Benjamin Chase.

History of old Chester [N. H.] from 1719 to 1869 online

. (page 22 of 60)
Online LibraryBenjamin ChaseHistory of old Chester [N. H.] from 1719 to 1869 → online text (page 22 of 60)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


They appropriated any funds in the hands of the treas-
urer ; to raise by tax twenty-one hundred dollars by seven
annual installments ; and to raise by loan what is necessary.

" Voted, That the Selectmen (John Folsom, Josiah
Chase and Lemuel W. Blake) be a committee to purchase
a farm."

The selectmen purchased of Peter Shirley the farm

where James Shirley, sen., first settled, and paid $2,200.

They made an addition to the house and repaired it. The

stock, tools, furniture, &c., cost -^1,226. 29. Cost of the

establishment, $3,426.29.

RATES OR TAXES.

The public expenses were at first borne by the original
proprietors or grantees, and as they were mostly non-resi-
dents they soon sold their rights, or parts of rights, to act-
ual settlers, or other non-residents, who then became pro-
prietors and chargeable with the expense. Some items have
been given in the Proprietary History. The proprietors
were sometimes slack in their payments which caused
great embarrassment.

In April, 1731, there was an act passed, the preamble of
which recites, " That, Whereas the several towns of Ches-
ter, Nottingham and Rochester labor under many incon-
veniences in carrying on public affairs and especially in the
maintenance and support of the gospel ministry among
them, by reason of the great numbers of the proprietors of
land within said townships living out of the Province, by

which means the constables or collectors of the aforesaid
17



258 . HISTORY OF CHESTER.

towns are unable to collect the rates due from their re-
spective proprietors living out of the province as aforesaid."
It was enacted that the lands within any of those towns
might be extended on for rates and cost, to continue in force
three years. Tlicre were continually votes being passed
and committees raised for selling the rights of delinquents,
but as there came to be inhabitants who were not proprie-
tors the rates were levied on both ; but in what manner I
have seen nothing to indicate. An act passed in 1703
provides " that the justices, yearly at their December ses-
sion, shall appoint one freeholder in each town to go
through the town in which he belongs, unto every inhabi-
tant, and take an account of such person's ratable estate,
and shall deliver it to the selectmen between December and
March each year, and such person shall have power to ap-
point one or more assistants." At a town-meeting held the
last Thursday of March, 1741, John Tolford and James
Varnum were chosen " Invoice men to take the Invoice of
the heads and Estates of the Whole town," which was
taken. That document is in the Secretary's office and in
the excellent hand-writing of Mr. Varnum. The town had
never before been rated to the province and this inventory
was for fixing the proportion. There are D houses and S
houses. In some of tbe inventories the distinction is
made of two-story houses and one-story houses, which is
probably meant here.

The following is the inventory ; interesting, as showing
the taxable persons and property then in town :



EATES OR TAXES.



259



An Invoise Taken of y® mens Estates whose names are
here mentioned Between the month of December and
Marcli, which is in j" year 1741.

Pr. James Yarfium, ) j

T , rr If 1 } Invois men.

John Tolford, \

Chester, Febuary 27"S 1711.

IXYOICE TABLE.



NAMES.


X


6

o
W

a


i

O
X






a
o


aa





X




CO

n


in
"o




03




i

CO




1

2

1


i
1

i
1

1
1

"i
i


. .




i

5

1
1

i

3

8
3
5

4

.•

3
1

7
5
6
6

3
6

2
5

ii

6
5

'e
11

o
5

3
2

13
3

6
2
9
3

2


2

'2
'2

'2

'2

'2
'2

'2

'2


'2

i

1
1

i

'2

1
3

i
1

1

'\

1

1
1
1
2
1

2

i

'4
3

2
1
1
•2

i

2

'2
2

1
I

"3

1
2
1
2

1


1
1

i

i

i
1
1

i
1

i

1
1

"i

"1
1

1

i

'2
1
1

i

1

1'

1

1


2

i
'3

2


'i
i

i

'i

2

'2

2

'i
'2
'2

'2
'2

5?


'4
'2

"i

'2
3

'2
1

"2


i

..
1




William White




Jarob Sartrent. Jr
















Ebeiiezer Gial

Nathan Hale

John Clement




Arlam Dickev




James Shirley, Jun

Michal Oerbon












James Sliirlev












John Uniierliill

Thomas Richardson

Bradbury Karr




Jonathan Sanders

Nathan Webster




Stephen Webster








.fames Varnum




Wid. Elisabeth Underhlll. .

