Benjamin Whitman.

Nelson's biographical dictionary and historical reference book of Erie County, Pennsylvania : containing a condensed history of Pennsylvania, of Erie County, and of the several cities, boroughs and townships in the county also portraits and biographies of the governor's since 1790, and of numerous r online

. (page 164 of 192)
Online LibraryBenjamin WhitmanNelson's biographical dictionary and historical reference book of Erie County, Pennsylvania : containing a condensed history of Pennsylvania, of Erie County, and of the several cities, boroughs and townships in the county also portraits and biographies of the governor's since 1790, and of numerous r → online text (page 164 of 192)
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Lena, wife of Aniand Lochner; Teresa, wife of Joseph
Arndt, and Melen Mangold. John V. Mangold was
married May 9, 1886, to Miss Ida Oberkirk, daughter of
Michael and Anna Oberkirk, formerly of Weigelville,
Erie county. Mr. Oberkirk formerly kept the hotel now
conducted by Mr. Mangold, the same having been run
and managed by him since 1891. He is an energetic
man and anticipates fully the demands ot a patroniz-
ing public in the outfit of his hotel, which is known as
the Mangold House, in honor of the present pro-

Donald Clark, blacksmith. Mill Creek township,
postoffice Erie, is a native of Scotland and was born in
1862, where he learned his trade. He came to New
York in January, 1890, began business for himself in
1893, and by frugality and persistent industry has be-
come well established. Mr. Clark is the son of Neil
and Jane (Brodie) Clark, life-long residents of Scot-
land. The latter died in 1880.

Emil V. Bttseck, .farmer, West Mill Creek town-
ship, was born in Mill Creek township in 1846, son of
Lewis Buseck, who came to Erie county from Ger-
many at the age of 28 years. He first came to Pitts-
burg and soon after to Mill Creek township. He
married Miss Caroline Stohlman, a native of Germany,
and they fought the battle of life successfully. He
died in August, 1893, and his widow still survives at
the age of 74 years. Their issue was as follows:
Augusta, wife of John Knobloch; Charles; Emma,
widow of W. E. Evans, of Fairview; Julius, of Erie;
Lewis, Albert, William and Carrie V. Buseck. Febru-
ary 21, 1884, Emil V. Buseck was married to Mary,
daughter of Samuel Fickinger, of Mill Creek town-
ship. Their children are: Frank, Fred and Elsie.
Samuel Fickinger came to Erie county when a boy,
and was a successful farmer and substantial citizen.
He died in 1887, aged 71 years. His wife, Mary
(Stough) Fickinger, was a native of Mill Creek town-
ship, and died in 1880, at the age of 61 years. Mr.
Fickinger was superintendent of the Erie County
Almshouse from 1848 until 18.54.

R. W. Battles, M. D., West Mill Creek post-
office, was born in Girard township in 1856, where he
was reared. In 1878 he graduated from the University



of Michigan, and in 1880 from the Rush Medical Col-
lege, and soon after began the practice of medicine at
Crossingville, Crawford county. Pa., and continued his
practice at Ripley, N. Y., and Fairview, locating in
West Mill Creek in 1895. Besides devoting close
attention to an increasing practice. Dr. Battles has
found time to contribute to journalism, his writing
appearing in the Chicago Inter-Ocean, New York
World and the American Agriculturist, On Novem-
ber 10, 1880, Dr. Battles was married to Teresa,
daughter of Hon. L. W. Thickstun, ex-editor of the
Meadville Republican, and former owner of the Craw-
ford Tribune and Journal. The issue of this union has
been three children, namely: Donald Raymond, Ralph
Asa and Ford Lewis. Dr. Battles is a member of the
A. O. U. W., E. A. U., and examiner for the New York
Mutual Life Insurance Company. He was born in
Girard township in 1827, and was a son of the late Asa
and Elizabeth Battles, natives of Vermont. Asa Bat-
tles, of Girard, was a fruit culturist, who for several
years conducted one of the finest and most extensive
fruit plantations in the State of Pennsylvania. The
first record of this name in America is found in
Savage's Genealogical Dictionary. Thomas Battles, a
Puritan emigrant, settled at Dedham, Mass., in 1642,
married Mary Fisher, and raised a family of children,
dying in 1706. It is said one of his sons settled in
Bridgewater, Mass., from whom descended John Bat-
tles, the great-grandfather of Dr. Battles, who married
a Miss Curtis November 16, 1749, and had several
children, the eldest named John (the great-grandfather
of the Doctor), who married Lydia Spear, his first wife,
and had five children, the fifth being Asa, sr. (grand-
father of Dr. R. W. Battles); also by his second wife,
five children. Asa Battles, sr., was born in 1786 and
married Elizabeth Brown November 22, 1814, the
daughter of Abraham Brown, the well-known writer of
sacred poetry; many of the hymns are retained in the
popular collections of the day. They had the follow-
ing children, all living: Rosana, born June 27, 1815,
married L. J. Baldwin; George W., born June 16, 1816,
married a Miss Bartlett; Alsiva, born July 22, 1820;
Lucinda, born January 16, 1824; Asa, born September
21, 1827, married a Miss Webster. He was a soldier
in the war of 1812. In 1814 he settled in Western
New York, but in 1825 he removed to Girard, Pa.,
where he resided until his death. May 10, 1848, aged
62 years. His widow survived until October 10, 1868,
aged 81 years. Asa Battles, at the early age of 20
years, engaged in mercantile business, conducting one
of the largest stores in Girard. At 21 he was appointed
postmaster, holding the office four years, when he
engaged in mail contracting on quite a large scale
with the postoffice department, having at the com-
mencement of the war of the rebellion contracts in all
the middle and western and several of the southern
States. Owing to the unsettling of values, the war
about destroyed this business. He then returned his
attention to the mercantile trade, opening a wholesale
store in Milwaukee, Wis., and soon after another in
Chicago; was also proprietor of a large hotel in Chicago
prior to the great fire, after which he had one in St.
Louis for a few years. Although exempt from military
duty, he hired a substitute and kept him in the service
during the war. When Pennsylvania was unable to
fill her quota in the army without resorting to a draft,
he accepted a commission from the Governor to pro-
ceed to the Gulf States and obtain colored recruits, in

