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Benjamin Vincent.

A dictionary of biography, past and present : containing the chief events in the lives of eminent persons of all ages and nations : preceded by the biographies and genealogies of the chief representatives of the royal houses of the world online

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CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY




3 1924 102 202 946



In compliance with current

Copyright law, Cornell University

Library produced this

replacement volume on paper

that meets the ANSI Standard

Z39.48-1992 to replace the

irreparably deteriorated original.

2005



CORNELL

UNIVERSITY
LIBRARY




THE HAYDN SEBIES.



DICTIONARY OF BIOGRAPHY,

coxTAiyixc; •iiiK

CHIEF EVENTS IN THE LIVES OF EMINENT PERSONS
OF ALL AGES AND NATIONS.

PRECEDED BV

THE BIOGRAPHIES AND GENEALOGIES OP THE
CHIEF REPRESENTATIVES OP THE ROYAL HOUSES OF

THE WORLD.



EDITKO JtV



BENJAMIN VINCENT,

UBRAHIAN of the EOTAL INSTITUIIOK of great BRITAIN : AKD EDITOR OP
HArDN's " DICTION \RV OF DATES."



'FACTA NON VERBA."



LONDON :
AVARD, LOCK, & CO., WARWICK HOUSE,

SALISBURY SQUARE, E.G.



London:
3eadbukt, aonew, & co., printers, whitepriar3.



PEEFACE.



This volume is a revised and greatly enlarged edition of the work
published in 1870, entitled " Haydn's Universal Index of Biography/'
which was planned, and three-fourths compiled, by the present Editor, as
a suitable companion to the " Dictionary of Dates."

In the preparation of both these works, the Editor's chief difficulty
has been selection from too abundant materials ; and he is fully awp.re
that in each there will be perceived omissions and redundancies. In
regard to these he can merely plead his own limited ideas of utility and
impartiality, and state that he will gratefully receive notices of errors,
with suggestions for improvements. A list of the great number of books
consulted during the preparation of this volume would be useless ; but in
reo'ard to contemporaries, he has to thank several eminent persons for
private information. The daily and weekly journals, together with the
publications of British and foreign scientific and literaiy bodies, have been
vigilantly searched, in order to bring the work down to the time of
publication ; and no small difficulty has been frequently experienced in
the endeavour to reconcile conflicting statements.

In the Addenda will be found notices of Deaths and other chanoes
which have occun-ed during printing, which can be easily marked under the
names in the book, as well as a few additional articles.

EoTAL Institution,



BIOGEAPHIES AND GENEALOGIES.



[In the Genealogies the year of death is giTcn, except when otherwise specified ; a line ■

the names signifies marriage.]



■ between



AUSTRIA AND GEEMANT.

BADEK.

BATAEU.

BELGIUM.

BRAZIL

BRUNSWICK.

DENMARK.

EGYPT.

FRANCE, Legitimist, Imperiai,, Orleanist.

GERMANY. (See Austria and Prussia.)

GREAT BRITAIN.

GREECfi.

HANOVER.

HATTI AND ST. DOMINGO.

HOLLAND.

ITALY.

LUCOA.



MEXICO.

MONACO.

PARMA.

PERSIA.

POPES.

PORTUGAL

PRUSSIA AND GERMANY.

RUSSIA.

SAXE COBURG.

SAXONY.

SPAIN.

SWEDEN.

TURKEY.

TUSCANY.

TWO SICILIES.

UNITED STATES Of NORTH AMERICA.

■WURTEMBEKG.



AUSTEIA.