Wid. Elisabeth Rowell

David rage








John Bastonl,








Moses liichartlson




Thomas Wasson




John Wadwell




Widiaui Turner

Robert Gillcrees




John Mills, Jan....




Robert Mills




Martha Forsith




John Carswell




Joseph Taylor




John Robie




SaniU. Robie




Samll. Powell




William Powell




Titus Wells




Robert Graham




Robert Graham, jun

William Graham




Patrick Melvin




John Allen




Thomas Worthen , . .




Eliphaz Sanborn




Ithamer Berrv




Joseph Clark





260 HISTORY OF CHESTER.

INVOICE TABLE — continued.



NAMES.



73

5

CO



S



2



o
O



.a



Jonathan Hall

Benja. Bachildcr

Page Bachilder

James Calfe

King Calfe

Robert Calfe

Danll Calfe

Joseph Calfe

John Foss

John Ambioss

Henry Anibross

Capt. Sanill. ]ngals

Lieut. Ebene/er Derbon

Ens. Jac(il) Sargent

Nathan Webster

John Calfe

Benja. Hills

William Wilson

Ephraini Hesseltine

Thomas Hes.seltine

John Hesseltine

Thomas Wells

John Talford

William 'J'altord

John .Shirley

Anthoney Towle

Thomas Smith

•James Campble

Benaih Colbe

Enock Colbe

Samll. Emerson

Jonathan Blunt

Isaac Foss

Jonathan Mmilton

Ebenezar Derbon, Jun.

Silvanus Smith

Paul Smith

Peter Derbon

William Healy

Robert Kunals

Joshua Preseott

Jacob Bassford

Joseph Bassford

Ebenezer Blunt

Ste])hen Clay

John Snuth.

Robert Gorden

Hugh Ramsey

Archabald Macaphee.. . .

Daniel Macaphee

James Cro-wheit

Alen Temlington

Robert Crage

Alexander (/rage

Nathanal Hall

Jethro Tiltoii

Isaac Foss, Jun

James Wadwell

James mac clure

Nathan Colbee

Peter Clittbrd

Joseph Davis

Thomas Hill

Thomas Crage

David mac clure

Wid. Mary Carswell

Archabalil Dalaph

William Grimes, Jun. . .



RATES OR TAXES.
INVOICE TAB'LY.— concluded.



261



NAMES.



Moses Hills

John Karr

Thomas Glinn

Henry Hall

John Webster. . . .

John Aken

Robert Willson...

Francis Towle

Hufih Willson

James Willson. . . .
William Craford...

Samll. Hills

Ben.ia. Derbon

Andrew Crage

Winthrop Sargent
William Karr. .. .
John Karr, Jun.
Samuel Brown.. .
Thomas Derbim. .
Paul Mac fason. . ,

John Moore

Charles Moore. . . ,
Xathanal Wood..,

Jonas Clay

Jonas Clay, .Jun.
James Bassford. .





6

o


i

s

o

a


(B


CO

a


S




O


1


X


•3


i


6
a


<o


,




..*


OJ


X


O




o


c


o


o


E


K


P^


«2


>i


^


O


U


w


M


(M


iH


(J


M


1








15




2




1




3






2






2


23


2


5




2


2


4




1










18


2


3




1




1




1










12




3




. .


2


4


, .












9




2




2


2


2












i


9




2




1


2


2














12


2


3






1


1


i


, .










8


2


3






2






. .










15




3






2


2














11


2


1






2


1


i












8




2






2




1












9




2








2




i










6




1






















15


2


3






2


3














9


2


2






1


1














3




1












i










6




2








i














5




3








1
















2


1






i


2














8


2


1






2


1














2




2






2


3














1




1














1 1








5




1








i














5




1












, ,










2




1


























1








, .







The following from an old act in regard to making taxes,
I insert as a curiosity : From " the Generall Lawes and
Libaties of the Province of New Hampshire made by the
Generall Assembly in Portsm°, the 16"' of March, 1679-80,
and approved by the Presid* and Council.

"Making Eates.

