Benjamin R. (Benjamin Richard) Andrews.

Museums of education, their history and use online

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val history, about 100. Models of knights in armor, 2. Relief map
of Battle of Gettysburg. Hensell's models, Greek and Roman life, 25.
Maps of Ancient, European and American history, 50. Charts illustratmg^
presidential elections. Photographs and slides.

12. Kindergarten education: Japanese kindergarten (1893). 2 charts.
New York public schools, 32 charts. New York Kindergarten Association^
2 items. Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 2 items. Huntington Kitchen Garden
materials, 24 items. Milton Bradley Co., 88 items. E. Steiger & Co.,
49 items. Japanese toys, 31. American educational card games (some
advanced), 19.



215] Museums of Education 21

13. Language and literature : German phonic charts for language
instruction, 41. Map of scenes in Schiller's Wilhelm Tell. Hensell's
models for Greek and Latin instruction, 25. Portraits of authors.

14. Mathematics : Museum has samples of Japanese and German
pupils' work; a few mathematical models; and 150 lantern slides of history
of mathematics, mathematical games. The Department of Mathematics
has a remarkable mathematical museum in rooms 211, 212, Teachers Col-
lege. Its collections include American and foreign models, apparatus and
materials for mathematical instruction in kindergarten, elementary and
high schools. In addition the private collections of Professor David
Eugene Smith are displayed in room 212, and are at the disposal of
students. These include 1600 portraits, 2000 autographs, and 150 medals
of mathematicians ; exhibits showing the development of mechanical
mathematics from earliest forms to modern reckoning machines ; mathe-
matical manuscripts of the last 200 years ; 500 mathematical books of
earlier date than i8co; and a mathematical library of 7000 volumes and
5000 pamphlets. These private collections, together with the collection
of apparatus, lantern slides, etc., form a unique museum of the history and
teaching of mathematics.

15. Manual Training and Industrial Arts : In museum : wood carv-
ings, Chinese, Japanese, German, Egyptian. Japanese work in lacquer,
beaten and cast metal. Printing, 25 items. Commercial products {e.g.
cocoa manufacture), 5. Pottery (some, fine art; some, archeological),
14 specimens ; others in departmental collections, including exhibit of
processes in Pueblo pottery. Photographs and slides of industries, applied
art, and school work. In Manual Training Department : samples of
woods, natural color and finished (also photographs and slides) ; samples
of gums, resins, etc., 22. Models for form and mechanical drawing.
Samples of work in various handicrafts, pottery, basketry, weaving, metal
work, wood carving. School work : Sloyd from Naas, Sweden, 6 sets of
models. Technical school and art school, Tokyo, Japan, 7 sets of samples
of work in wood (ca., 200 items) ; i, in metal. London public school, 2 sets
of work in wood. Boston public schools, 2 sets, work in wood. French
elementary schools, 3 sets, work in wood ; i set, iron. Photographs (200)
of manual §chool work, largely Teachers College and its schools. Exhibit
of current work in College and its schools.

16. Natural Science : Department of Physics and Chemistry, in addi-
tion to its regular laboratory equipment and apparatus has collection of
mechanical toy* and home-made apparatus. Lantern slides.

17. Physical education and anatomy: 27 charts.

18. Religious education : Maps of Palestine, Paul's journeys, etc., 12.
Relief maps, 2. Syrian life, 67 items. Models of common things, well,
sheepfold, etc., 12. Plaster model of temple. Stereograms, 6 sets, 36 in
set. Photographs of Palestine, 2>7- Photographs of mission stations, 140.
Lantern slides of Palestine and Life of Christ.

ig. Framed pictures and sculptural casts, over 1000 in number, in
Teachers College and its schools; catalogued and administered by museum.



22 Teachers College Record [216

2. Growth of these Collections : When a room was assigned
the museum in 1901, there were placed in it various collections of
photographs, lantern slides, and objects already owned by Teach-
ers College. These collections have been increased each year by
purchase and by gifts. The latter have come from individuals,
business houses, and schools, and often at the close of exhibi-
tions. A noteworthy gift is the collection of new school text-
books, which is being continually added to by publishers. The
nature of the purchases has been determined by demands — the
museum has secured those materials for which there was urgent
need. This has not permitted systematic development; on the
other hand, the present condition of collections is some index of
past needs. The accessions have been as follows :

1903-4 1904-5 190S-6 1906-7

Photographs 240 372 313

Prints from magazines 525 1193 350 561

Lantern slides 410 228 279 334

Objective collections 300 125

The record of objective accessions is not complete; depart-
mental accessions of objects are not included and only important
ones in the museum.