In 800, Charlemagne, wlio liad added to his hereditaiy dominions the gi-eater pai-t of Germany
and Italy, and a portion of Spain, received, from Pope Leo III., the imperial cro\vn with the re-
vived titles of Caesar and emperor of Rome. He was succeeded hy eight of his descendants, the
last, Louis IV., dying in 912. Conrad, duke of Franconia, was then chosen emperor, and the
crown remained elective until the dissolution of the German empire in 1806. The emperors,
-with few exceptions, succeeded by dynasties. Thus, at the death of Conrad, Hem-y, sumamed
the Fowler, duke of Saxony, was elected, whose successors were his descendants, Otho I., Otho
II., Otho III., and Henry II. Then came Conrad of Franconia (said to have been descended
from Otho I.), his son Henry III., his grandson Henry lY., and his great grandson Heniy V.
Conrad of Suabia (son of Agnes, daughter of Henry IV., and of Frederick, count of Hohenstaufen,
^nd duke of Suabia), was elected in 1 125, and his family gave six emperors, who reigned till 1269.
Then succeeded Eodolph of Hapsburg, whose descendant— through the line of Maria Theresa (and
Francis I., duke of Loixaine), now reigns in Austria.

In 1806, after Bavaria, WUrtembm-g, Baden, Hesse Darmstadt, Nassau, and several other
States were formed into the Confederation of the Rhine, the emperor Francis II. resigned the
title of Emperor of Germany, and took that of Emperor of Austria. This Confederation lasted
till 1813 ; and in 1815 the congress of Vienna established the Germanic Confederation, whose
•diet was held at Franlcfort-on-the-Main, Austi-ia presiding and having a casting vote. A result
of the war of 1866 was the establishment of the North German Confederation, by which Prussia
acquired the supremacy lost by Austria. This confederation ended with the revival of the German
•empire in 1871.

FiiANCis Joseph (Charles I.), emperor of Austria, king of Hungary, of Bohemia, &c., eldest
son of the archduke Francis Charles Joseph, and of the archduchess Sophia Frederica Dorothy
WUhelmina, daughter of MaximOian I., king of Bavaria, was horn 18 Aug. 1830. He became
•emperor, 2 Dec. 1848, his father renoimcuig his claim to the thi-one, and the emperor, Ferdinand
I., his childless uncle, abdicating in his favour.

The Italian provinces, supported by Sardinia, were then in open revolt, and Hungaiy had con-
stituted itself a republic under Kossuth. The Italian insurrection was quelled by the victoiy
gained by general ^Eadetzti at Novara, 23 March 1849, which compelled Sardinia to sue for
peace ; and by Russian help Hungary was soon reduced to submission.

Having regained all his dominions by the capitulation of Venice, 22 Aug. 1849, the emperor
sought to recover the prerogatives relincLuished by his predecessor in 1848. He disbanded the
national guard, abolished the liberty of the press, and annulled the constitution, which he him-
self had gi-anted in March 1849. To centralise his power, he abolished the customs dues be-
tween the German provinces of his empire, and those of Hungary and Italy. In 1855 h» signed
a concordat with the pope, by which the clergy acquired many important privileges ; among
others, the right of controlling the press and superintending public education. When hostilities
broke out between Turkey and Russia he joined the Western Powers in the treaty of alliance of
2 Dec. 1854, but did not take an active part in the war. In .1859, when Sardinia entered into
aUiauce with France for the liberation of Lombardy and Venice, he sustained a series of reverses,
ending in the battle of Solferino, 24 June, at which he was present, whereby he was compelled
to abandon Lombardy and retire to Venetia. He then signed the treaty of ViUafranca, by
which Venetia was guaranteed to him. In i860 the troubles is Hungaiy and the Venetian
territories induced him to re-establish the ancient constitutions of Hungary, Croatia, and Ti-an-



AUSTEIA.

sylvauia, and to concentrate a powerful force in Venice, to oppose the tritnupliant movement for
Italian unity. In 1864, lie joined Pmssia, in an expedition against Denmark to enforce the-
views of the German Confederation, with regard to the duchies of Sleswig and Holstein. A dis-
pute having arisen between Austria and Prussia, in consequence of the appropriation of Holsteia
by Prussia, an offensive and defensive alliance was entered into between Pmssia and Italy, In
the war of seven weeks which followed, Austria was obliged to divide her forces. She gained a
signal victoiy over the Italians at Custozza, and her fleet distinguished itself at Lissa, but her
army in Germany after many reverses was totally defeated at Sadowa, 3 July 1866. The emperor
at once gave up Venetia to the emperor of the French, and negotiations with Prussia .resulted in
the treaty concluded at Prague, 23 Aug. 1866, by which the emperor of Austria agreed to re-
cognise a new confederation of Germany, in which Austria should take no part ; and in that at
Vienna, 3 Oct., by which Venetia was ceded to Italy.