which he was quite successful. He was also largely
engaged in the oil business, owning many producing
wells, and a large refinery on Oil Creek. He was
married December 27, 1849, to Sarah M., daughter of
Perley Hinds, one of the early pioneers of the county.
Six children have been born to them, five of whom are
now living: Clarence Perley, born October 16, 1853,
graduate of Rush Medical College, Chicago, now
practicing medicine in Hot Springs, Ark.; Raymond
Willis; Milton Lamak, born September 21, 1860, a
graduate of the University; of Pennsylvania, practicing
dental surgery at Hot Springs; Leland Asa, born June
8, 1876, druggist at Hot Springs, and Cora Gertrude,
born January 18, 1871. Mrs. Battles, mother of Dr.
Battles, is still living at Pleasant View farm, Girard.

George Buchan Booth, L.L. D., pastor of
Westminster Presbyterian Church, West Mill Creek
postoffice, was born in 1850, and is a native of Scot-
land, son of William and Beatrice (Buchan) Booth.
George Booth received his early training and educa-
tion in his native country, and afterward came to
America, and located in Indianapolis, Ind., and ac-
cepted a call from the Westminster Church in 1887.
He was educated in the Glasgow University and Free
Church Divinity College, and took a post-graduate
course at Wooster (Ohio) University. His first pastor-
ate was in the Hamilton Presbytery, Scotland. Rev.
Mr. Booth was married in 1889, to Frances Ada,
daughter of James Brown, of Hamilton, Ont. They
have four children; Anna Beatrice, George Cameron,
Isabella Home and Lauris Paul. Since accepting his
present pastorate the church building has been re-
placed with a handsome brick structure, at a cost of
¬І10,000, and the spiritual work greatly revived and

Charles P. Benson, farmer. Mill Creek post-
office, Erie, was born in Sweden, in 1868, and came to
Erie county from his native land in 1890. He is a son
of Bengt and Petronalla Johnson. The former died
March 10, 1892, and the latter. May 17, 1875. Charles
received instructions at the Erie Business University,
and began the dairy and milk retailing business from
the Warfel farm, Mill Creek township, with his part-
ner, Andrew Carlson, in 1894, which is being con-
ducted successfully. His partner, Mr. Carlson, born
in Sweden, February 4, 18(56, and came to this country
in 1888, is a son of Johnson and Annetta Carlson.
The former died in 1891. Andrew is a member of the
North Star Council, National Union. Erie.

Samuel Hoover, retired farmer, of Mill Creek
township, Erie postoffice, was born in Lancaster
county, Pennsylvania, in 1831. He is a son of George
Hoover, who began and carried on a large distillery
in York county, Pennsylvania. He later removed to
Lancaster county, where he died at the age of 84
years. His widow, whose maiden name was Mary
Eaton, daughter of Abraham Eaton, died three years
later, at the age of 76 years. Their children were
George, Mary and Samuel, who for several years car-
ried on farming. He served in the late war, and be-
longed to Co. A, 110th Reg., P. V. I., and now receives
a pension. He was married in 1864 to Mary Zimmer-
man, who died in 1891. Two children were born to
this union: Lizzie, wife of George Stultzman, and



Mary, wife of John Stultznian. Mr. Hoover relates
many incidents of his early hfe with interest and vigor
which is surprising.