3. — Cataloguing: The lantern slides and photographs are cat-
alogued according to the "Dewey numerical classification," which
assigns a definite decimal subdivision to each topic ; e.g., 914.
represents "geography and travel," and its decimal subdivisions,
914. 1, 914.2, etc., represent subtopics, as geography of Africa, of
Asia, etc. The Dewey group number is written on each slide or
photograph, and in addition a "Cutter" alphabetic number ; the
first brings to any one group all items representing that topic, the
second arranges in an alphabetical order the items within each
group. The slides and photographs are kept in groups arranged
according to the sequence of numbers, the slides in small boxes
on shelves, the photographs in filing drawers. In each case guide
cards with an index number and name on the tab divide the
groups. There is thus a "direct reference" to any photograph
or slide by its topical location, without the use of a card catalog ;
"cross references" will be supplied in time by a card catalogue.
The objective collections are numbered consecutively as obtained,
and a record of each item is entered in an accession book opposite



217] Museums of Education 23

its number;^ this number is written on the object. No classifica-
tion numbers have yet been used with the objective collection;
no satisfactory classification exists, so far as the writer knows,
but the Dewey system could be modified to serve the purpose.
With increase of collections, classification numbers will probably
be added. There is a card catalogue for the objective collections,
arranged topically; on the cards, a cipher reference — e.g., "A,"
"B 21," etc. — tells the storage cupboard or drawer in which the
particular object is located. The other museum card catalogues
are : one of 500 cards giving reference to the collection of rail-
road pamphlets, maps, etc. ; one of 2000 cards, to the framed
pictures on the walls of Teachers College and its schools ; and
the catalogue of the text-book collections.

B. — Functions of the Museum: There will be presented suc-
cessively data on (i) the use of collections, (2) special exhibi-
tions, (3) bureau of information, and (4) publications.

1. Use of Collections: During 1904-5, 6851 visitors were
recorded as coming to the museum ; the actual number consider-
ably exceeded this. Data for other years is not available. The
majority came to inspect temporary exhibitions ; and there were
included many parties of school children "who came with their
teachers. The museum is open daily from 9:00 to 12:30 and
I :30 to 5 :oo o'clock, except Sundays. Saturdays it is open till
12 :30 o'clock.

The number of separate objects loaned is indicated by the
following table:

1901-2 1902-3 1903-4 1904-5 1905-6 1906-7

Photographs 522 749 1052 2615 3696 3778

Lantern slides 632 2878 4323 6233 4209 4993

Miscellaneous 103 479 233 571 434 662

Total by years 1257 4106 5608 9419 8339' 9433

2. Special Exhibitions : The museum has maintained special
temporary exhibitions since 1900, of which a nearly complete
record follows (complete from 1903-4 on), grouped by years.

^ The ruled columns in the accession book bear these headings : Acces-
sion Number, Date, Nature of Accession, Location, Number of Speci-
mens, How acquired, Cost, Condition, Remarks.

" The falling-off is in the use of lantern slides, which had been reduced
by a loan collection of 1305 slides returned to its owner.



24 Teachers College Record [218

Nature of Temporary Exhibit Remarks Attend-

1900- 1 ance

Nov. 19-24 300 pictures for school decoration Catalogue printed ....
Dec. 1-5 Pictures for school decoration Catalogue printed ....
1901-2
Feb. 18-

Mar. I 250 photos, N. Y. City schools

Mar. 5-19 Rembrandt etching (71) Loaned by Felix M.

Warburg • • • •

Mar. 13 Demonstration, weaving Navajo

blanket Arranged by Museum

of Nat. Hist.

May Pictures for school decoration and

instruction, arranged by mu-
seum, but shown in Baltimore ....

1902-3
Feb. 24-
Mar. 9 Japanese color prints, 470 Loaned by Sogo Mat-

sumoto ....

Mar. 5 Demonstration, Indian weaving

and silver beating ....

Mary L. Stone, Home Economics
Exhibit A traveling exhibit ....

