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The American
journal of science



3 2044 106 428 618 f



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_-^.— l.-ii



1






W. O. FABLOW



S



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THE

AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.

Editor: EDWARD S. DANA.

ASSOCUTB EDIT0B8

Propessobs GEORGE L. GOODALE, JOHN TROWBRTOGE,
W. G. FARLOW AND WM. M. DAVIS, op Cambbidgb,

Pbofkssoes ADDISON E. VERRILL, HORACE L. WELLS.
L. V. PIRSSON AND H. E. GREGORY, op New Haybn,

Pbopessoe GEORGE F. BARKER, op Philadblphu,
Propkssob henry S. WILLIAMS, op Ithaoa,
Pbopessor JOSEPH S. AMES, op Baltimore,
Mr. J. S. DILLER, op Washinqton.



fourth SERIES
VOL'. XXIX-[WHOLE NUMBER, CLXXIX.]



WITH FIVE PLATES.



NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT.

1 910.



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THE TUTTLC, MOREHOUSE A TAYLOR COMPANY,
NEW HAVEN.



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CONTENTS TO VOLUME XXIX.



Numljer 169.

Page
Art. I. — Dinosaurian Distribution; by R. S. Lull 1

II. — Origin of the Crinoidal Muscular Articulations ; by A.
H. Clark 40

III. — Substitution of Bromide and of Iodine for Chlorine in
the Separation of Cerium from the other Cerium Earths;
by P. E. Browning and E. J. Roberts 45

IV. — New Fossil Coleoptera from Florissant, with Notes on
some already described ; by II. F. VViokham 47

V. — Feldspar from Linosa, and the existence of Soda
Anorihite ; by H. S. Washington and F. E. Wkight_. 52

VI. — Rare and Imperfectly Known Brachiopods from the Mis-
sissippian ; by D. A. Grkgkr- 71

VII.— Descriptions of Tertiary Plants, 111 ; by T. D. A.
Cockerell - 76

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGKNCE.

Chemistry and Physics — Relative Volatility of the Bromides of Barium aud
Radium, Stock and Heynemann : Action of Light upon Hydrogen Chloride,
CoEHN and Wassiujewa : Ratio between Uranium and Radium in Min-
erals, Mile. GLKDrrscH, 79. — Action of Radium Emanation upon the
Elements of the Carbon Group, Ramsay and Usher : Quantitative Chem-
ical Analysis, Clowes and Coleman, 80. — Positive Electricity, J. J.
Thomson: Doppler Effect in Positive Rays in Hydrogen, T. Royds, 81. —
Magnetic Rotation of Plane of Polarization in the Ultra-red, U. Meyer :
Instantaneous X-Ray Photograj>hy, F. Dessauer : Light and Sound. W.
S. Franklin and B. Macnutt, 82. — Direct and Alternating Current Test-
ing, F. Bedell : Elements of Physics, H. Crew and F. T. Jones, 8o.

Oeoloqy. — Radio-activity and Geology, J. Joly, 88. — Geology and Ore
Deposits of Gold field, Nevada, F. L. Ransome, 85. — United States Geological
Survey, 86,— Geological Survey of Wept Australia : Contribuzioni alio
Studio Petrographico della Colonia Eritrea, E. Manasse. 87. — Carboniferous
Air-breathing Vertebrates of the United States National Museum, R. L.
Moodie : Cenozoic Mammal horizons of Western North America, H. F.
Osborn, with Faunal Lists of the Tertiary of the West, W. D. Matthew,
88. — New Fossil Mammals from the Fayftm Oligocene, Egypt, H. F.
Osborn : New Carnivorous Mammals from the Fayum Oligocene, Egypt,
H. F. Osborn, 89. — New or little known Titanotheres from the Eocene and
the Oligocene, H. F. Osborn, 90.

Miseellaneoxis Scientific Intelligence.— The Autobiography of Nathaniel
Southgate Shaler, 90.^Third Report of Wellcome Research Laboratories at
the Gordon Memorial College, Khartoum, A. Barbour, 91.— Illustrations of
African Blood-sucking Flies other than Mosquitoes and Tsetse-flies, E. E.
Austin : The Cambridge Natural History, Harmer and Shipley : The
Human Body and Health, A. Davison : International Congress of Radiology
and Electricity, 92.