J. C. Mutin, farmer, West Mill Creek, postoffice
Erie, was born in Erie March 8, 1830, son of Chandler
N. and Margaret (Lowry) Munn, well-known residents
of this locality. Chandler N. Munn died June 5, 1832,
at the age of 30 years, and his widow died April 30,
1870, aged 70 years. Their marriage occurred August
25, 1825. Mr. J. C. Munn married Margaret Stanfield,
May 10, 1854. Her death occurred June 2, 1870. The
issue of this marriage was nine children: Reid C,
born February 24, 1865; died June 26, 1886; Field N.,
born May 3, 1856; died December 23, 1894; John K.,
born May 20, 1858; James, born December 18, 1859;
Mary Lydia, born November 14, 1861; infant, born
November 18, died December 10, 1863; seventh child,
born October 4, 1864, died in infancy; William B.,
born November 29, 1865; Samuel S., born October 18,
1868; died February 13, 1870; Mary L. is wife of W.
J. Reed, of Miles Grove; William B. married Miss Ida
Warner; James married Miss Louisa Fails, of Miles
Grove. J. C. Munn's first wife died June 2, 1870, and
October 12, 1871, he was united in marriage to Martha
R., daughter of James and Polly (Kelley) Barr, prom-
inent residents of Erie county. Mr. and Mrs. Barr
were married in 1812, and located on the Barr faim in
Harbor Creek. Mr. Barr was a captain of militia, and
when the war of 1812 was declared, he and his com-
pany volunteered to go West and join Gen. Harrison's
command, which they did, and were in the service a
long time. After his return, he and his company were
in the service in Erie until the close of the war. The
Barr family resided in Harbor Creek until 1830, and
removed to Mill Creek, and the last fifty years of Mrs.
Barr's life were spent on that farm. Mr. Barr died in
1835, leaving a widow and nine children in straight-
ened circumstances. Each member of the family
made the most of life's opportunities aud have been
successful. Mrs. Barr was one of the origmal mem-
bers that formed the first church in Erie, organized
and established by Rev. Robert Reid, pastor of the
First Associated Reformed (now United Presbyterian)
Church, of Erie, in 1811. Mrs. Barr was the only sur-
vivor of that little band for many years. John Kelley,
grandfather of Mrs. Munn, was a soldier of the Revo-
lutionary war, was born in Bucks county, Pennsyl-
vania, and moved to this county soon after 1800, lo-
cating on the bank of Lake Erie, a short distance east
of the wild lands at the mouth of Elk creek. In 1802
he purchased from the State reserve tract No. 27,
known for three-quarters of a century as the Butt
farm. Here he died, and was buried on the banks of
the lake. His wife died at the house of her daughter,
Mrs. Barr, in 1858. James Barr and Polly Kelley
were married, April 14, 1812; Matthew R. Barr mar-
ried Laura Wright, March 31, 1842; Frederick N: Bond
and Mary K. Barr were married. May 16, 1852; Lu-
ther Wright married Harriet M. Barr, April 8, 1858;
George W. Barr married Julia A. Wilder, January 6,
1860. The first of the Barr family came to America
in 1739, from the north of Ireland, in the person of
James Barr, grandfather of Mrs. Munn. He married
Elizabeth Kirk, in 1750, and died in Harbor Creek in
1823. Of this family there were two sons and eight
daughters. The children of James Barr are: John K.,
born September 13, 1813; Elizabeth Ann, born August

7, 1815; Matthew R., born December 25, 1817; Louisa
Aurelia, born December 7, 1819; George W., born
July 4, 1822; Harriet Margaret, born November 13,
1824; Mary Kelley, born April 25, 1827; Martha Re-
becca, born December 20, 1829; Ellen Cordelia, born
March 4, 1833; James Moses, born September 27,
1835. Mary Barr, grandmother of J. C. Munn, was
born May 23, 1770. Mr. J. C. Munn is a grandson of
Andrew Lowry, one of ten brothers who came from
Ireland in 1765. His children were: Eliza, married to
George Gallowhur, July 8, 1819; Margaret, married to
C. N. Munn, August 25, 1825; Maria, married to Rob-
ert Caldwell, February 1, 1821; Katy Ann, born Feb-
ruary 2, 1804, married to James Alexander, October
21, 1823; Sarah, born March 5, 1806; died July 15,
1809; Dr. Samuel S., born June 27, 1808; died Sep-
tember 11, 18:B8. Mr. Munn is an energetic and pro-
gressive citizen in the community, ever alive to the in-
terests of his surroundings. Mr. and Mrs. Munn are
members of the United Presbyterian Church.