" That there may be a just and equall way of Eaising- means for
defraying y'' publique charge, boath in church and civill affairs,
whereof every p'rsou doth or may receive y" benefit ; these persons
and estates shall be asseasted or rated as followeth: viz., to a
single rate of a penny in the pound, every male person above the
age of 16 years is valued at ISZ.; and all land within fence, med-
dow or marsh, mowable, shall beat '>^. per acre; all pasture lands
without fence rate free; all oxen 4 years old and upward, 3s.;
steers, cows and heiffers of three years old at 4s. ; steers and
heiffers of 2 years old at os. ; yearlings 10s. ; horses and mares of
3 years old and upward, at 20s. ; sheep above one year old at 5s. ;
swine above one year old at 10s. ; and all other estates whatsoever,
in y*^ hands of whome it is at y'' time when that shall be taken,
shall be i-atod by some equall proportion by y** selectmen of each
toAvn w"^ grate care \\ p'ticulars be not wronged; and all ships,
ketches, boates, barques and all other vessells w^soever shall be
rateable, as allso all dwelling houses, ware houses, wharffs, mills
and all haudycrafts men as cai-penters, masons, joiners, shoe-
makers, taylors, tanners, cun-iers, butchers, bakers, or any other



262



HISTORY OF CHESTER.



artificei's, victuallers, merch'^ and innkeepers shall be rated by
estymatyon."

This was probably the law for a long period, as I have
examined a reprint of the laws from 1706 to 1770, also all
the acts in the Secretary's office during that period, without
finding anything on the subject.

The following is one page of an inventory, found among
the papers of Deacon John Hills. There is no date, Init it
must have been as early as 1745, for Moses Tyler sold to
Andrew McFarland that year. There is, on the back side, a
footing, probably of the whole inventory. There are two
taxed for faculties, — some trade, or other extra mode of
making money. Mills, or a trade, were taxed as faculties
in Hampton in 1732 :

INVENTORY.



Kames.



M



tH



o



Nathaniel Wood

Jonas Clay

Jona. Saunders

Henry Ambrose

James Varnum

Benj . Dearborn

Robert Runnels

William Healey

King Calfe

Benj. Batchelder .

James Basford

Itbamar Berry

John Allen

Titus Wells

Thomas Hill

Eliphaz Sanborn ....

John Underbill

Page Bachelder

Peter Clifford

Joseph Clark

Jona. IliiU

Moses Tyler

James Calfe

Nathl. Hall

Capt. Tiltcm

Ebenezer Dearborn .

Peter Dearborn

Widow Rowel

Widow Underhill

David Craige

Nathan Webster, Jr.
Nathan Colby



80



10
8

10
2
4
4

12
3
3
2
4

4
3
3
4
2
2
4
4
20
16
5
6

3

10



649



66



100 53 55 59 69



51



EATES OR TAXES.



263



The following table shows the proportion of province
rates in 1709, to raise .£1720 :



Portsmouth .... £377 10s.

Dover 361 9

Exeter 325 8



Haniptou
New Castle



£505 13s.
150 00



In order to show the relative progress of the several old
towns in the province, I give the proportion of province
rates to each £1000 :

TABLE Showing the Puoportiox of Province Rates.



TOWNS.



Portsmouth .
Dover . . .
Exeter . . .
Hampton . .
Hampton Falls
New Castle .
Kingstown
Newington
Stratham . .
Gosport . .
Loudonderrv .
Rye . . ." .
Greenland
Oyster River .
Somersworth .



1723.



£

171
171
128
74
74
81
44
38
49
19



8 d.
10
12 2
12 8
18 9

18 9
5 8

10 5

19
G
5



1728.



£ s.

187 16

217 15

127 18

94 4 5

88 4 3

24 19 4

45 6

36 14 8

60 14 11

. 16 4

68 3 10

29 7 1



1732.



£ s. d.

142 16 3

103 13 5

114 3 6

94 12 6

90 16 8

21 3 2

54 3

25 1 4

57 4 7

52 13

32 16

35 15 10

97 16 3

39 15 6



TABLE II



TOWNS.



Portsmouth
Hampton .
Dover . .
Exeter . .
Londonderry
Chester . .
Kingston .
Derryiield .
Rumford .
Bow . • .




264



HISTORY OF CHESTER.



Footings of the Inventoky in Chester in 1753.