The empire was ordered to be officially styled " The Austro-Hungariau Monarchy," 14 Nov>
1868. Chief of the ministry, the count J. Andrassy, 14 Nov. 1871.

The emperor married 24 April 1854, Elizabeth Amelia Eugenie, the daughter of Maximilian
Joseph, duke of Bavaria, and has issue : —

1. Gisella Louisa Mary, h. 12 July 1856.

2. Sodolph Francis Charles Joseph; h. 21 Aug. 1S58.

3. Marie Valeria, Matilda Amelia ; S. 22 April 1868.



EMPERORS OF GERMAIHT AND AUSTRIA.



3. LOT^AIRE I., d. 855- Louis. Kin.' of Bavaria.

4. LOUIS II., 875. , 1



House of Chaklemaqne,

1. CHAKLEMAGNE, d. 814.

2. LOUIS, le Bebonnaire, 840.



Alpajg.



Luitgarde.



Carloman, 880.
8. ARNcIld. 8qo.



Begon, Count of - ;—

T.^OHARLBS. Paris. «. lAuIS. III.,



B. CHARLES, the Bald, d. 877.



the Fat, 868.



Otto, D. of Saxony.

House op Saxony.

11. HENi[y I., 936.



9. LEWIS IV., 912.



Placidia.



Eberardus.

Dudes.

Conrad,
D. of Franconia.

10, coWrad I.,

king.



ike Stammerer, 880.



Jui



dit'h.



12. OTHO L, the Great. 973. | ^™P- Conrad L



Ludolph, D. of
Prauconia.



13. OT^O II,.
983-

Otho, D. of Prancouia 14. QTHO III.
Hemy, D. of Francooia. ^°°^-

House op Franconia.

16. CONRiDII.,1039.

17. HENiv III., 1056.

18. HENi[yiV.,iio6.



Placidia.



Henry, D. of Bavaria.



Hildegarde,

Thierry I., Couu

of Holland.

Baldwin I., 878. Thierry II.. 947-
BaldwinIL,9i8. ' Thieny III., 9S8.

Arnold, I., 964. Amola, 995.
Baldwin. Ill, 961. Thieny IV., 1039.
Arnold 11., 988. Plorent I., 1061.
Baldwin IV., 1034. Thierry V., 1091
Baldwin V., 1067. Plorent II,
Matilda.



Hermann,

Count of

Northeim.

Sigfned I.

Sifffried II.

Henry J), of
Saxony.

Risa^ heiress of
laxony.



Henry.
15. HEjnIrY II.



WiUiam,

the Conqueror,
of England.

Henry I. , of
England, 1135.

Empress
Matilcfa, 1167.
Earl of Anjou.
Henry II., 1189.



Thieny ^1., 1163,

Florent III.. 1190.

"William I., 1223,

Florent IV. ,1235.

ST.WILLIAJIII.,

1335.



j 20.LOTHAIREII.
19. HENRY v., 1125,



Maud.



'* LeoDold lV^°M<? °^ Hohenstaufen, n'uke of Suabia.
-. iieopoia IV,, jyiargrave of Austria.

House op Suabia or Hohenstaupen.

Frederick, f)uke of Suabia, 1139. ZL CONrId III.
22. FREDERICK I., Barbarossa, 1197.



Henry, Duke of
Bavaria

25. OTHO IV., 1218.



Eleanor.



23. HENRY VI.. 1197.

26. PREcilRICK II., 1250.

28. CONrIdiV, 1254.



24. PHILIP, 1208.

Hugh, Count of Alsatia.



John, Lackland, 1216.

Alphonso IX., King of „„ ^.^^^l. -^^^

Cafltile. 29. RICHARD, 1273.

