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MUNICIPAL HISTORY

OF

ESSEX COUNTY

IN

MASSACHUSETTS



TERCENTENARY EDITION



A classified work, devoted to the County's remarkable

growth in all lines of human endeavor;

more especially to within a

period of fifty years



BENJ. F. ARRINGTON
Editor-in-Chief



VOLUME I.



1922

LEWIS HISTORICAL PUBLISHING COMPANY

NEW YORK



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THE l^£Vv ■:■./
PUBLIC LIBF.

A8TOn LHNOX AND

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COPYRIGHT

LEWIS HISTORICAL PUBLISHING CO.

1922



FOREWORD



More than three decades have elapsed since a history of Essex County
was presented to the public. The animating purpose in the present work
has been two-fold : First, that while provision be made for preservation
of the essentials of a recorded past, sundry classifications (second) should
also distinguish the activities that attend community growth as well as
industrial and commercial expansion. To this end, various subjects have
been taken up for individual treatment by writers qualified alike by local
association and familiarity with fundamentals to deal befittingly with the
matters thus assigned. And this leads to the observation, pertinent both
to the moment and mention, that the list of these contributors does not,
in all cases, correspond to the enumeration set forth in local preliminary
prospectuses. By reason of illness, unexpected pressure of business, or
other causes that need not be expressed, some of the listed contributors
felt compelled to reth*e. In a few instances, such were the respective
competencies of these gentlemen that the original engagements were held
open, at embarrassment from the publishers' standpoint, until the printers
were set at work. Then, when the fact became apparent that extension
of time could not be rewarded with the promised papers, the common
procedure followed, whereby experienced staff writers supplied the need.

While it would have been highly desirable to deal at length with the
roster of men from Essex County communities who served in the late
World War, in whatever capacity, the fact became manifest at an early
stage that anything like adequate enrollment was entirely out of question.
County, State and Federal records are yet in an incomplete form. Time,
care and patience are among the essentials of such a record as shall com-
mand full confidence. If any evidence were needed to demonstrate the
imperativeness of awaiting more propitious conditions for the publication
of such a record as is here indicated, that evidence could surely be found
in Federal government listing of so-called "slackers," in which have
appeared, unfortunate to add, the names of service men who either paid
the supreme sacrifice on European battle fields, or else died from wounds
or from disease contracted in the service. Here and there, to be sure,
certain private local collections are reputed to be approximately complete.
Even were these deemed competent for insertion in a history framed on
lines which mark the present work, they are not available in every in-
stance, primarily because of the intention on the part of their compilers to
utilize them in a personal publication, later on. Without appearing,
much less attempting, to derogate, it may be said, with perfect candor,
that historical works should have for basis in the exploitation of so
important a subject as the roster of men who entered the service of the
United States in the World War that accuracy which is commonly associ-
ated with government supervision, in conjunction with the larger re-



iv ESSEX COUNTY

sources of government. Hence the exclusion of even partial lists in this
quarter from the special military section of the History. There has been
an endeavor, however, carefully to compile the names of those heroes
who sacrificed their lives in the late Titanic conflict. In all such listings,
dependence has been placed upon local tabulations, under the auspices of
town or city authority.

In the compilation of this work, due heed has been paid to the neces-
sities of the constituency sought to be served, in order that individual
interest in Massachusetts history, as it is concerned with the proud dis-
tinction achieved by Essex County, might be both stimulated and satis-
fied. This being the case, and that desire having formed the rule and
guide to action, the History is presented to the public with the hope that
it may prove no less welcome than acceptable.



