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Xjids^S-^OJO ^



J^arbarli College Htbraq}



BOUGHT WITH INCOME

PROM THE BBqjJEST OF

SAMUEL NEWTON CUTLER

(CUm of X877)
OF BOSTON




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MYSORE



AND



COORG.



a ©ajetteer compile for tijc ©o&emment of intim.



BT



^2^y>^'**^^ LEWIS RICE,

Sirtclor ofFtiNie butrveiim, Myaort and Cotrg.



VOL. II.

'^•YRORE, BY DISTRICTS.




2RNMENT PRESS,
876.



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^hdsr^a.io



\ NOV 25 19t3



^'



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CONTENTS.



Popt.



Nundydroog Division.



Bahgalobb D18TBICT, wHOTmap ... ... 1—81

Oeneral Desoription :— Phy sical Featares, 1 ; Rocfcg and Soils, 2 ;
\ (aimate, 6 ; Vegeiatioo, 7; Arboricaltnre, 9; Cropa, 10; Horticiil-

taTe,12; WiManiiDals, 13. DoDiesticaimnalByli. History;—
^ Early legends, 16; Chera or Kongo, Chola and BaMla kings, 17;

L^ MorasQ Wokkaln, Jaya Cauda, Eempe Gaoda, 18 ; Jagadeva Biyal,

t * 21 ; Shalyi, 21 ; Mysore Wodeyare, 24. Population : - Dirtrib-

^ atwo, increase, classes, 27 ; Occapations of the people, 31 ;Stock and

I Dwellings, 31 •, Towns and Villages, 32 ; Pestirals and fiOrs, 32 ; Vital

I Statistics, Diseases, 33. Revenue, 35. Trade:— Manu-

fiwtures, 38; Arts, 37 ; Marts, 37. Communications:—
Railway, 37 ; Roads and Bungalows, 38.
Gazetteer ofprindpal places, rivers, &c. ... 39->81

Bangalore, ic»^ p2(m ... ... ... 44



KoLAB District, wiiK'map ... ... ... 82—138

General Description :— Physical Features, 82 ; Tanks, 84 ; Rocks
and Soib, 86; Climate, 86; Vegetation, 87; Agricultoral produce^
88; Animals, «1. History :— Legends, 92 ; Pkllava, Chola,
Bolttla and Vijayanagar kings, 93 ; Timme Gaoda, Chikka RAyal, 94 ;
Shahip, 95; Malla Baire Gauda, 96. Population, 96.
Bevenue, 102. Trader—Exports and Importe, 103.
Communications:— Raflway, Roads and Bungalows, 105.

Gaaetteer of principal places, &C.... ... ...106—138



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TuMKUB DiBTBiOT, tvUk^map ... ... ... 139—188

General Description :— Physical Features, 139; Rocks, minenik,
soils, 141 ; Climate^ 143; Vegetation and ColtiTation, 144 ; Animali^
146. History :— Legends, 147 ; Chilokya, and Hoysala BaMla
kings, 147 ; Baire Oaada, 147 ; S&l Nayak, 148 ; Sobah of Sira, 149.
Fopidation, 149. Revenue, 155. Trade :— Manu-
factures, 168. Communications, 158.

Gazetteer of principal places, &c ... ... 159 — 188



Ashtagram Division.

Mysobb Djstbict, ''with map ... . ... .., 191—284

General Description :~Phj8ical Features, 191 ; Channels, 192;
Rocks, Minerals and Soils, 193; Climate, 194; ForestB, 196; Culti-
vation, 198; Wild animals, 201; Domestic animals, 203.
History ; — Early Legends, 205 ; Kongu or Cbera, Chola, Hoysala
Ball&la and Vijayanagar kingS) 206; Mysore Wodeyars, 208.
Population, 210. Revenue, 217. Trade:— Manu-
factures and Commerce, 218. Communications: — Roads
and Bungalows, 220.

Gazetteer of principal places, rivers, &c. ... 221—284

Mysore, UTtYAirfon ... ... ... ... 252

Hassan District, ^tcUh map ... ... . ... 285—336

General Description :— Physical Features, 285; Malnad and
Maiian, 287 ; Channels, 287; Rocks and Soils, 288; Climate, 2)59;
Vegetation, Forests, 290; Cultivation, 292; Wild and domestic
animals, 294. History :— Legends, 296; Kadamba and

\ Chilukya kin^ 296; Hoyiala Ball&las, 297 Vijayanafrar kings and

Balam, 298; Mysore Rajas, 299. Population, 299.