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IV CONTENTS.



Number 170.

Page
Abt. VIII. — Nitrogen Thermometer from Zinc to Palladium ;
by A. L. Day and R. B. JSosman ; with an Investigation
of the Metals, by E. T. Allen 93

IX. — New Scleromcter ; by A. L. Parsons 162

X. — Dodecahedral Jointing due to Strain of Cooling ; by

F. H. Lahee 169

XI. — Restoration of Paleolithic Man ; by R. S. Lull. (With
Plaiel) 171

XII.— Bisraite ; by W. T. Schaller and F. L. Ransome. .. 173

XIII. — Contributions to the Mineralogy of Franklin Furnace,

N. J.; byC.PALACHE 177

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry and P/i i/sic«— Formation of Colloidal Solutions by the Action of
Ultra-violet light upon Metals, Svedberg, 187 : Potassium Percarbonate,
RiESENFELD and Reinhold : Practical Application of Radium, Baxter
and Tilley, 188. — Volumetric Determination of Selenious Acid, L.
Marino : Contract for Radium : Absolute Measurement of High Pressure
with the Amagat Manometer, P. P. Koch and E. Wagner: Relation
between Absorption and Phosphorescence, M. L. Bruninghaus : Mass of
Moving Electrons, E. Hupka, 189.— Hertz's Photo-Electric Effect, M.
E. Bloch : Influence of Thunder on Size of Raindrops, V. J. Laine :
Conduction of Electricity through Gases and Radio-activity, R. K.
McClung, 190. — Die Strahlen der positiven Elektrizitat, E. Gehrcke,
191.

Geology and Natural History — Thirtieth Annual Report United States Geo-
logical Sui-vey, G. O. Smith, 191.— Fifth Biennial Report State Geolog-
ical Survey of North Dakota, A. G. Leonard, 192. — Figure of the Earth
and Isostacy from Measurements in the United States, J. F. Hayford,
193.— Geological Survey Cape of Good Hope, A. W. Rogers : Devonian
fauna of the Ouray limestone. E. M. Kindle : Lower Paleozoic Hyolithidas
from Girvan» F. R. C. Reed : Die asiatischen Fusulinen : Die Fusulinen von
Darwas, G. DyhrenfurTH, 194. — Palaozoiche Seestei-ne Deutschlands ; 1.
Die echten Asteriden der rheinischen Grauwacke, F. Schondore : La Valine
de Binn (Valais) ; Etude g^graphique, g^ologique, miu^ralogique et pit-
toresque, L. Desbuissons : Catalogue of the Fossil Bryozoa in the Depart-
ment of Geology, British Museum of Natural History, J. W. Gregory :
Hand-List of the Genera and Species of Birds, R. Bowdler Sharpe :
Physiologische Pflanzen-Anatomie, G. Haberlandt, 195.

Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence — Report of the Secretary of the Smith-
sonian Institution, C. D. Walcott, 196. — Annual Report of the Board of
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 197. — National Antarctic Expedi-
tion, 1901-1904, Magnetic Observations, 198.— Evolution of Worlds, P.
Lowell : Hyperbolic Functions, G. F. Becker and C. E. Van Orstrand,
199. — Robbins* Plane Trigonometry, E. R. Robbinb : Experimental Dairy
Bacteriology, H. L. Russell and E. G. Hastings : Bref och Skirfvelser
af och till Carl von Linn^, Th. M. Fries, 200.



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CONTENTS. V

Number 171. '

Page

Abt. XIV. — Armor of Stegosaurns ; by Richard S. Lull. . 201
XV.— Times of Fall of Meteorites ; by O. C. Farrington. 21 1
XVL— ^'ote on the Occurrence of Astrophyllite in the

Granite at Quincy, Mass. ; by L. V. Pirsson 215

XVII.-^ Crystallization of a Basaltic Magma from the

Standpoint of Physical Chemistry ; by C. N. Fknnkr.. 217
XVIII. — Notes on Goethite ; by V. Goluscumidt and A. L.

