Anna Julia: A Voice from the South, by a black woman
of the South. Xenia, O., 1892.

Corey, Charles H.: A History of the Richmond Theological Seminary.
Richmond, 1895.

Cornish, Samuel E., and Wright, T.S.: The Colonization Scheme
Considered in Its Rejection by the Colored People. Newark,

Cromwell, John W.: The Negro in American History. The American
Negro Academy, Washington, 1914.

Culp, Daniel W. (editor): Twentieth Century Negro Literature.
Nichols & Co., Toronto, 1902.

Cutler, James E.: Lynch Law, an Investigation into the History of
Lynching in the United States. Longmans, Green & Co., New
York, 1905.

Daniels, John: In Freedom's Birthplace: A Study of the Boston
Negroes. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston and New York, 1914.

Dewey, Davis Rich: National Problems, 1885-1897. Vol. 24 in
American Nation Series.

Dill, Augustus Granville. See DuBois, editor Atlanta University

Dodd, William E.: The Cotton Kingdom. Vol. 27 of Chronicles of

Expansion and Conflict. Vol. 3 of Riverside History of the United
States. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1915.

Dow, Lorenzo ("Cosmopolite, a Listener"): A Cry from the Wilderness!
A Voice from the East, A Reply from the West - Trouble in the
North, Exemplifying in the South. Intended as a timely and
solemn warning to the People of the United States. Printed
for the Purchaser and the Public. United States, 1830.

DuBois, W.E. Burghardt: Suppression of the African Slave-Trade.
Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1896 (now handled by Harvard
University Press).

DuBois, W.E. Burghardt: The Philadelphia Negro. University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1899.

The Souls of Black Folk. A.C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, 1903.
The Negro in the South (Booker T. Washington, co-author).

George W. Jacobs & Co., Philadelphia, 1907.

John Brown (in American Crisis Biographies). George W. Jacobs
& Co., Philadelphia, 1909.

The Negro (in Home University Library Series). Henry Holt &
Co., New York, 1915.

Darkwater: Voices from within the Veil. Harcourt, Brace &
Co., New York, 1920.

(Editor Atlanta University Publications).

The Negro Church, No. 8.

The Health and Physique of the Negro American, No. II.

Economic Co-operation among Negro Americans, No. 12.

The Negro American Family, No. 13.

Efforts for Social Betterment among Negro Americans, No. 14.
The College-Bred Negro American, No. 15. (A.G. Dill, co-editor.)

The Negro American Artisan, No. 17. (A.G. Dill, co-editor.)

Morals and Manners among Negro Americans, No. 18. (A.G.
Dill, co-editor.)

Dunbar, Alice Ruth Moore: Masterpieces of Negro Eloquence. The
Bookery Publishing Co., New York, 1914.

Dunbar, Paul Laurence: Complete Poems. Dodd, Mead & Co., New
York, 1913.

Dunning, William Archibald: Reconstruction, Political and Economic.
Vol. 22 of American Nation Series.

Earnest, Joseph B., Jr.: The Religious Development of the Negro
in Virginia (Ph.D. thesis, Virginia). Charlottesville, 1914.

Eckenrode, Hamilton James: The Political History of Virginia
during the Reconstruction. Johns Hopkins Studies. Twenty-second
Series, Nos. 6, 7, and 8. Baltimore, 1904.

Ellis, George W.: Negro Culture in West Africa. The Neale Publishing
Co., New York, 1914.

Ellwood, Charles A.: Sociology and Modern Social Problems. American
Book Co., New York, 1910.

Elwang, William W.: The Negroes of Columbia, Mo. (A.M. thesis,
Missouri), 1904.

Epstein, Abraham: The Negro Migrant in Pittsburgh (in publications
of School of Economics of the University of Pittsburgh).

Evans, Maurice S.: Black and White in the Southern States: A
Study of the Race Problem in the United States from a South
African Point of View. Longmans, Green & Co., London, 1915.

Ferris, William Henry: The African Abroad. 2 vols. New Haven,

Fleming, Walter L.: Documentary History of Reconstruction. 2
vols. Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleveland, O., 1906.

The Sequel of Appomattox. Vol. 32 of Chronicles of America.

Fletcher, Frank H.: Negro Exodus. Report of agent appointed by
the St. Louis Commission to visit Kansas for the purpose of
obtaining information in regard to colored emigration. No

Furman, Richard: Exposition of the Views of the Baptists Relative
to the Colored Population in the United States, in a communication
to the Governor of South Carolina. Second edition, Charleston,
1833. (Letter bears original date December 24, 1822; Furman
was president of State Baptist Convention.)

Garrison, Wendell Phillips, and Garrison, Francis Jackson: William
Lloyd Garrison; Story of His Life Told by His Children. 4
vols. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1894.

Garrison, William Lloyd: Thoughts on African Colonization: or
An Impartial Exhibition of the Doctrines, Principles, and Purposes
of the American Colonization Society, together with the
Resolutions, Addresses, and Remonstrances of the Free People
of Color. Boston, 1832.