Revenue, S05. Trade :— Manu£ictures and Marts, 306

Communications :— Paves, Roads and Bungalows, 807.

Gazetteer of principal places, &c ... ... 309 - 3S6

Nagar Division.

Shimoga DiBTBicT, tvUk^map ... ... ... 339^400

General Description :— Physical Features, 339; Rodu and Soils,
341; Climate, 342; Vegetation, 344; CulUvatiou, 346- Animals,
350. History :— Janamejaya, Kubattur, 351 ; Kadambas, 352 ;
Chdlukyas, 352 ; Humcha, 353 ; Ealachuryas, 354 ; Hoysah Bdl^
354 ; Vijayanagar, 354 ; Keladi, 355 ; Basvapatna, 355. Popula-
tion, 367. Revenue, 363. Trade, 364. Commun-
ioations, 365

Gazetteer of principal pkioes, rivera, &c ... ... 366-^-400



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Cadub Distbict, tcUh^map ... ••• ... 401—449

Generca Description :—FbjBioal Fetiara, 401; ScSiB, 405;
Caimate, 405 ; Yegetatkn, 406; ColtiTatioii, 408 : WOd animals,
411; DomeBtac animala, 413. History :—Earij Ug&ada,
SriDg^ and Biflfaya Sringa, &a, 418; HoTsala BalUUas, 415;
Yijayanagar, 416 ; MyBore BaJH» 416. Fopulation, 417.
Bevenue, 42a Trade, 424. Commiinica-
tions, 426.

Gazetteer of principal plaoes^ riven, moantaiDi^ &c. ... 427—449

GbitaiiDbooo Distbict, '^tdth map ... ... 450 — B04

General Description i—Phytical Featares, 451 ; Rocfa^ minerab
and Soils, 452; Climate, 453} VegetatioD, 455; CoUiTatioD, 456;
Animals, 45& History :—Konga or Chen, Nirgmida, 458;
Ch&lnkyas, NonambaYidi, 459 ; HoTiala BaUilas, 459; Vijajanagar,
459; Outaldroog fimiily, 460; Kidugal family, 463; Hysoi^Bai
464. Population, increase &c. 46& Be venue, 471.
Trade :~ManafiKtores, 472 ; Narta^ 474 ; Communica-
tions, 474.

Gazetteerofprindpal places, &c., ... ... 475— 50i



Affehbices.



I. Names of plaoes in Kannada and Roman letteis.
II. GksBaiy of official terms.



ISDSJL






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NUNDYDROOG DIVISION.



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Nundydroog Division,



District.


Area.


Popcdatioa


Revenao.


Koli

TArakdr


sq.m. 2,914
^577
8,606


828,534 Rs. 1,700,000
618,954 ' 1,200,000
632,239 1 1,175,000


Total


9097


2,079,547


4,075,000



Totem containing a population of more than 5,000.



BaD|]:alore

TumkAr

Kolar

Chikballapar

Dodballapar

Channapatoa



142;513.
11,170.
9,924.
9,882.
7,449.
7,101.



Sidla^ntU

Anekal

DeTanhalli

Hosor

CSosepet



7,009.
6,612.
5,751.
6,751.
5,46a



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BANGALORE DISTRICT.



GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

Situation.— k District in the south of the Nundydroog Division ;
situated between 12° 13' and 13° 23' north latitude, 77° T and 78° 4'
east longituda Its greatest length is from north to south, the distance
between the extreme points being 85 miles. From east to west it mea-
sures 50 miles.

Area. — ^The area is computed at 2,914 square miles; of which

1,167 square miles 374 acres are under cultivation, 414 square miles

548 acres culturable, 1,331 square miles 358 acres unculturable and
waste.

Baundarks.— It is bounded north-east by the Kolar District and
north-west by the Tumkur District, both of the Nundydroog Division;
south-west by the Mysore District of the Ashtagram Division, and south-
east by the Salem District of the Madras Presidency ; while for 10 miles
on the south the river Eaveri separates it fiom the Coimbatore District
of that Presidency.

Sub-Divisions. — It is subdivided into the following taluks :—



Na 'Talok.


Area m iq. milest


No. of
Hoblis.


No. of Villas^
orTowtos.


PopoIatioD.


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9


Anekal

Deranhalli

Bodbalkpar

Hoikote

ITanln^T^lMlll

Nelamang^ '.'/.

Total...