As to the special contributors : Mr. Philip Emerson, principal of the
Central Junior High School, Lynn, answered the call to write the
"Geology and Geography" paper vrith which this work is prefaced. How
well he has contributed to a wider understanding of an ever-interesting
subject is attested by the article in question. Frank A. Gardner, M.D., of
Salem, prepared "The Story of the Planters." As president of the Old
Planters' Society, author of "The Founders of the Massachusetts Bay
Colony," "John Endicott and the Men Who Came to Salem in the Abigail
in 1626," "The Higginson-Skelton Migration to Salem in 1629," and other
publications, he is fully equipped to deal with facts. "Bench and Bar,"
by Archie N. Frost, Esq., of Lawrence, clerk of courts of Essex county,
is the contribution of a writer able to invest his recital with interest to
lay readers. Mr. Francis Haseltine, of Lynn, (principal of the Western
Junior High School, with a service of thirty-eight years in his profes-
sion) , deals entertainingly with the public schools of that city ; his refer-
ences to the stimulation of patriotic impulses among the growing youth,
as the resultant of juvenile identification with war work at home, are
not without significance. "Witchcraft," by Mr. Winfield S. Nevins, of
Salem, (whose decease followed not long after the submission of his
article) , is a resume of merit. A ready writer on historical subjects, he
was able, by reason of previous authorship and study of the witchcraft
delusion in Essex county, to speak understandingly. Hon. Albert L.
Bartlett, of Haverhill, a prominent figure in the political and commercial
life of that city, (Mayor, 1915-1916, and present Commissioner of Pub-
lic Safety), has portrayed the progress of Haverhill from its early be-
ginnings to the present ; the reader will note that the material concerns
are treated in the division germane to the city's industrial development.
Miss Annie Stevens Perkins, of Lynnfield Centre, who has contributed to
the "Youth's Companion" and other publications, tells the story of the
growth of Lynnfield. The history of Georgetown is divided between



FOREWORD V

Miss Ellen W. Spofford and Mr. Harold F. Blake, a member of the news-
paper fraternity. The fonner deals specifically with various features in-
timately connected with purely historical aspects, while Mr. Blake ad-
dresses himself to the general history. Mr. George W. Noyes is the
author of the paper on Georgetown's educational interests. Dr. Charles
H. Bangs, of Swampscott, vice-president of the Massachusetts Society
Sons of the American Revolution, president of the University of Massa-
chusetts, Inc., and secretary of the Edward Bangs Descendants, Inc.,
wi-ote the municipal history of Lynn and also the histoiy of Swampscott.
It was largely through his efforts that the chart of Massachusetts Bay,
appropriately discussed in the Swampscott chapter, was brought to light,
after persistent search. Mr. John D. Woodbury, a veteran reporter on
Gloucester newspapers, weekly and daily, is the author of several articles,
namely: The Postoflfice, Lighthouses, Custom House and Newspapers
of Gloucester. Yet another newspaper worker, Mr. William C. Morgan,
city editor of the Beverly "Times," visualizes shoemaking in that city,
and also sketches its newspaper history ; while Mr. George A. Mellen, of
Lawi'ence, of the "Eagle-Tribune", perfomis a similar service in the case
of his own city. For the medical chapters, both city and town, the fol-
lowing classification will establish authorship: Lynn, Dr. Carolus M.
Cobb; Ipswich, Dr. George A. MacArthur; Peabody, Dr. Horace K. Fos-
ter; Lawrence, Dr. V. A. Reed; Amesbury, Dr. John W. Rand. The
Catholic churches specially portrayed are those of Lynn, by Right Rev.
Arthur J. Teeling; Salem, Rev. John P. Sullivan; Amesbury, Rev. D. F.
Lee. The Protestant churches have enlisted the following contributors:
Gloucester, Miss Susan Babson; Beverly, Rev. E. J. V. Huiginn; Ames-
bury, Rev. Robert LeBlanc Lynch; Salem, Rev. Alfred Manchester;
Danvers, Rev. A. V. House ; Georgetown, Rev. Bartlett H. Weston. The
United Shoe Machinery Company, Beverly, supplied through its publicity
department, at the hands of Mr. Charles T. Cahill, the interesting account
of the striking growth of this great enterprise. Mr. Dana W. Scott, for
forty years secretary to Agent Walter E. Parker, of the Pacific Mills,
Lawrence, has written the stoiy of that corporation. Mr. Arthur B.
Sutherland contributes the chapter on the merchants of Lawrence. To
Mr. Freeman Putney, of Gloucester, is to be given the credit for review
of the educational concerns of that city, while a like distinction belongs
to Prof. L. Thomas Hopkins for corresponding exposition of the public
schools of Amesbury. The review of the Chamber of Commerce of the
last-named town is from the pen of Mr. Frank T. Peny, a member of the
staff of the Amesbury "Daily News." Mr. Fred W. Bushby, for twenty-
four years a member of the Board of Trustees, supplies the satisfactory
account of the Peabody Institute and Library.