I nominal.

Bereugera.
Alphonso IX., King of
Leon.

Ferdinand III., King ot
Leon and Castile, 1252.

30. ALPHONSO X.,

King of Castile, and

nominal Emperor of

Germany, 1284.



Gerard, of Lorraine.

Adalbert. 1034.

Gerard, 1046.



, I



Gontram, Count of Hapsburg, 945.
31. RODOLPH, I. descended from Gontmm,
Count of Hapsburg, elected Emperor,
1273) a. 1291.



32. AdolphuB, Count of Nassau,
deposed 1298.



Gerard, Duke of
Lorraine, 1070.



Frederick, Count
of Luxemburg.



^ . '33. ALBERT I., 1308.
Ermensonne. j

Henry. 36. FRiIdeRICK, Albert, the Wise.

Ermonsonne. *330' I

Henry, 1280. Albert, the Astrologer, 1390. Leopold.

Henry, 1288. Albert, the Patient, 1404. Ernest, 1427.

34. HENRt!" VII., i^jiS- 41. ALBERT II.,' 1439. 42. FREDERICK
John, King of Bohemia, ^^^- ^^^^V,- '«3-

1346. 43. MAXIMILIAN I.,

37. CHARLES IV., 1378. Philip.



Louis, D. of Bavaria.
I



Rodolph, 1319.

Adolph, 1327.

Robert II., 1393.

39. RUPERT, 1410.



.wk



INCESLAS, 1419- 40. SIGISMUND, 1437.



Jane of Spain.



44. CHARLES V^ Emperor
and King of Spain.



46. FERDINAND I.,
1564.



48. MAXImIliAN II., 1576.



. ROli



0LPHIL,i6iz.



48. MATHIAS, 1619.



Charles 1596.
49. FERDINANd'iI., 1637.



36. LOUIS v., 1347-
Stepben, 1375.
John, 1397.
Ernest, 1438.
Albeit III., 1460.
Albert IV., 1505.
"William IV.
Albeit v., 1573.
William V., 1626.
Maximilian I., 1651.
Ferdinand, 1679..
Maximilian II., 1626.



60. FERDINAND til. 1657. '*■ CHARLES VIJ.,



55. FRANCIS, descended
from Gerard, 1). of Lorraine.
Ele cted Emperor. 1745, d. 176 5.
Maria Theresa, of Austria.



51. LEOPOLD I., 1705.
52. JOSEPli I.,:i7ii.



63. CHAe!lESVI.,i740-

MARll THERESA

FRANCIS, of Lorraine.



56. JOSEPH II., 1790.



57. LEOPOLD II., 1792.
68. PRAJICIS II.

EMPERORS bF AUSTRIA.

1. FRANCIS I., (Francis II. of Germany), 1835 .
Caroline Augusta, of Bavaria.



Maria Lopia a.
Napoleon I.,
Emperor of the French.



2. FERDINAND I., abdicated 1848, d. 1 875.
Mary Anne Caroline Pia, of Sardinia.



Francis Charles.
Sophia, of Bavaria,



M aria Clementina .
Leopold, Prince of Salerno,
1 851.



3. FRANCIS JOSEPH I., 6. 183a
Elizabeth, 6. 1837.



Gisella, &. 1856, Rodolph, Mary Valeria, 6. 1868.

Prince Royal, 6. 1858.



Ferdinand
Maximilian,
Emp. of Mexico, 1867.



Charlotte of Belg ium-



Charles 'Lou ia. Louis Joseph
Annunciada, Anthony Victor.
_ of Naples.



Ferdinand.



Otha



BADEN.