Parsons 235

XIX. — Velocities of Certain Reactions between Metals and

Dissolved Halogens; by R. G. Van Name and G.

Edgar 237

XX — New Cretaceous Bauhiuia from Alabama; by E. W.

Bkrry 256

XXI. — Anhydrite and Associated Minerals from the Salt

Mines of Central Kansas ; by A. F. Rogers 258

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry and Physics — Purple Dye of the Ancientn, P. Friedlaender,
262. — Parifioation of Water Supplies by the use of Hypochlorites, W. P.
Mason : Allen^s Cojnmercial Organic Analyses, H. Leffmann and W. A.
Davis, 263. — Introductioa to Physical Chemistry, H. C. Jones: Change
from Positive Reflection to Negative through Pressure, O. Lummer and
K. SoRGE : Study of Gaseous Suspensions, M. de Broglie : Constitution
of the Electric Spark, T. Royds : Cadmium Amalgams and the Weston
Normal Cell, F. E. Smith, 264.

Gfology and Natural History— Florida. State Geological Survey, E. H.
Sellards, 265. — Report of Topographic and Geologic Survey Commission of
Pennsylvania, 1906-1908, 266.— Virginia Geological Survey, T. L. Watson :
Illinois State Geological Survey, H. F. Bain : Geology and Water
Resources of the Northern Portion of the Black Hills and Adjoining
Regions in South Dakota and Wyoming, N. H. Darton, 267. — Biological
Survey of Michigan : An Ecological Survey of Isle Royale, Lake Superior,
C. C. Adams : Tbe Univei-sity Geological Survey of Kansas, E. Haworth,
268.— Das Antlitz der Erde, E. Suess, 269. — Beitrage zur Flora der unteren
Ereide Quedlinburgs, Teil 11 ; Die Qattung Nathoi-stiaua P. Richter und
Cylindrites spongioides Goeppert, P. B. Richter : Cave Vertebrates of
America; a Study in Degenerative Evolution, C. B. Eioenmann, 270. —
Die S&ugetierontogenese in ihrer Bedeutong fttr die Pbylogenie der Wir-
beltiere, A. A. W. Hubrecht : Occurrence of Strepsicerine Antelopes in the
Tertiary of Northwestern Nevada, J. C. Merriam, 271.— Recherches Geo-
logiques et P^trogi-aphiciues sur I'Oural du Nord ; Le Bassiu de la Haute
Wich^ra, L. Duparc : Laboratory Botany for the High School, W. N.
Clute, 272.

Miscellaneous Scientific IntelUyence— The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedi-
tion 1902-1903, 272. — Carnegie Institution of Washington, Eighth Year
Book : The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
Fourth Annual Report, H. S. Pritchett and T. M. Carnegie, 274.—
Relief Maps : Report of the Librarian of Congress and Report of the
Superintendent of the Library Building and Grounds, 275. — Harvard Col-
lege Observatory, E. C. Pickering, 276.

Obituary — M. Serqe Nikitin ; Dr. Shelford Bid well, 276.



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VI CONTENTS.



Number 172.

Page

Art. XXII. — Studies on the General Circulation of the

Earth's Atmosphere ; by F. H. Bigklow 277

XXIII. — Mixed Crystals of Silver Sulphate and Dichromate ;

by R. G. Van Name and R. S. Bosworth 293

XXIV. — Ostcoloory and Affinities of the Genus Stenomylus ;

by F. B. LooMis 297

XXV.— Refractive Index of Canada Balsam; by W. T.

SCHALLER 324

XXVI. — Stratigraphy of the upper Carboniferous in West
Texas and Southeast New Mexico ; by G. B. Richardson 325

XXVII. — Gravimetric Determination of Free Bromine and
Chlorine, Combined Iodine, and Oxidizing Reagents by
means of Metallic Silver ; by C. C. Perkins 338

XXVIII. — Discharges of Electricity Through Hydrogen ;

by J. TROWBRIliGE 341

XXIX. — New Pennsylvania Meteorite ; by O. C. Farrington 350

XXX. — Remarks on the Pentamerous Symmetry of the Cri-

noidea ; by A. II. Clark 353

XXXI. — Association of Enargite, Covellite, and Pyrite from

Ouray Co., Colorado ; by W. M. Thornton, Jr 358



SCIENTIFIC intelligence.