* * *

Of the staff writers in the service of the publishers, it fell to the lot
of Mr. Will L. Clark, of Woodbine, Iowa, to act as compiler of the Muni-



vi ESSEX COUNTY

cipal Histoiy of Essex County. A former newspaper man, both as editor
and publisher, he abandoned the profession, upwards of a quarter of a
century ago, to specialize in historical work. During that period, his
pen has actively been employed in County and State historical publica-
tions, as well on the sundown side of the Mississippi as in the teeming
fields east of the "Father of Waters." In entering upon his responsible
duties as compiler of the accompanying volumes, he brought to the task
those qualities justly to be cited as the fruits of ripened experience. His
fidelity to engagements, the assiduity with which he pursued his labors
(not infrequently in the face of embarrassments of no slight volume),
and the zeal with which he sought to accommodate his compilations, alike
in the interest of the History and of the reader — all these call for a meas-
ure of recognition. It is in tribute, brief and modest, to the record thus
achieved by Mr. Clark that his associate would dedicate these few lines,
as indicative of a meed of appreciation richly won.

BENJ. F. ARRINGTON.
Lynn, 1922.



ACKNOWLEDGMENT



The Publishers would fail in justice and propriety, did they not ex-
press their appreciation of the valuable sei*vice rendered by Mr. Ben-
jamin F. Arrington during the preparation of this "History of Essex
County." To fine literary tastes end ability he has added a hearty en-
thusiasm and spirit of local loyalty, while his fund of knowledge has been
of immeasurable aid to our writers and compilers.

F. Y. HEDLEY,

Editor.
New York, 1922.



CONTENTS

Page
Chapter I — Geography and Geology of Essex County — Relics of the
Glacial Period — The Foundation Rocks — The Tombolos — For-
mation of Islands — Earth Resources _ __ 1

Chapter II — The Story of the Planters — Captain Bartholomew Gos-
nold — First White Intercourse with the Indians — Charter from
the English Crown — The Dorchester Company — New Plymouth
— Roger Conant at Cape Ann _ _. 10

Chapter III— Salem, "The City of Peace"— First Settlers under
Roger Conant — Account by William Wood in his "New Eng-
land's Prospect" — John Endicott's Company — The First Council
— Third Migration to Salem — Record of Voyage and List of
Those Who Came - _ 20

Chapter IV — Organization of Essex County — First Incorporated
Towns — Courts Established — The New Charter — Public Build-
ings Erected — State Institutions in the County — Statistics-..- 40

Chapter V — Town of Saugus — Settlement — First Town Meeting —

Iron Industries — Other Manufactures — Churches 53

Chapter VI — Town of Ipswich — Territory known as Agawam —
First White Settlement — Churches — Industries — Manufac-
turing - _ - — - 64

Chapter VII — Town of Newbury — Settlement — Churches — Present
Conditions — - - - 86

Chapter VIII — Town of Rowley — Early Settlers — Development of

Community _._ - _ 92

Chapter IX — Town of Marblehead — Settlement — Local Government
Instituted — Industries — Sea Commerce — Early Disasters —
Churches — Present Conditions _ _ 98