1903-4

Nov. 9-14 Casts of prehistoric implements Gift, U. S. Museum

Nov. 23-

Dec. 5 Mathematical appliances and

texts. History of mathematics Occasion of meeting

of Math. Ass'ns

Dec. 8-19 Japanese color prints, 400 Loan, Sogo Matsu-

moto 1200

Feb. 9-16 Illustrative material for teaching (From museum col-
lections) ....
Feb. 19-

Mar. 19 Japanese geography and life Three lectures accom-

panying 3000

May 4-14 Kindergarten education Lecture ....

May 24-26 Domestic Science education ....

I 904-5
Oct. 24-

Nov. 26 Religious education Two conferences 2000

January National costumes, illustrated by

dolls Dom. Art Dept.

February Text books, French and German ....

March Japanese craft work, toys, prints,

and art work ....



219] Museums of Education 25

1904-5

May 12-

June 14 Art book bindings Lecture accompanying

May 15- English, German and Japanese

June 10 educational exhibits From St. Louis Ex-

position ....

June 10-

Oct. 15 Pupils' work, Horace Mann and
Speyer schools of Teachers

College ....

1905-6

Nov. 1-18 Wall pictures for school instruc-
tion Wachsmuth of Leipsic 674

Jan. 15-

Feb. 13 Teaching of design in N. Y. City

schools 829

Feb. 12-

Mar. 6 School architecture ....

Feb. 26-

Mar. 26 Glaciers : photos, maps, specimens For teaching purposes

Mar. 6-20 Book binding Loaned by Newark,

N. J., Library 678

Mar. 26-

Apr. 12 Geography teaching: text-books,

readers, maps, apparatus 778

Apr. 23-

May 10 Prevention of tuberculosis Loan by Charity Or-

ganization Society 5716

May 14-

June 13 Children's literature Bibliography pub-

lished 1907 1301

June I-

Oct. 15 Pupils' work, Horace Mann schools
of Teachers College
1906-7
November Philippine Islands
Jan. 8-

Feb. 21 Education in Europe (books, re-
ports, text-books, charts)
Mar. 1-30 Text-books on history For meeting of His-
tory Ass'n.

Apr. 4-27 Book Plate exhibit Loans

Apr. 30-

Mayii Kindergarten education (from

museum collection) For meeting of Kin-

dergarten Ass'n.



26 Teachers College Record [220

1906-7
May 13-23 Japanese prints Loaned by Arthur W.

Dow ....
May 24-25 Rare books on history of educa-
tion; old text-books Loaned by Paul Mon-
roe ....
June 17- Pupils' work, Horace Mann schools
Oct. I of Teachers College

Of the forty temporary exhibitions listed, twenty-four were
strictly germane to the purposes of a museum of education, and
among these the following topics were included : School decora-
tion, 3 exhibitions ; pupils' work in schools of Teachers College,
3 ; school architecture, 2 ; foreign schools, 2 ; kindergarten, 2 ;
illustrative material for teaching, 2 ; and one exhibition each of
the following subjects — the teaching of geography, mathematics,
history, domestic science, home economics, design, and the
French and German languages ; and old educational books, reli-
gious education, and children's literature. Of the sixteen other
special exhibitions, five were on art, five on geography and travel,
three on anthropology, one of book plates, an exhibit on tuber-
cular hygiene, and a teaching exhibit on glaciers. The materials
for exhibits were often secured as loans from firms and indivi-
duals, and in many such cases the exhibits became permanent
accessions through the generosity of exhibitors ; in several in-
stances collections of the museum ordinarily in storage were
placed on public display. The exhibits lasted from one day to
four months ; but two weeks may be taken as an average duration.
The attendance is given for only nine exhibitions ; it varies from
600 to 5700. From 600 to 1000 is probably a fair statement of
an average attendance. A Japanese exhibition during the Rus-
sian-Japanese war attracted 3000 visitors ; the tuberculosis exhi-
bition was visited by 4678 school children with teachers, 713
adults, and 315 auditors at lectures, a total of 5716. It is the
experience of the museum that such temporary displays, even
of collections which are the permanent property of the museum,
attract more visitors both from within the institution and from
outside, than do unchanged exhibits on display continuously.