•178

•399
476
238
292

•401
401

•320
209


7
9
9
8
8
8
8
11
7


201
319
226
293
268
344
21^
354
327


55,895
227,425
96,974
70,459
63,707
69,885
78,415
99,085
71,509




2,914


75


2,5M 1 828,854



Physical Features. — The main portion of the District consists of the
vailey of the Arkavati, with the Kaveri flowing at its southern base. The

• Owiog to redistribatioD of hoblis the areas marked,* are approximate only.



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3 B4NGAL0BB DISTfilOT.

eastern portion includes the upper basin of the Southern Pinakini (or
Pennar), the western a small part of that of the Shimsha.

A line drawn north and south from Nundydroog to the west of
Bangalore and thence to Anekal would run along the highest part of
the ridge of land which separates the Arkavati valley from that of the
S. Pinakini. The elevation of this rising ground at Bangalore, one of the
highest parts of the Mysore table land, is 3,050 feet above the level of
the sea, measured at the base of the Chief Commissioner's flagstafiP. At
the fnantapam or watch tower on the Oyal-dinne, two miles to the north
of Bangalore, the elevation is 3,120 feet at base of the observatory.

Parallel with this watershed, which foims the eastern boundary
of the Kaveri river system in Mysore, is a broken chain of rocky hills
extending from the west of the Nelamangala taluk, through the. taluks
of Magadi, Closepet, and Kankanhalli, and occasionally rising into lofty
mountain peaks, such as Shivaganga and Savandurga. Beyond this
western belt the surface waters, commencing from the west of Magadi,
run southwards into the Shimsha.

The central, northern, and eastern portions of the District are open
and undulating. The low lying grounds are occupied with series of tanks
for cultivation, formed by embanking the streams of the valleys, ^nd vary-
ing in size from small ponds to considerable lakes. The upland tracts
are often bare or covered with low scrub jungle. Westward the coun-
try is broken and rugged, being composed of a succession of hills and
valleys, intersected by rocky and sandy streams, having a great fall To
the south, where the general level of the land declines towards the Eaveri,
the hills are closer together and surrounded with thick jungle.

The following heights above the level of the sea will serve to shew
the general elevation of the upper plain surface. In the centre, Banga-
lore, High Ground, 3067 ft. ; Railway Station, 3034. Kadgodi in the east,
2,856 ; Betta Halsur in the north, 2,994 ; Sompur in the west, 3088.

Bocks. — *The prevailing rock is gneiss or Neptunic rock, disrupted
by trap seams, dikes and large out-crops, and also by porphyritic and
fine-grained granitic rocks, rock crystal, amethystic, smoky and milky

*Th6 iollowing paragraphs are fiom a note by CoIoDel PucUe.



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BOCKS. S

quartz. Adularia, pink felspar, chert, comndum, chalcedony, mica and
hornblende are found in considerable quantities. Quartzose pebbles
that bear a b'gh polish, are also found in the river beds. Hoematitic
iron ore is abundant, and a nodular limestone of considerable value is
found in the valleys, while near Kankanhalli there is a formation of
indusial lime, some of which bears a tolerable polish. It is very pure
and makes good polished chunam.

BuUdmg St(me.—The gneissose rock is everywhere abundant and
is extensively quarried for building purposes. Lai^ge slah^, of from 3
inches to 2 feet in thickness, are readily obtained by the simple appli-
cation of heat to the surface. Then by pooling small holes in the re-
quired direction and wedging, the stone can be separated with great
precision into pieces of almost any dimensions. Pillars thus prepared
and 25 feet in length have been extensively employed as telegraph posts,
while in the High School at Bangalore single stones 35 feet high and
not more than 15 inches squai^ have been used to support thereof.
They are formed into hght columns by a coating of cbunam and are a
great improvement on the old massive style of brick-in-chunam pillars
tiiat took up so much space. Stone is also employed for architraves,
for culvert girders up to 8 or 9 feet span (they are not safe above this
on account of the preUminary burning process used in quarrying them)
and for a variety of other useful purposea It is easily quarried into &
flat-bedded building material, and within the last few years arches of
coursed hammer-dressed stone have been constructed with great economy
and success, the face of the work presenting almost the appearance of
dressed stone though in no instance has the chisel been used. Good
examples may be seen at Dodballapur, where the first bridge of the kind
was built in 1857 ; at the 5th mile on the Mysore road where one of 50
feet span is built ; at the 18th mile on the Tumkfir road, where the
newly constructed bridge stood the rush of water from 5 tanks, breached
at the same time, over its parapets, without a crack being anywhere
visible. For partly hammer-dressed and partly chisel-dressed work,
tiie Bangalore Railway Station offers an excellent example, or the new
residence for the Maharaja. Thin slabs of stone have also been used
for partition walls of houses where economy of space was desirable.