Chapter X — Town of Salisbury — Settlement and History _ _ 114

Chapter XI — Town of Wenham — First Settlers — Incorporation — In-
dustries — Distinguished Citizens — Churches _ - - 120

Chapter XII — Town of Manchester — Land Acquired from Indians —
First Settlers — Shipbuilding — Churches — History to Present
Time - _...._ -._ - 129

Chapter XIII — Town of Andover — Settlement — Indian Troubles —
Manufacturing Development — Libraries — Theological Seminary
. — Religion _ „....„ „ , _ - _ 1 47



viii ESSEX COUNTY

Page
Chapter XIV — Town of Topsfield — Settlement — Anniversary of

Founding of Town — Picturesque Region.. — _ 161

Chapter XV — Town of Amesbury — First Comers — Early Industries
— Commercial and Financial Interests — Important Manufac-
tures — Library — Home of Whittier — Church History _...- 168

Chapter XVI — Town of Boxford — First Settlers — Industries —

Churches _ — _ - — - — 186

Chapter XVII— Town of Middleton— David Stiles Quoted— Early

Records — Industries - _ _ - — - 190

Chapter XVIII — Town of Danvers — Incorporation Act — Church

History — Danversport _ — — — — 194

Chapter XIX — Town of Lynnfield — An Outpost of Lynn — First
Settlers — , Churches — Ancient Families — Old Landmarks — Na-
tional Celebrities — Military Record _ - - - 209

Chapter XX — Town of Hamilton — Early Land Grants — Develop-
ment of Community _ - — — — 224

Chapter XXI — Town of West Newbury — Establishment of Town —

Present Conditions _ _ — - — - 228

Chapter XXII — Town of Essex — The Home of Many Prominent
Men — Early Settlers — Grant of Land by Sagamore of Aga —
wam — Shipbuilding — Church History 232

Chapter XXIII — Town of Georgetown — Historical Narrative — In-
dustrially, Commercially, Officially 241

Chapter XXIV — Town of Rockport— Settlement — Present-day Con-
ditions — Industries — Churches — - - _ - - - -— 270

Chapter XXV — Town of Bradford — Incorporation — Manufactures

— Churches — Government _ — 279

Chapter XXVI— Town of Groveland — Settlement — Industries

— Churches — Government _ _ — - 283

Chapter XXVII— Town of Swampscott — Early Annals — Noted
Characters — The Humphrey Home — Henry S. Baldwin Quoted
— Statistical — Town Officers - - 286

Chapter XXVIII— Town of Nahant— Early History— Development

—Library— Henry Cabot Lodge— Fort Gardner— Churches- 298

Chapter XXIX— Town of North Andover — Settlement — Early

Manufacturing— Incorporation — Local Officiary — Churches. 307

Chapter XXX— Town of Merrimac — Early Settlers — Municipal
Affairs — Industries — Churches — Fraternal Orders 313



CONTENTS ix

Page
Chapter XXXI— Town of Methuen— Early Settlers— Local Officials

— Churches _ _ 32g

Chapter XXXII— The City of Salem— Settlement— Organization-
Municipal History — Essex Institute — Peabody Museum For-
eign Trade Reminiscences — Industrial History — Disasters Sa-
lem Hospital — Parks and Environments — Churches. , 325

Chapter XXXIII— City of Beverly — Settlement— Incorporation-
Present-day Industries— Shoemaking— Church History— Pres-
ent Conditions _ _._ ._ _ _ __ 357

Chapter XXXIV— City of Lynn— Conditions at Coming of First
Settlers— Early Residents — "The Town Saugust" — Ancient
Map— Lynn in the Revolution— Early Iron Works— First Mills
—Timothy Dwight Quoted— City Organization— Swampscott^
Distinguished Names — Industrial Exhibit — Parks and Play-
grounds—Chamber of Commerce— The Shoe Industry— General
Electric Company— Great Disasters— Religious History- 375