Hemian, count of Zahringen and Hochberg, a grandson of Berthold, wlio was count of
Breisgau in tlie nth century, having acquired, by marriage, the territory of Baden, combined
his various possessions into one state, and assumed the title of margrave of Baden. His descen-
dants added considerably to their teiTitory, which, however, was, from time to time, divided
amongst collateral branches of the family. At the death of Christopher in 1547, the mar-
gravate was divided between his two sons, Bernhard and Ernest ; tlie former inheriting Baden
Baden, and the latter becoming founder of the line of Baden Durlach. At the death of
Augustus William George, in 1771, the line of Baden Baden became extinct, and the territory
reverted to Charles Frederick, margrave of Baden Durlach, who became an elector of the Em-
pire in 1803, and grand-duke in 1806. At the congress of Vienna, Baden would probably have
been shared between Austria and Bavaria, had not the emperor Alexander, the son-in-law of the
grand-duke, insisted that it should remain "one and indivisible."

Chai-les Frederick died in 1811, and was succeeded by his grandson Charles Louis Frederick,
his oldest son, Chai-les Louis, having died before him. The third grand-duke was Louis William
Augustus, the second son of Charles Frederick, who was succeeded by his half-brother Charles
Leopold Frederick.

The present grand-duke, FnEDEKioK William Louis, is the second son of Charles Leopold
Fredei-ick, and was born 9 Sept. 1826. At the death of his father, 24 April 1852, he assumed
the government as regent — his elder brother, Louis, being unfit to rule in consequence of physical
and mental infirmities — and took the title of grand-duke, 5 Sept. 1856. On 7 Dec. 1853, he
narrowly escaped assassination. During his reign .great contentions have occurred between the
government, the religion of which is evangelical, and the Eoman Catholic clergy. By a pro-
clamation of 7 April i860, the grand-duke established the independence of the Eoman Catholic
church in his dominions, and the rights of both churches are now equally respected.

He man'ied, on 20 Sept. 1856, Louisa, Mary Elizabeth, the daughter of William I., king of
Prussia, by whom he has issue : —

1. Frederick William Louis Leopold Augustus, born 9 July 1857.

2. Sophia Mary Victoria, born 7 Aug. 1862.

3. Louis William Charles Frederick Berthold, born 12 June 1865.



DESCENT OF THE GRAND DUKES OP BADEN.



Landuhis, Count, of Hapsburg.
Landulus, Cor ut of Breiegau,
Bcrthold, Duk»- uf Ziihriugen.
Ilerman, Count of Ziihriugen and HochbcrK, T074,

JiAiiGKAVEs OP, Baden.



0. heuman v. 1=50.

Frederick, 1268.



1 . HF.R^rAy, 1130 .
Juditn, hull CSS of Baden.

2. HERMAN ir., 1160.

3. HEEIIAN III , itgo.

4. HERMAN IV., 1243.

6. RODOLPH I., I3S8.

I



7. HERMAN



VI., 1291.



8. FREDERICK II., 13.

I
S. HERMAN IX., 1353.



u



Rodolph v., 134S.



neiTTiaii VII.



Frederick III., 1353.
10. RODOLPH VIII., 1372.



I I I

Rodolph II., 1295. Rodolpb IIL,i332- HesBO, 131 7-

Irmengard, of
Wurtembui-s-
J
I



I



I.



Rodolph VI., 1361.



Herman VIII. RodoliJh IV. neseo.



11. RODOLPH X., 1391.



12. BERNHARD I., 1431.

13. JA5IES L, 1453.

14. CHARLES I., 1475.

IB. CHRISTOPHER I., 1527-



^Iaegkaves 01- Baden Baden.

1. EERNHARD IV., 1537.



2. PHILIBERT, 1569.

3. PHILIP, 1588.



Christopher, 1575.

4. EDTVARD, 1600.

5. WILLIAM, 1677.
Ferdinand, i6gi.

6. LOUIS WILLIAM, 1707.



ilARGRAVES OF BaDEN DuRLACH.
1. ERNEST, I5S3-
2. CHARLES, 1577.



3. ERNEST FREDERICK, 1604-



4 GEORGE FREDERICK, J63B.

5, FREDERICK V., 1659.

6. FREDERICK VI., 1677.

I

7. FREDERICK VII., 1709.

S. CHARLES wJlLIAM, 1738.



7. LOUIS Georse.



8. AUGUSTUS AVILLIAil GEORGE, i??'-

Grand Dukes of Baden.