Bead Metd. — It is used, broken up, for road metal, but from tbo



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4 BAKGALDBl BISTBICT.

diflference of the decay of the materials composing the rock it does not
seem suitable. The tough trap rock, of which tiiere is so large a quan-
tity, might perhaps be substituted for it with advantage.

Clays.— Potters' clay is found in not large quantities, but it is well

worked up by the native potters, though their insufficient method of

burning the biscait renders Hhe ware more brittle than it might be.

There are many kaolinitic days of a highly refractory character, and if

these were duly admixed with the potters' clay and hard fired in proper .

furnaces, much improvement in the manufactured material would be

the result. The white clay is the best and stands great heat Specimens

of it were sent to Mr. Mmton, and very favorably reported on, but the

colored kinds were mixed with so much oxide and other foreign matter

as to be pronounced of not much economic valua f)xcellent fire and

cornice bricks, and mouldings of all shapes can be made of this material,

and in a trial made in 1862 an artificial stone was produced that took

a fair polish. Materials for glazing pottery are also procurable about

Bangalore.

Soils.— The prevailing soil is the red or Jcempu. It is a red loam
of great fertility and is found in every variety of color from light to
dark red, and deep chocolate. It generally overlays the metamorphic
granite in varying depths from a few inches to several feet. The darker,
rich red and chocolate soils are supposed to be the result of the weather-
ing down to mould of the trap rocks, which are everywhere visible in
seams and out-crops, having disrupted and overlaid the normal gneis-
sose rock, disintegrating it and tilting the strata in every conceivable way
at the points of disruption and contact. Granitic rocks of a porphyritic
character are also weathering down in a red soil of much fertihty,
in which dry crops grow well and which the natives consider a first
class soil But the spontaneous growth of fine haridli and of some true
grasses, and the rich and healthy appearance of the trees growing in the
trap soil shew that any culture will with ordinary attention succeed,
and that its capabilities are not sufficiently appreciated. Some cultiva-
tors, however, who know its value, state that with proper attention it will
yield an eighty-fold return. The decomposition of the normal gneissose
rock gives the saulu earth, the grey, sandy and sterile soils, and the
Jsaolinitic clays.



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CLIMATB. 6

Climate. — ^The climate of Bangalore is noted for its salubrity. It
seems well suited to the constitution both of Europeans and natires,
epidemics being of rare occurrence and other diseases of a mild charao
ter. Those portions of the District lyiog north and east of Bangalore
partakeof the same generally healthy character. The taluks traversed
by the western range of hills are, on the other hand, subject to malarious
fevers.

From January to March the wind is variable. A pleasant breeze

often blows from the south and west in the early momingy but as

the sun's heat increases the wind sets strongly from the north-east

and gradually drops as sunset approaches. The sky during this season

IS bright and cloudless. In April the wind chops about suddenly

from easterly to westerly, and there are occasional thunder showers.

The weather is sometimes sultry and oppressive, at other times storms of

wind and dust are prevalent : clouds often bank up heavily in the east

and travel round to west, ending not in rain but in a thick dust storm.

May is generally sultry, with variable breezes and occasional high winds

and thunder storms. Towards the end of the month the wind settles

in the S. S. W., in which quarter there is much sheet lightning. In

Jmie and July the weather is cloudy, with a high S. W. wind which

ought to bring abundance of rain. With some intermission similar

wither continues till October, when the wind changes round to the east

and north-east, whence the heaviest rains are expected. These continue

into November and are succeeded by bright sunny days and cold foggy

mornings. From December to May there is usually little or no rain.

Temperature. — The mean temperature deduced from observations at
Bangalore is 76*2. The mean diurnal range is 15*6, but the extreme
range marked in any one day varies from 18 in October and November
to 30 and 32 in February and March. The extreme annual range re-
corded has been 42 degrees, between a minimum of 53 in February 1866
and a maximum of 95 in May of the same year. The following is a sum-
mary of mean meteorological results from the registers of the Bangalore
observatory for 1873 and 1874, in the former of which the rain-fall was
below and in the latter much above the average,



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BAKaALOBE DISTBIOT.





i


Thermometers.


i*

^


h

CO a

S3^


i

§

1


Wind.




1


1


-S"


1873.


d




i




^


1






r


3


9


b


?


g


1


^


*i c


(5




^




^


S


^


^


a


cn


g


&


£








JanouT


26^91


80-6


51-8


66-3 57-5 60


132-5


45-1 1231 E. by N.