Gayarré, Charles E.A.: History of Louisiana. 4 vols. New Orleans,
1885 edition.

Grady, Henry W.: The New South and Other Addresses, with
biography, etc., by Edna H.L. Turpin. Maynard, Merrill & Co.,
New York, 1904.

Graham, Stephen: The Soul of John Brown. The Macmillan Co.,
New York, 1920.

Hallowell, Richard P.: Why the Negro was Enfranchised - Negro
Suffrage Justified. Boston, 1903. (Reprint of two letters in the
_Boston Herald_, March 11 and 26, 1903.)

Hammond, Lily Hardy: In Black and White: An Interpretation of
Southern Life. Fleming H. Revell Co., New York, 1914.

Harris, Norman Dwight: Intervention and Colonization in Africa.
Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston, 1914.

Hart, Albert Bushnell: National Ideals Historically Traced. Vol.
26 in American Nation Series.

Slavery and Abolition. Vol. 16 in American Nation Series.

The Southern South. D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1910.

Hartshorn, W.N., and Penniman, George W.: An Era of Progress
and Promise, 1863-1910. The Priscilla Publishing Co., Boston,

Haworth, Paul Leland: America in Ferment. Bobbs-Merrill Co.,
Indianapolis, 1915.

Haynes, George E.: The Negro at Work in New York City Vol
49, No. 3, of Columbia Studies, 1912.

Helper, Hinton Rowan: The Impending Crisis of the South: How
to Meet It. New York, 1857.

Hickok, Charles T.: The Negro in Ohio, 1802-1870. (Western
Reserve thesis.) Cleveland, 1896.

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth: Army Life in a Black Regiment
Boston, 1870. (Latest edition, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1900.)

Hoffman, Frederick L.: Race Traits and Tendencies of the American
Negro. American Economics Association Publications, XI,
Nos. 1-3, 1896.

Hodge, Frederick W. (editor): Spanish Explorers in the Southern
United States, 1528-1543 (in Original Narratives of Early American
History), esp. The Narrative of Alvar Nuñez Cabeça de Vaca.
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1907.

Holland, Edwin C.: A Refutation of the Calumnies circulated
against the Southern and Western States, respecting the institution
and existence of slavery among them; to which is added a minute
and particular account of the actual condition and state of
their Negro Population, together with Historical Notices of
all the Insurrections that have taken place since the settlement
of the country. By a South Carolinian. Charleston, 1822.

Horsemanden, Daniel (Judge): A Journal of the Proceedings in
the Detection of the Conspiracy Formed by Some White People,
in conjunction with Negro and Other Slaves, for Burning the
City of New York in America, and Murdering the Inhabitants.
New York, 1744.

Hosmer, James K.: The History of the Louisiana Purchase. D.
Appleton & Co., New York, 1902.

Hurd, John C.: The Law of Freedom and Bondage. 2 vols. Boston,

Jay, William: Inquiry into the Character and Tendency of the American
Colonization and Anti-Slavery Societies. New York, 1835.

Jefferson, Thomas: Writings, issued under the auspices of the
Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association. 20 vols. Washington,

Jervey, Theodore D.: Robert Y. Hayne and His Times. The Macmillan
Co., New York, 1909.

Johnson, Allen: Union and Democracy. Vol. 2 of Riverside History
of the United States. Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston, 1915.

Johnson, James W.: Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man (published
anonymously). Sherman, French & Co., Boston, 1912.

Fifty Years and Other Poems. The Cornhill Co., Boston, 1917.

Hayti. Four articles reprinted from the _Nation_, New York, 1920.

Johnston, Sir Harry Hamilton: The Negro in the New World. The
Macmillan Co., New York, 1910.

Kelsey, Carl: The Negro Farmer (Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania).
Jennings & Pye, Chicago, 1903.

Kemble, Frances A.: Journal of Residence on a Georgia Plantation,
1838-1839. Harper & Bros., 1863.

Kerlin, Robert T. (editor): The Voice of the Negro, 1919. E.P.
Dutton & Co., New York, 1920.

Kimball, John C.: Connecticut's Canterbury Tale; Its Heroine Prudence
Crandall, and Its Moral for To-Day. Hartford, Conn. (1886).

Krehbiel, Henry E.: Afro-American Folk-Songs. G. Schirmer, New
York and London, 1914.

Lauber, Almon Wheeler: Indian Slavery in Colonial Times within
the Present Limits of the United States. Vol. 54, No. 3, of
Columbia University Studies, 1913.

Livermore, George: An Historical Research Respecting the Opinions
of the Founders of the Republic on Negroes as Slaves, as
Citizens, and as Soldiers. Boston, 1863.

Locke, Mary Stoughton: Anti-Slavery in America from the Introduction
of African Slaves to the Prohibition of the Slave-Trade,
1619-1808. Radcliffe College Monograph No. 11. Boston, 1901

Online LibraryBenjamin BrawleyA Social History of the American Negro Being a History of the Negro Problem in the United States. Including A History and Study of the Republic of Liberia → online text (page 36 of 38)