Polls 241

Houses 179

Tillage 462

Mowing 1098

Pasture G70

Horses 58

Oxen 302

Cows 389



Three-year-olds 87

Two-year-okls 121

One-year-olds . . . . . 170

Three-year-old colts ... 15

Two-year-old colts .... 12

One-year-old colts .... 11

Male slave 1

Orcharding 51



An act was passed July 3, 1766, providing that the
Province rates might be paid in the following articles of
produce at the following prices, new tenor :



AVt'll tanned sole leath-
er per iiound ... 4 00
Tallow per pound . . 2 6
"Winter a)id Spring cod-

lisii i)er quintal . 4 00 00
PiK^ii pevbariel . , 3 00 00
Tar per barrel ... 2 00 00
Turpentine per barrel 4 00 00
W. P. joists per M. . 4 00 00
W. P. boards per M. 5 00 00
W. O. two-inch plank

per iM 25 00 00







£


8. (1.


Bar ii-on per cwt .


. 5


00 00


Hemp per pound
Indian corn, bush




• •


3 00
10 00


Rye

Peas "




1


10 00
1 00


AVinter wheat "




1


5 00


Barley " .
Pork per poun
Beef


d '




10 00

1 00

9


Flax




3 00


Bees-wax "




5 00


Bavberrv wax "






3 00



CENSUS OF 1767.







Males.




Females.














,


























<o


ffl








S-;








<0




>


>






TO'SfKS.


11


"SS


i-t


d










CD













>
O


5
c






S


•a


3

o


Chester


116


168


106


24


295


153


7


2


34


916


Candia


27


C8


09




100


68






1


363


Raymond


21


78


13-2


3


134


81






6


362


Dp rrvfipld


29


31


50


7


81


38


••




5


230







RATES OR TAXES.



265



INVENTORY OF 1777.





e3






CA


rs


O


a


^


a


o


o



a

o

a

si



1-4
4)

to


3


a)


a


ja


93


o


o



o



Polls

Orchard

Arable

Mowing

Pasture

Horses

Three-years Colts.
Two-years Colts. . .

One-year Colt

Oxen

Cows



339


143


162


127X


603


205


1751


449


2749


852


141


51


36


10


22


24


17


11


243


115


600


241



131

71M

311

445

1033

49

5

6

5

76

229



Three-years old .
Two-years old. . .

One-year old

Rents of mills . .
Stock in trade . .
Money



257


116


331


164


317


137


£95 00


£29


280


125


3907


683



87
1.38
118
£64
100

52



State tax, 1783, which must have been lawful money, as
the Continental was worthless : —



Constable Joseph True to pay
Robert Witherspoou
Joseph Brown, Jr. .



£
643


B.

5


d.

9


361


12


10


80


00 00



PROPORTION FOR STATE TAX.



Towns.


1773.


1789.


1803.




£ 8. d.


£ s.


d.


£ 8. d.


Chester


22 8 -


16 2


10


11 19 -


Candia


8 6-


8 2


4


6 4 7


Raymond


7 13 -


6 4


8


4 2 1


Concord •


13 U -


12 7


4


10 8 2(


Exeter


24 4 -


15 10


2


8 8 6


Londonderry


35 15 -


20 15


3


15 2 1


Portsmouth


58 2 -


_ _


_


27 8 5


Derrvfield


3 12 -


2 10


4


2 2 -



266



HISTORY OF CHESTER.






<

Hi
O



1^

c

H

;?;
o



K
C

o

PS
en

^

O
Eh

>-)
<;

o

H

<

<
o

H
1-9

K

e
iz;

t-H

?=

O

K



lO
00



o



00



o

00



o






-i^if






o

QO

•r












d






s



•*

■*



S 3!



^H f-l T-l CM T-i rH



-H ,-1 C) ^



^ l-H <M



.5
-5









s
o



-a

8

o

E

cS o « ^

M h5 P K



a
o






o -J
CO lO



S5



^ >. S* S •-



S
g

c



o







§


§


8







SS


S


1-H


c^


»-l


1-«


rH


rH


(N



a

c3


_a

'■*3
M

O

la

3
O

o

o

C!