Frederick, 1722.



1. CHARLES FREDERICK, i8ir.



CaroliDe l^ouisa,

of HeBse-Darmstadt.

I



Jrf)ui6a Caroline,
of Geyersberg.



Charlea Louis, 1801. 3. LOUIS WILLIAM |

AmcbaFrederioa,of ^^^USTUS, 4. CY^RLES LEOPOLD

HeGse-Darmetadt. '830. FREDERICK. 1852-



I



Sophia Wjlhelmina,
of Sweden.



Xouiea. s other daughters. 2. CHARLES LOUIS



.(Alexander,

Emperor of

Russia.



FREDERICK, 1818.

Stephanie Louisa, adopted

daughter of Napoleon I., i860.



Josephine Frederica,

b. 1813 .

Charles, of Hohenzollem
Sigmaringen.



Marv Amelia,

&. 1817.

William Alexander

Duke of Hamilton,



William Augustus,

1859:

Elizabeth Alexandriua,
of Wurtemherg.



Alaximilian Frederick,
h. 1796.



Sophia Pauline,
h. 1834.



Pauline Sophia
Elizabeth,
GonthierWaldemar, ^- ^^35-



of Lippe.



Leopoldina Wilhelmina.

b. 1637.

Hermann, of Hohenlohe-
Langenbui'g.



Alcsandrina, &c.,
b. 1820.
Ernest II,
of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha,



e. LOUIS IL, 6. FREDERICK WILLIAM
1824- 1858. Lo u is, b. 1 826.

Louisa Mary Elizabeth,
of Prussia, b. 1838.



Louis William, Charles Mary Amelia, Cecilia, &. 1839, now

b. 1829. Frederick, b. 1 834. Olga Feo dorovna.

Mary, df ^- ^^32. Ernest Leopold, Michael Nicolaie-

Leuchtenberg. of Linage. vitch, of Russia,



Frederick William,
b. 1857.



, i.



Louis William,
b. 1865.



Sophia Mary,
b. 1863,



l^Iaximilian Alexander,
b. 1867.



BA VAKI A.



The dukedom of Bavaiia was confen-ed upon Otho the Great, count of Wittelsbach, ancestor
of the present dynasty, by the emperor Frederick Barbarossa in iiSo, and to this was added, in
1 215, the palatinate of the Rhine. The duchy was in 1623 raised into an electorate by the
emperor Ferdinand II. ; but the territories acquired by the dukes of Bavaria were at various
times divided between rival claimants. The" Upper Palatinate was again united to Bavaria m
1648, and the palatinate of the Bhine in 1777, when, upon the failure of the direct male line by
the death of MasimOian Joseph I., without issue, the electorate of Bavaria devolved upon the
elector palatine Charles Theodore, in accordance with the terms of the treaty of Pavia made in
1329, and confirmed by the elector in 1774. The elector, Charles Theodore, died also with-
out issue in 1799; and the branch of Sulsbaoh becoming thereby extinct, he was succeeded by
Maximilian Joseph, duke of Deux-Ponts, the first sovereign of the reigning branch of the house
of "Wittelsbach. Bavaria was raised to the rank of a kingdom by the treaty of Pressburg
in 1805.