Chemistry and Physics — Detection of Sodium, CaBsiam, and Rubidium, W. C.
Ball, 860. — Volumetric Determination of Sulphates, Mitchell and Smith:
Action of Metals on Fused Caustic Soda, LeBlano and Beromann, 361. —
Transformation of Diamond into Graphite, Vogel and Tammann : The
Johns Hopkins University Circular, No. 2 : Meteoroloigische Optik, F. M.
ExNBR, 362.

Oeology and Mineralogy — Publications of the U. S. Geological Survey, G. O.
SMrrH, 368. —Geological Survey Canada, Department of Mines, R. W.
Brock, 865. — Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaiian Volcanoes, W. T.
Brigham : Deviations from the Normal Order of Crystallization in Granite,
Mackie, 366.— New Occurrence of Lujavrite : Mercury Minerals from Ter-
lingua, Texas, Hillebrand and Schaller, 867.— The Rochester Collec-
tion of Meteorites ; Descriptive List of Specimens, K. S. Howard : A new
Meteorite from Geoi'gia, G. P. Merrill, 868.

Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence. — Carnegie Institution of Washington :
Publications of the Allegheny Observatory of the University of Pittsburgh,
368.



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CONTENTS. Vll



Nuraber 178.

Page

Art. XXXII. — Contribalions to the Geology of the Grand
Canyon, Arizona. — ^The Geology of the Shinumo Area ;
by L. F. NoBLB. Parti 369

XXXIII. — Additions to the Pleistocene Flora of Alabama ;

by E. W. Berry 387

XXXIV. — Application of Potassium Ferricyanide in Alka-
line Solution to the Estimation of Arsenic, Antimony,
and Tin ; by H. E. Palmer 399

XXXV. — New Cystid from the Clinton Formation of Onta-
rio — Lepadocystis clintonensis ; by W. A. Parks 404

XXXVL— New Petrographic Microscope ; by F. E. Wright 407

XXXVII. — New Ocular for Use with the Petrogi*aphic Micro-
scope ; by F. E. Wright 415

XXXVIII.— Behavior of Crystals in Light Parallel to an

Optic Axis; by C.Travis 427

XXXIX. — Some Simple Improvements for a Petrographical
Microscope ; by A. Johannsen 435

XL. — Natural Naphtha from the Province of Santa Clara,
Cuba ; by C. Richardson and K. G. Mackenzie 439

XLI. — Intrusive Granites and Associated Metamorphic Sedi-
ments in Southwestern Rhode Island ; by G. F. Loughlin 447

SCIENTIFIC intelligence.

Chemistry — Metallic Zirconinm, Weiss and Neumann, 457. — Gas- volumetric
Determination of Hydrogen, Paal and Hartmann : Theoretical Principles
of the Methods of Analytical Chemistry, M. G. Chesneau : Analyse Volu-
metriqae, L. Duparc efc M. Basadonna, 458.— Solid Bitamens, S. F.
Peckhau , 459.

Geology — Iowa Geological Survey, S. Calvin : West Virginia Geological
Snrvey. I. C. White, 459. — New Zealand Geological Survey, J. M. Bell,
460. — fcertain Jurassic (Lias-Oolite) Strata of South Dorset, and their Cor-
relation, etc., S. S. BucKMAN, 461. — PalflBoniologia Universalis : Geologic
Atlas of the United States : Folio 169, Watkins Glen-Catatonk, New
York, 1909, H. S. Williams, R. S. Tarr, and E. M. Kindle, 462.— Geol-
ogy of the Auburn-Genoa Quadrangles, D. D. Luther, 463.

Miscellaneous Scievtific Jnielligence — National Academy of Sciences, 463. —
Ostwald's Klas-siker der Exakten Wissenschaften, 464.

Obituary — Alexander Aoabbiz : Robert Parr Whitfield : Charles Reid
Barnes : Samuel Ward Lopbr.



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Vlll CONTKNT8.



Number 174.

Page.