O
o

.2

-3

-a

es

09
k>
e3



3:


: §


s


00




: S


CO
CO


.-1


*-i


c^


th


Cl


^^


r-(






00


38




: gJ




CO


^


1—1


•^


ri




(N


fH



s



I-


S


00











TH


f^


^H


(N


cj


C^


: 8







: %


S


5




f^






IH










£-


t^


. CC


CO


cs











«■















c
o
O



P<









O

O 00

•a .-



o

- ft



.2


r-)




c:






0)




K




iS








s






H


w



RATES OR TAXES.



267



The earliest tax-list which we have is for 1785, which is
not inserted on account of its length.



TABLE

Shottixg the Number of Inhabitants, Numbee of Polls and Proportiox of
State Taxes ix Several Towns in 1820; also the Proportion in 1829, Pop-
ttlation in 1860, Valuation and Proportion in 1864.



Towns.



QO




a




g


s




fi


C




o




o


o




o


S


CO

1-t






•.J


-.J




-t^


,o o


o


o


c o




o


cj •)<


is

I— 1


xn


c


C)


C -M




o


S '-O




o


CO


o <»


C


<x>


pS CO


o


w-t


u '^


o


tH


d <-!


e^


Ph




Ph


Ch




>



O 1>



Chester

Auburn*

Candia

Kaymond

Londonderry . . .

Derryt

Manchester

Concord

Exeter

Hampton

Hampton Falls .

Kingston

Portsmouth



2,262


415


S9.03


$7.40


1,276
886


§389,234
296,858


1,273


240


5..54


4.90


1,575


4-27.803


961


177


3.62


3.43


1,269


320.676


3,12T


515


13.27


5.17


1,717


627,501








7.54


1,990


678.645


761


133


2.48


2.69


20,108


10,176,142


2.338


498


13.48


13.73


10,889


5,036,014


2,114


457


9.90


9.46


3,309


1,661,274


1,098


187


4.58


4.67


1,230


518.991


57-i


100


3.40


3.27


621


393.121


847


170


3.67


3.67


1.216


435,713


7,327


1,190


54.36


42.41


9 335


6,442,062



$2.99

2 29

3.29

2.47

4.83

5.22

78..38

38.84

12.79

4.22

3.02

3.36

49.67



* Incor porated June, 1845. t Incorporated July, 1827.

These statistics are given to show the absolute and rel-
ative progress of these towns.

In 1732, Portsmouth had 479 polls ; Exeter had 333 ;
Hampton had 221. In 1727, Hampton Falls had 224 polls ;
and Kingston had 120.

Up to 1833, in making taxes a specific value was put
upon animals of each grade, irrespective of their real
value, and also on acres of land. At that time there was
an act passed requiring all property to be appraised at its
cash value.



268 HISTORY OF CHESTER.



STAGE AND MAIL FACILITIES.



Besides occasional private conveyance for letters, there
were sometimes persons "who periodically traveled on horse-
back and carried letters and newspapers. My grandfather
took a Newburyport paper, during the Revolutionary war,
which was probably brought by a "Post-rider,"

The Committee of Safety, Dec. 2, 1779, appointed Peter
Robinson for the term of six months, to ride from the post-
office in Portsmouth, to set out from thence Saturday morn-
ing, and ride to Peterborough in this State, and send a man
weekly to Charlestown, No. 4 ; and carry and return all
public letters and dispatches free of charge, for which ser-
vice he shall receive from the State the sum of three hun-
dred pounds lawful money. [N. H. Hist. Col., Vol. 7, p.
211.]

There was probably no regular mail or stage through
Chester before 1793 or 1794. In the New Hampshire Reg-
ister for 1794 there is the following list of dejmty post-
masters : Jeremy Liljbey, Portsmouth ; J.W. Oilman, Ex-
eter ; George Hough, Concord ; Samuel McClure, Hanover ;
and Samuel Crosby, Charlestown. There might have been
others, however, in the State. Tappan Robie, Esq., of Gor-
ham, Maine, says that his uncle, Edmund Webster, was
appointed postmaster about 1793 ; that he was clerk in his
uncle's store, and acted as assistant in the post-office ; and
the office supplied Chester, Sandown, Hampstead, Candia
and Raymond, and j)erhaps Londonderry. He recollects
that Ozias Silsby, of Chester, rode post and carried a mail
from Portsmouth to Amherst. [He went to Peterborough.]
The mail was carried on horseback. This supplied Chester
with a mail. Chase, in the history of Haverhill, p. 453,
says:

" At this period (about 1791) newspapers and letters
were carried through the country by persons who rode on
horseback, called ■• Post-riders.'' Samuel Bean was post-
rider from Boston to Concord, N. H. His route was
through Andover, Haverhill, Atkinson, Kingstown, Exeter,



STAGE AND MAIL FACILITIES. 289

Epping, Xottingliam, DeerfieM and Pemln'oke, to Concord ;
returning, passed through Londonderry and Haverhill. He
performed the route once a week.