Chapter XXXV— Haverhill— The Ancient Settlements— The Dustin
Tragedy— Indian Troubles— The Town Laid Out— Early Indus-
tries— AntirSlaveiy Society— The Civil War— The City Charter
—Bradford Academy— Historical Society— Anniversary Cele-
brations—Distinguished Citizens— The World War— Growth of
City— The Shoe Industry— Public Library— Churches 451

Chapter XXXVI— City of Lawrence— Pioneer Families— Incorpora-
tion as a Town— Present Municipal Governments-Benevolent
Institutions— The Andover Bridge— The Central Bridge— The
Essex Company— Distinguished Visitors— Fall of Pemberton
Mills — Parks and Playgrounds — Great Textile Strike— The
Great Cotton Industry — American Woolen Company — Other
Important Cotton Manufactories — Mercantile Interests— Re-
ligious History ; _ 492

Chapter XXXVII— City of Newburyport— Settlement and Incor-
poration as a Town— Early Shipbuilding and Foreign Trade-
Privateers Fitted Out— City Charter— City Officiary— Public
Library — Churches ^ _ 539

Chapter XXXVIII— City of Peabody— Early Settlement— Pioneer
Families— Early Churches— George Peabody— Industrial De-
velopment— Peabody Institute and Library— Present-day Con-
ditions _ 553

Chapter XXXIX— City of Gloucester— First Settlement— Pioneer
Settlers— Municipal History— Sav/yer Free Public Library—
The Fishing Industry— A Famous Custom House— Post Office



X ESSEX COUNTY

Page
History — Light Houses — Remarkable Instances of Longevity —
Points of Interest — Church History _._ _ 567

Chapter XL — Banks and Banking — Early and Present Banking In-
stitutions — In Salem — Lynn — Danvers — Ipswich — Andover —
Marblehead — Gloucester — Saugus — Beverly — Amesbury — New-
buryport — Lawrence — Peabody — Groveland — Rockport — Man-
chester — Merrimac — Georgetown — Haverhill _ 595

Chapter XLI — Railroads and Transpoi'tation — Early Vehicles —
First Public Conveyance — First Railroad Charter in Massachu-
setts — Railway to Quincy Stone Quarries — First Railroads to
Reach Salem, Saugus, Danvers, and Other Towns — Street Rail-
ways - -._ _ 625

Chapter XLII — Educational Interests — Early School at Salem —
Lynn Schools — Early School Usages — Ancient Records — Pres-
ent Schools in Lynn — In Danvers — Lawrence — Essex — Ames-
bury — Salisbury — Andover — Hamilton — Boxford — Groveland —
Haverhill — Ipswich — Middleton — Saugus — J»Iethuen — Beverly —
Newbury — Nahant — Bradford — Merrimac — Gloucester — Phil-
lips Academy — Andover School for Girls and Young Women —
Andover Theological Seminary — Beverly Academy — Baker
Free School — Merrimac Academy — Manning School — Marble-
head Academy — Franklin Academy — Salem Normal School —
Saugus Female Seminary — Topsfield Academy 631

Chapter XLIII — Physicians of the County — Medical Practice in Dan-
vers — Medical History of Lynn — Essex — Rockport — Topsfield —
Wenham — Georgetown! — Beverly — Andover — Nahant — Rowley
— Boxford — West Newbuiy — Haverhill — Gloucester — Groveland
— Manchester — South Hamilton — Salisbury — Newburyport —
Marblehead — Merrimac — Saugus — Middleton — Lynnfield Cen-
ter — Salem — Ipswich — Methuen — Amesbuiy — Lawrence — Pea-
body _ _ 693

4

Chapter XLIV — Newspapers of the County — The Essex Gazette —
Newspapers in Salem — Scientific Periodicals — Newspapers in
Lynn — Saugus — Haverhill — Newburyport — Amesbury — Pea-
body — Gloucester — Lawrence — Beverly — Ipswich — Marblehead 731