Art. XLII. — Experimental Investigation into the Flow of
Rocks, by Fbank D. Adams, assisted by Ernest G.
CoKER. First Paper— The Flow of Marble. (With
Plates IMV) 465

XLIIL— Heat of Formation of the Oxides of Molybdenum,
Selenium and Tellurium ; and fifth paper on the Heat of
Combination of Acidic Oxides with Sodium Oxide ; by
W. G. MlXTER 488

XLIV. — Contributions to the Geology of the Grand Canyon,
Arizona. — The Geolop:y of the Shinumo Area (continued);
by L. F. NoBLK. (With Plate V.) 497

XLV. — Effect of Certain Magnetic and Gravitational Forces

on the Motion of the Moon ; by Eknest W. Brown 520

XLVI.-^Useof Silver in the Determination of Molybdenum,
Vanadium, Selenium and Tellurium ; by Claude C.
Perkins 540

XLVII. — Chemical Composition of Hulsite and Paigeile, by

Waldemau T. Schallek 543



SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry — Gas containing Helium from the German Potash Deposit, E.
Erdmann, 549. — Detection of Methyl Alcohol, G. DENicfes, 550.— A Sub-
stitute for Platinum Wire for Use in Blowpipe Work, O. F. Kirbt : The
Use of Sodium Hypobromite in the Separation of Certain Metals, Pozzi-
EscoTT : Doppler Effect in Hydrogen, B. Strasser, 551. — Effect of Dust
and Smoke on the Ionization of Air, A. S. Eve : Measurements in the
Extreme Infra-Red Spectrum, H. Rubens and H. Hollnaoel, 552.

Geology — Paleogeography of North America, C. Schuchert, 552.— Virginia
Geological Survey, T. L. Watson, 557.— Geological and Arch«)ological
Notes on Orangia. J. P. Johnson : Handbuch der Regionalen Geologie
G. Steinmann and G. Wilckens, 558.

MisceUaneous Scienfiflc Intelligence — United States Coast and Geodetic
Survey, O. H. Tittmann : Connecticut Geological and Natural History,
Survey, 559. — Kraft das ist animalische, mechanische. soziale Energien
und deren Bedeutnng fur die Machtenfaltung der Staaten, E. Reter :
Soziale Machte als Krganzung der Arbeit nber "Kraft," E. Reyer : Pub-
lications of the Allegheny Observatory of the University of Pittsburgh, F.
ScHLKSiNOER and R. H. Baker : Bulletin of the University of Kansas,
M. E. Rice and B. McCollum, 560.

OftiYwar J/.— Alexander Agassiz, 561: Robert Parr Whitfield, 565: Sir
William Huggins, Knut Johan Angstrom, Julien Fraipont, H.
Landolt, E. Philippi, Richard Abegg, 566.

Index to Vol. XXFX, 5(i7.



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>rof. W. G. Farlow.



VOL. XXIX. JANUARY, 1910.



Establiihed by BENJAMDr SHUHAH in 1818.



THE

AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.

Editor: EDWAKD S. DANA.

ASSOCUTB EDITORS

Professors OEOBGE L. GOODALE, JOHN TROWBRTOQE,
W. Q. FARLOW AND WM. M. DAVIS, or Cambridqb,

Pbofesbors ADDISON E. VERRELL, HORACE L. WELLS,
L. V. PIRSSON AND H. E. GREGORY, op New Hatbn,

Pbotessor GEORGE F. BARKER, or Philadblphu,
Professor HENRY S. WILLIAMS, of Ithaoa,
Professor JOSEPH S. AMES, of Baltimore,
Mr. J. S. DILLER, of Washinqton.



FOITBTH SERIES
VOL. XXIX— [WHOLE NUMBER, CLXXIX,]

No. 169— JANUARY, 1910.



NEW HAVEN, CONNEOTIOUT.

1910.

THE TUTTLE, MOREHOUSE St TAYLOR CO., PRINTERS, 133 TEMPLE STREET.



Pabliahed monthly. Six dollars per year, in advance. $6.40 to cotmtries in the
Postal Union ; $6.25 to Canada. Bemittances shonld be made either by money orders
registered letters, orbank checks (preferably on New York banks). ^ t '

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Announcement of New Arrivals.