"The first stage from Haverhill to Boston was started
about this time. It was a two-horse coach, by a Mr. Gage,
He performed the route only • when he had custom.' It
took twelve hours to perfoiwi the journey. An advertise-
ment in a Boston paper under date of April 9, 1798, informs
the public that the ' Haverhill Stage Coach is complete,
with genteel curtains and cushions, and an able pair of
horses ready for service.' It was to set out from Chad-
wick's Ferry, in Bradford, on Tuesday the IGlh, at six
o'clock precisely, arrive at Mr. Abbot's, in Andover, before
eight, and at Mr. Peabody's in Boston, before one. The
proprietor gave notice that he intend.s m a short time that
the stage shall perform this route twice a week. Fare, 3d.
per mile. In November, 1793, a stage commenced running
twice a week from this place [Haverhill] to Concord N. H.,
connecting with the Boston stage. It was owned by par-
ties in this town, Chester, and Concord. The mail, how-
ever, continued to be carried on horseback for several years
after the establishment of a regular line of stages."

Mr. Robie says that the first stage was owned by Rogers
and Kendall. Mr. Chase further says, p. 454 :

" At the celebration attending the opening of the Ando-
ver and Haverhill Railroad to Bradford, Oct., 1837, Hon.
Leverit Saltonstall, late of Salem, said he well recollected the
first setting up of the first stage-coach between Boston and
Haverhill, some forty or fifty years before, by Judge Blodg-
ett, of Haverhill. It started very early in the morning
from Haverhill, in order to have time to perform the dis-
tance, and arrive comfortably in Boston before dark. The
boys followed it through the villages, and the women put
their heads out of the windows gazing upon the wonder ;
and the welkin rang with the shout of ' The Stage ! The
Stage ! ' A stage was afterwards established to run between
Haverhill and Concord, X. H. This was considered a most
extraordinary event ; and one of the leaders had a bell of
a size nearly equal to that of the bell of an academy, sus-
pended to his neck, the sound of which could be heard a
great distance, to give the intelligence that the stage tvas
comi7ig.'^^

I have heard it said that Mr. Benjamin Brown drove
through Chester the first trip. A negro subsequently



270 .HISTORY OP CHESTER.

drove. It is said that Matthew Templeton and others as-
sembled at Dea. John Graham's to see the stage. Mr.
Templeton was probably dressed in an uncouth manner,
aud had a large dent in his forehead, where his skull was
broken, which caused some of the passengers to laugh.
Mr. Templeton cautioned thei# against laughing, as they

were all going to the d 1 together, with a nager to drive

them.

The earliest I recollect of a stage it passed over Chester
turnpike twice a week each way, and was driven by a man
by the name of Hall, and was owned by Kendall. This
was in 1806. Some time after it was removed to the Lon-
donderry turnpike. There were several changes each way,
and at length there was one put on each route, when it was
thought both must fail. Tbere could not be business to
support two stages. Thomas Pearson, of Haverhill, for a
long time drove through Chester, and Nathaniel Walker, of
Plymouth, through Londonderry. Fathtr Gibbs for a long
time rode post on Silsby's route, from Exeter to Peterbor-
ough. He rode horseback, carried a mail, and carried
Portsmouth, Exeter and Amherst papers, and did express
business generally.

Edmond Webster died May 12, 1801, and Dr. John Win-
gate, who married Sarah Webster, was appointed post-
master. He lived in the Webster house, and held the office
till 1807, when he removed from town, and Daniel French,
Esq., was appointed April 25, 1807, who held the office
until near the close of his life, when he resigned, and his
son, H. F. French, was appointed.

About 1826 a post-office was established at what is now



Online LibraryBenjamin ChaseHistory of old Chester [N. H.] from 1719 to 1869 → online text (page 22 of 60)