3. Bureau of Information : The museum does considerable
service as a bureau of information both to faculty and students,
and to outsiders who make inquiries in person or by letter. The



22 1 ] Museums of Education 2y

former is a matter of daily occurrence, while probably upward
of lOO outside inquiries are received annually. The following are
typical outside requests answered : photographs and plans of exhi-
bition cases for a school museum ; improved forms for record
keeping in the office of a superintendent of schools ; manufac-
turers of lantern slides ; school desks ; many inquiries regarding
materials for religious instruction, following the exhibition in
that field ; blackboards ; ''what can an art museum do in coopera-
tion with the public schools," etc. Most inquiries are regarding
objective equipment, the particular field of the museum. Outside
requests for loan exhibits, as for example, of kindergarten work,
and school architecture, are significant. The museum might
with advantage prepare and loan small exhibits illustrative of
various educational ideas. A collection of about 200 catalogues
of American firms and publishers, and as many more German,
French, and English catalogues, is at hand for reference.^

4. Publications: The museum's publications include (i)
leaflet programs or guides to certain of its temporary exhibitions ;

(2) an article on "Possible Values of a School Museum," giving
a statement of the work of the Educational Museum with regard
to the Horace Mann and Speyer schools of Teachers College :"

(3) this present monograph; and (4) certain photographs,
charts and lantern slides: (a) six photographs illustrating cuts of
meat, and (b) three charts illustrating quarter of beef, etc., both
issued and sold by the museum for the Domestic Science Depart-
ment of Teachers College; (c) charts of the Roman Forum and
Athenian Acropolis, prepared for the Horace Mann schools, and
prints of which are for sale; (d) lantern slides illustrating the
history of education, and the history of mathematics, and other
sets of slides which will be developed. The museum has designed
several improved exhibition cases which have been copied in
several other museums. Outside calls upon the museum indicate
that it might profitably devise and issue commercially additional

' What this service might become was well expressed by Dean Russell
of Teachers College : "Such a museum might easily become a national,
almost an international, clearing house of concrete educational ideas."
Columbia University in the City of New York, Teachers College, Dean's
Report for 1900. p. 27.

° Benjamin R. Andrews, Teachers College Record, May, 1904, pp.
64-74.



28 Teachers College Record [222

forms of illustrative material not now obtainable through the
trade.

C. — Management of the Museum: As regards (i) staff, (2)
finances, (3) room and equipment.

1. Staff: A curator was appointed in October, 1899, and
the office has been filled continuously since, though from 1904 to
1906 the incumbent was officially termed "Assistant in Museum."
From June 1903 to 1906 there was a "Supervisor of the Museum,"
who, while at the same time a graduate student of the university,
was charged with the general oversight of the museum, concep-
tion of plans and responsibility for their execution. Since 1907
the museum has been under the care of the Adjunct Professor of
Educational Administration as "Director," with a person actively
in charge as "Secretary."

2. Finances: The museum is. supported by Teachers College,
of which it is an integral part. The museum has no income from
special endowment, though a recent report of the Dean urged
the need of a $50,000 endowment. The funds available for the
museum are determined annually, and include two items : salaries,
and expenses, the latter for increase of collections and running
expenses. Bills ar€ paid monthly against this later appropriation,
after approval by the head of the museum and by the Dean of the
college. In addition to the appropriation, the museum is pro-
vided light, postage, stationery, insurance, and janitorial service.
The appropriations since 1899 have been as follows :



Year end-


Salaries


Per cent.


Expendi-


Per cent.


Total


ing July I




of
total


tures


of
total




1900


$ 600


SO


$ 600


50


$1,200


1901


1,000


62.5


600


37-5


1,600


1902


1,300


65


700


35


2,000


1903


1,560


68.8


700


31.2


2,260


1904


1,900


65.6


1,000


34-4


2.900


1905


1,200


80


300


20


1,500


1906


1,200


80


300


20


1,500


1907


1,700


85


300


15


2,000


1908


1,700


85


300


15


2,000



Totals $12,160 71.6 $4,800 28.4 $16,960

Of a total expenditure of $16,960 in nine years, $12,160 or

71.6% have gone for salaries and only $4800 or 28.4% for increase



223] Museums of Education 29

of collections and other expenses. The low percentage of ex-
penses other than salaries from 1905 on is partly explained in that
the museum was engaged in organizing its collections, rather
than in securing new ones. Nevertheless purchases of museum
materials have had to be kept upon a more modest basis than the
best interests of the museum dictated. The receipt of generous
gifts, e. g., of text-books, has also tended to reduce the amount
spent for collections.