Iceland Minerals.

I have jast received after considerable delay a new lot of Iceland Zeolites
consisting of one hundred specimens. The species represented are Heoland •
ite, Stilbite, Epistilbite, Scolecite, Ptilolite and Quartz geodes in both
Museum and cabinet size specimens, which I have priced at far below former j \

values placed on these choice trap rock minerals. Their beauty, brilliancy \

and the quality of the crystals is finer than any former lot brought to this
country.

r

Minerals from Franklin Furnace, X. J.

I have also been fortunate in obtaining a very old collection from a gentle-
man who specialized in Franklin Furnace minerals and which contains many
duplicates of finely crystallized specimens. For instance, several of the ex-
tremely rare crystallized Zincites as well as Franklinites, Rhodonites, Troost- !
ites in very large crystals ; also (iahnite, Tourmaline, Calamine, Garnet and j
Spinel. An exceptional lot of choice Phlogopite in Calcite of the largest ]
size found. j

Minerals from Colorado. j

Kecent additions to my large stock of the desirable Cripple Creek Tellur- ■

ides include specimens of the very best quality obtainable, such as Tellu- J

rium, Sylvanite, Calaverite, Gold, etc. With these came Amethyst in parallel !

growth of exquisite quality and a crystallized Calciovolborthite and Camo-
tite from Telluride, Col.

Minerals from l^e'w Mexico.

A number of Vanadinites have been received from New Mexico, which \

show crystals distributed over Barite matrix forming desirable specimens of
beautiful contrast. Also a number of fine native Silvers from the same i

locality. |

Desirable and timely gifts for Christmas of cut gems, gem crystals, antique '

cameos, opal carvings, with semi-precious stones cut and polished and adapt-
able for mounting in pins, brooches, etc.

The large stock carried places me in the best position to cater to the many
requirements of my patrons for either minerals, rare or common gems, as
well as the highest quality of reconstructed Rubies, Sapphires, blue or white,
and the beautiful new pink Topaz.

I would be pleased to send on approval for inspection aud selection any-
thing that would interest my patrons. '

Information as to special lists and prices of individual specimens cheer- I

fully furnished. '

A. H. PETEREIT.

81—83 Fulton Street, New York City.



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THE



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

[FOURTH SERIES.]



Aet. I. — Dinoaaurian Distribution; by Richard S. Lull.

[Contribution from the Paleontological Laboratory, Peabody Museum,
Yale University.!

I. Introductory.

TI. Classification.

III. Habitats and adaptations.

IV. Geological distribution.
V. Geographical distribution.

YI. Summary s>f migrations and palaeogeography.
VII. Bibliography^,

Dhiosaurlan Distribution.

I. Introductory.

The Bigiiificanee of terrestrial vertebrates of bygone days
as aids to geological interpretation, and especially in throwing
light upon the isolation and connection of continents, is becom-
ing more and more appreciated.

The dinosaurs, with their known geological range through-
out nearly the entire Mesozoic period, and of almost world-
wide distribution, are the most significant vertebrates of
Secondary times. Add to this their great numbers both of
individuals and kinds and the amazing range in their adapta-
tions and one can appreciate the importance of the line of
research of which this paper is the first fruit. It constitutes
the further elaboration of a presidential address delivered
before the American Society of Vertebrate Paleontologists
at Baltimore, December, 1908.

As such a work is of necessity to a certain extent a compila-
tion, 1 can but express my indebtedness to the various authors
listed in the Bibliography, of whom my confrere. Professor
V. Huene, is the one to whom 1 owe the most. I am also

Am. Jour. Sci.— Fourth Series, Vol. XXIX, No. 169.— January, 1910.
1



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2 R. S. Lull — Dinosaurian Distribution.

grateful to my colleagues Professors Schuchert and Barrell for
elpf ul criticisms and suggestions.

II. Classification.

The dinosaurs, because of their great adaptive radiation
throughout their long career, seem to be a very heterogeneous
group, so much so that Baur (1891) emphatically denied any



Online LibraryBenjamin Tinkham MarshallThe American journal of science → online text (page 1 of 109)