75


Fefaroi^ ...


26-588


87-2


53-8


71-6 62-41 62


138-6


53-4 ...E.&&E.


6-43




64


Haich


26-954


91-9


62-7


76-062-1 48


144-2


58-31 ...'S.byE.




.'.,


77


a? :::


26-909
26-866


92-0
95-7


65-6
69-5


770, 66-5' 60
80-l!67-5i54


144-9
145-8


63-6! ...S.W.byS.
67-9 ...1 a& W.


i-35
0-13


...


51
53


June


26-846


88-3


66-4


74-8 67-0 69! 136-4


60-2; 144S.W.byW


1*44




34


July


26-857


85-7


66-2


72-9 66-3; 72


1321


64-9I 164W.S. W.


0-72




34


Augort ...


26-888


86-0


65-4


72-7; 67-5' 78


1371


64-4 lG4l W.


8-28




32


September ...
OcSober ...


26-918


84-0


64-9


72-l!66-9|77


136-3


63-3 166; W. byS.


' 5-50




38


26-518


81-5


63-3


a-0 66-9182


136-0


60K) 124 W,


1311




30


Nofembep ...


27-012


80-9


59-9


69-8' 62-9; 70


137-5


55-9


143 E.byN.


0-16




54


Deoember ...


27K)15


81-7


57-1


68-3 61-5 69


134-0


52-9


124


E.N. E.


0-04




62


Meani.


26-863


86-3


62-6


72-7! 64-6 67


1 187-9


59-6


163


...


29-16


...


^


1874.
























Janoary


27-032


79-9


56-3


66-1


58-5 62


136-2


45-7


133 E. by N.


...


45


78


Felitiiry .•


28-996


85-7


62-2


73-2


61-6 53


141-2


55-6


1261 S. E.


...


401


72


March •-


26-935


9H


651


76-8


61-6' 43


146-fi


53-0


130| S.E.


... ;4275|


^ :::

Jane


26-936


94K)


69-8


81-2


65-3! 47


145-C


62-0


128 S. 8. W.


0-72


3867


28-844


85-5


68-0


75-2


67-8 74


148-e


63-ti


186,W. S. W.


1^51


5235


26-837


82-9


66-1


72-3


67-7 80


130-7


64-6


265>.byS.


1-73


47;32


Joly


26-850


80-1


64-3


70-5


66-6 83


129-(


63-6


265 W. by S.


6-54


44126


Ao^ ...


26-886


81-4


63-9


70-9


66-1 82


134-5


62-1


233,W. S.W.


8-36


4231


September ...
Od^ber ...


26-836


79-8


64-0


69-8


66-7 86


13^S


) 62-8


201 W. by S.


16-CO


48,25


26-894


81-4


64-4


71-0


67-3 83


••••


...


105! S. W.


6-52


...34


November ...


26-994


80-0


60-9


69-5 '63-3. 74


...


...


99'E. by N
114JE.N.K


126


..46


December ...


27-027


77-6


56-9


66-0 1 69-3 68


...


...


001


...58


Meaoa


26-922


83-3


63-5


71-9 1644 70


138-^


t' 61-6' 1651


56-65


l44'48



BamfaU. — ^The mean average rain-fall j8 36 inches in the year,
distributed over from 80 to 90 day& The heaviest fall occurs generally
during the prevalence of the N. E. monsoon about October. As a general

rule the showers fall in the afternoon and
evening, rainy mornings being of rare oc-
currence. The accompanying figures, giving
the annual fall of rain at Bangalore from
the year 1837, will shew the extent of
variation. The quantity regfstered for
1838, only 16 inches, stands by itself and
is so exceptionally low as to suggest a
doubt as to its accuracy. Omitting that
year of singular drought, the range has
been from 26*6 inches in 1859 to 56-65
in 1874 The laafc occasion previous to
this in which the fall greatly exceeded the average was in 1852, whei^
55*1 inches were registered.





In.c




lo. c


1837


44.3


3856


48-S


1838


16


1857


80-4


1839


32-4


1858


37-8


1840


80-2


1859


26-6


1841


38


1860


33-2


1842


31-2


1861


80-1


1848


37-2


1862


37-3


1844


34-4


1863


35-8


1845


32-7


1864


37-62


1846


40


1865


36


1847


37-5



Online LibraryBenjamin Lewis RiceMysore and Coorg → online text (page 1 of 50)