Louis II. (Louis Otho Frederick William), king of Bavaria and count palatine of the Ehine,
was bom at the palace of ITyniphenburg, near Munich, 25 August, 1845. He is the elder of
the two sons of the late king, Maximilian II., by the princess Frederica Frances Augusta Mary
Hedwiga"(who was born 15 Oct. 1825, and is stQl living), second daughter of the late prince
Frederick William Charles of Prussia. The revolutionary events that agitated so many of the
states of Europe in the early part of 1848 having forced upon king Louis I. the necessity for
political and administrative reforms that he could not have effected to the satisfaction of his
people, owing mainly to the influence acquired over him by the notorious Lola Montes, whom
he had created countess of Landsfeld, he had the wisdom to save the crown for his dynasty by
abdicating, 21 March, in favour of his eldest son, Maximilian Joseph, who occupied the
Bavarian throne until his death on lo March, 1864. He was succeeded by the reigning
sovereign, who had only attained his majority in the preceding year, and had hitherto taken no
part in state affau-s. Highly endowed by nature, both in mind and body, his education was
supeiintended at first with the greatest care by his mother, and subsequently by count La
Rosee and lieutenant von Wiilffen, his classical studies being directed by professor Steininger.
He ascended the throne at a tijne when the questions of the ZoUvereiu and of Schleswig-
Hollstein were stiU pending, and Bavaria was endeavouring to constitute herself a mediator, and
to rally round her the secondary states of Germany in opposition to the pretensions of Austria
and of Prussia. At first the young king evinced an inclination to take the reins of government
into his own hands, and showed more decision and capacity for business than had characterised
his father. This tendency combined with his affability rendered him very popular, and this
impression was strengthened by his speech at the opening of the chambers at the commencement
of 1865, which was pacific and full of good intentions towards Germany, and in reply to which
an address was voted expressive of devotion to his dynasty, and grateful remembrance of the
late sovereign. The administration of public affairs still remained in the hands of Herr Von
Schrenk, who was replaced before the end of 1864 by Herr Von der Pfordten, without causing
any change in the policy of Bavaria. The first independent act of the new sovereign was to
invite to Munich the eminent composer, Richard Wagner. This event is said to have been caused
by the king, having once been much impressed by the performance of Wagner's "Lohengrin,"
a romantic opera founded on the legend of the Knight of the Swan, which is connected with
the old castle of Hohenschwangau, where king Louis has passed his childhood. This intimacy
gave rise to a rumour that the composer, under pretence of instructing the king in music, had
introduced to his notice the philosophical works of Buclmer and Feuerbach. All parties united
to oppose this sinister influence, and an urgent remonstrance having been addressed to the king
by the people of Munich, Herr Wagner was dismissed early in 1866. No party has, howerer,
been able to obtain any ascendency over the king, who has since maintained an almost complete
isolation. The vacillation of Bavaria in 1866, in the great conflict for supremacy in Germany
between Prussia and Austria, the ultimate alliance of her forces mth those of the latter power,
and the unfavourable terms of the Bavario-Prussian treaty of peace, are events of which the
responsibility must be considered to rest with his chief minister at that period, Herr Von der
Pfordten, rather than with the sovereign. Herr Von der Pfordten was replaced at the close of
1866 by the prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst. A. von Pfretzschner became chief minister, 21
Aug. 1871.

Louis II. is as yet unmarried, and rumours have been often circulated that he has a strong in-
clination to abdicate in favour of his younger brother, the prince Otho William Leopold Adalbert
Waldemar, born 27 April, 1848. The ex-king, Louis I., died at Mce, 29 Feb. 1868, in the
eighty-second year of his age.



DESCENT OF THE KINGS OF BAVARIA.



Leopold, Lord of Bavaria.

Amolph^

Gerbergci, daughter of RodoliJh, Duke of Lower Bavaria.

Bcrtholdus.

"Wernua.

Eabo, Count of Abensbers.

Otho II., Count of Scheyern-

Otho III., Count of "Wittelsbach.

Otho IV., Count of Wittelsbach.

Dukes of Bavaria.

1. OT^O I.

2. LOlllS I.

3. 0T14;0 II.

4. LOiyiS II.



5. RODOLPH I.

t

6. ABoLpHUS.

8. RUPERT II.

9. Rupert IIL,
Emperor of Germany,



6. RODOLPn II.



7. RUPERT I.



Louis BavaruB, Emperor of Gcnnany.
Duke of Lower Bavaria.

STEPHEN Pibulatus,
Duke of Bavaria, 1375.



10. LOUIS III. Stephen, Palatine of Bimmem.



11. L(iuiSIV., 12. FRe'dE- Frede- Louis Ni-^er
Elector Palatine. RICK I. rick. Palatine of
Palatine of Zweibruck.
fSimmem.

John,
Palatine of



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