Chapter XLV — Military History — Indian Wars — Military Annals
of Danvers — Salem — Lynn — Gloucester — Newburyport — Ha-
verhill — Nahant — Boxford — Ipswich — Amesbury — Marble-
head — Georgetown — MeiTimac — Swampscott — Rockport — Row-
ley — Topsfield — Wenham — Groveland — Andover — Hamilton —
North Andover — Saugus — Beverly — Peabody — Manchester —
Lawrence — Salisbuiy _ _.. 763



CONTENTS xi

Page
Chapter XLVI — Bench and Bar — First Establishment in Essex
County — First General Court — The Various Courts — The
Witchcraft Trials — Changes in Judicial System — Early Judicial
Officiary — Attorneys General and District Attorneys — Pro-
visions for Admission to the Bar — Bar Association — Names in
Bar Book — Judicial Procedure 825

Chapter XLVII — Agriculture and Horticulture — Early Farm Indus-
tries — Early Agricultural Society _ _ _ 867

Chapter XLVIII — Lodges in Essex County — Masonic — Odd Fellows

— Knights of Pythias — Other Orders „ 871

Chapter XLIX — Witchcraft in Essex County — Early Cases — First

Execution — List of Executions — Judges Presiding at Trials. 881

Chapter L — United Shoe Machinery Company 891

Chapter LI — Miscellaneous — Essex County Congressmen — Presiden-
tial Votes — New England Laboratory Company _ .._ 901



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CHAPTER I.

GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY OF ESSEIX COUNTY,

Relics of the Glacial Period — The Foundation Rocks — The Tombolos —
Formation of Islands — Earth Resources.

The geology and geography of Essex County is most complicated
and difficult. Its rocks are ancient, the roots of old mountains, greatly
changed by the heat and pressure accompanying earth movements and
the intrusion of molten rock. Its soils have been formed and distri-
buted during successive glacial periods, by the ice, by fresh waters as
the ice receded, by sea waves and the winds, as the county was emerg-
ing after being covered by the ocean. It is a subject for a scientist.
One who would know the detail for his home town may find full treat-
ment in the monograph on the "Physical Geography of Essex County"
by John H. Sears, published in 1905 by the Essex Institute.

The geography of the county, however, affects the life of its
residents intimately, A farmer must know the origin and nature of
its soils, to develop his lands with intelligent wisdom and highest
profits. The Chamber of Commerce of a city will plan its development
to best advantage when its members know the nature as well as the
appearance of their civic environment. The thousands who traverse
the highways of the county in automobiles will find keener pleasure
at every hill and plain, beside lake or river, if they know something
of the origin and significance of these features of our varied scenery.
Though details be left to scientists, anyone may know the main truths
of our geography, and a simple statement about our lands and waters
should be of appealing interest.

Following the Newburyport turnpike up hill and down dale, or any
county road, the land seems a confusion of hills, swamps and plains.
But view it from a distance — from the railway, or the ocean, toward
the hill crests that extend from far west of Saugus eastward to Marble-
head, and to Cape Ann. A fairly even, gradually-descending upland
line is evident. Nevertheless, even a scientist would have failed to sur-
mise that all the land once rose to this level, and that resistant
rock hills are remnants of an ancient upland, were it not that as one
travels westward the valleys occupy less and less area, the hilltops
broaden and coalesce until they foi-m the Berkshire plateau, trenched
by the valley of the Deerfield and overtopped by summits like Monad-
nock that slow erosion never reduced to the common level.

The rock structure shows that long before the rolling upland was
formed, Essex county, like all New England, was mountainous.

Essex — 1



2 ESSEX COUNTY



Online LibraryBenjamin F. ArringtonMunicipal history of Essex County in Massachusetts (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 58)