3. Rooms: Since 1901 the museum has occupied Room 215,
on the second floor of Teachers College, 18.7 x 12.5 meters in
size. Its furnishings include seven exhibition cases, with 25.4
square meters of surface under glass. Wall space has been pro-
vided by movable screens. Adjoining the display room is an
ofifice 4.6 X 6 m., equipped with storage cupboards, desk, etc. In
September, 1906, about one third the museum exhibition room
was temporarily assigned to other purposes, thus abridging the
facilities for exhibition. It is expected that a special library and
museum building for the Teachers College will be erected after
a few years, when ample room will be provided for the museum
collections.

Future of the Museum : The abridgment of the museum in
the fall of 1906 is regarded as temporary. The policy for the
immediate future calls for the modest increase of the museum's
central collections, and especially, it would seem, for the develop-
ment of small decentralized collections in different depart-
ments of Teachers College, particularly in manual training, fine
arts, domestic art, domestic science, geography and mathematics.
The departmental collections in mathematics are already very
extensive ; in other departments, less so. These collections are
of course designed primarily to supplement instruction, but they
can serve simultaneously as museum exhibits, and are ordinarily
open to public inspection on request. It is believed that these
decentralized collections could be developed with a centralized
responsibility for their cataloguing and care, resting upon the
museum. A unified system of loans could thus be maintained
and when building changes give the educational museum adequate
quarters the departmental collections could be amalgamated, ex-
cept as regards objects of technical significance to single depart-
ments. For such objects smaller departmental collections should



30 Teachers College Record [224

always be maintained. The museum building when erected will
provide ample exhibition space for permanent exhibits represent-
ing the history and present condition of education, as regards
school organization, architecture, equipment, curricula, and the
methods and results of instruction. It will doubtless provide as
well exhibition halls for special exhibitions lasting a shorter or
longer time, and planned upon a scale which has not yet been
possible.

Summary: The museum was started in the fall of 1886, as a
result of the Children's Industrial Exhibition ; though a distinctive
museum room was not long maintained, the exhibits were con-
tinued, and the museum idea found additional expression in
portable exhibits, the annual exhibitions, and special exhibitions.
Such was its history till 1899. Since 1899, when the first curator
was appointed, and especially since 1901, when a special exhibition
room was provided, systematic collections of slides, photographs,
and objects have been secured, forming what might be termed a
combination school museum and museum of education, serving
both the professional training departments of the college, and the
instruction in the two elementary and the secondary schools,
which are connected with the college; the museum has held a
series of special temporary exhibitions, and minor functions, a
bureau of information and publications, have appeared. Its loans
amount to 9000 objects annually, and several thousand visitors a
year come to its exhibit hall. It has emphasized special tempo-
rary exhibits rather than unchanged displays ; and its greatest
service is as a loaning library of illustrative materials for Teach-
ers College and its schools.

Educational Library of Teachers College: The Bryson Library,,
the educational library of Teachers College, in March, 1908, con-
tained approximately 39,000 volumes in its central library of
which 20,000 were books on education, and in addition 12,000
educational pamphlets. It is the center of undergraduate and
graduate professional instruction, and furnishes the literary
material necessary for educational research and investigation.
All new educational books are purchased as they appear and con-
stant efforts are made to secure significant educational books
now out of print ; new school text-books, elementary and second-
ary, are added, and these number about 3000, domestic and



225] Museums of Education 31

foreign, in the library, supplemented by 1500 of the most recent
American text-books in the museum ; an historical collection of
text-books is also growing. The collection of educational pam-
phlets, one of the most valuable sections of the library, includes
catalogues, reports, and other publications of universities, col-
leges, normal schools, academies and other secondary schools ;
city school' reports, programs, and curricula; reports of state,
provincial, and national school officials ; reports of institutions for
defectives, dependents, etc. ; the major part of the collection is
American, but there are large and representative sections of
English, French, and German documents, and less complete col-
lections from other countries ; these documents largely furnish
the source material for research and investigation. There are
about 200 periodicals on file, of which over one half are educa-
tional. Besides these educational sections, the library contains
"a selected list of general works on philosophy, history, music,
literature and science" ; and a "collection of books on history,
literature, biography," etc., "adapted to pupils in the elementary
and secondary school." A selected library of children's literature,
to be administered as an exhibit, is a recent plan. The mathe-
matical library of Professor David Eugene Smith, numbering
7000 volumes and 5000 pamphlets, and the historical collec-
tion of Professor Paul Monroe, including early text-books and
over forty first editions of educational classics, are open to


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Online LibraryBenjamin R. (Benjamin Richard) AndrewsMuseums of education, their history and use → online text (page 3 of 10)