F. J. Brown, farmer. Mill Creek township, post-
office Erie, was born June 11, I861, of German ances-
try, and is a son of Joseph and Lena (Oberhart) Brown,
of^ McKean township. The former is living with her
son, F. J., on the farm, near the city of Erie, at the
age of 70 years. The latter died in 1891, at the age of
59 years. Their children are: Frances (deceased),
wife of Michael Ritter; Jacob, Henry, Michael, a resi-
dent of Oregon; F. J. and Lena, of Erie. F. J. Brown
was married in February, 1884, to Frances, daughter of
Nicholas and Maggie (Weingart) Whitman. To them
have been born two children: Maggie, born in 1887,
and Lizzie, born in 1890. Mr. Brown began to farm
five years ago; prior to that time he was in the meat
business in McKean township. Joseph Brown came
first to Erie in 1852. He is a son of Conrad Brown
who resided in Germany during his lifetime. Mr.
Brown attended the public schools, and is a careful
farmer and respected citizen.

Adam HellmatiH, farmer, Mill Creek township,
postoffice Kearsarge, native of Erie county, of Ger-
man ancestry, was born July 10, 1871. He is a son of
Frank and Maggie (Kearn) Hellmann, who came to
Erie county In 1866, from Germany. John Kearn,
grandfather of Adam, died in Germany in 1885. His
widow was Teressa Kearn, who still survives. Their
children were: Helen, Balzor and Van Treaser.
Adam is the third child in a family of four children, as
follows: Helen, Adam, Peter and Frank, jr. In 1893
Mr. Hellmann was married to Mary, daughter of Mar-
tin Gossman. They have one child, Leo. Frank
Hellmann, father of Adam, is a member of the A. O.
U. W., and with his son manages a large farm near the
city of Erie.

William A. Hagmatm. dairyman, a native of
Erie county. New York, was born August 26, 1870.
He is a son of Gotleib and Warbery (Michlier) Hag-
mann, natives of Germany, who came to America in
1858, first locating in New York State, and later in the
city of Erie. Their children are: Joseph (whose
sketch appears in this work), Charles, Levi, Mary,
wife of Eugene Lyons, of Erie; Matilda, wife of W.
C. Allen, of Erie; Amelia, wife of Frank Slocum, of
Erie; Louisa, William and Anna, wife of Charles Par-
ker, of Erie. William came to Erie city ten years ago,



began business as a dairyman five years ago; and by
upright dealing has a most Hberal patronage. March
10, 1872, he was married to Bertha E., daughter
of David Wolf, of Lancaster, Pa. Her mother's
maiden name was Susanna Baechner; she still
survives her husband, who died in 1893, at the age
of 75 years. The children of Mr. and Mrs. William
Hagmann are: Mabel Leola, Harry and William
Hagmann. Mr. Hagmann now owns a modern home
near the outskirts of the city of Erie, and by his gen-
erous, straightforward dealing is fast gaining a com-
petency. He wasbrought upas a Methodist. In poli-
tics he is a Republican.

S. B. P. Zuck, farmer, Mill Creek township, post-
office Erie, son of John J. and Sallie (EbersoU) Zuck,
who settled early in Mill Creek, on what is known as
th^ Buffalo road. John Zuck, grandfather of S. B.
P., came early from Germany, and settled in Erie
county, near Erie city, when this section was a dense
wilderness. This early pioneer was among the very
first to settle in Erie county, locating on what is known
as "the flats." He married Elizabeth, daughter of
John Riblet, who was also identified with the early his-
tory of the county. John Zuck, father of S. B. P., died
in his 83d year. In 1838 S. B. P. Zuck married Mary
Ann, daughter of John McGlaughlin, a prominent resi-
dent of Erie county. Their children are: George, Mary
and John J., a resident of New Jersey. Mr. Zuck was
born near where he now resides in 1815, and has lived
to see various improvements of the locality carried
out, and was instrumental in carrying out many plans
for the advancement of his township in the way
of roads. Mr. Zuck owns one of the finest farms of
the township, which from an eminence overlooks
Lake Erie. He has lived to reap the fruit of his labor,
and has been a useful and honored citizen in the com-
munitv. His father, John Zuck, was a veteran of the
war of 1812.

M. G. Pollock, farmer. Mill Creek township,
postoffice Erie, was born in Erie county in 1831, son of
Matthew and Hannah (McClure) Pollock, natives of
Ireland, who came to America and settled in Erie
county in 1820. Matthew Pollock was an early settler
of the county, and bought the farm where M. G. Pol-
lock now resides, known as Academy land, and reared
a family of ten children, of which M. G. was the
seventh. Their issue was as follows: Margaret (de-
ceased), Hannah (deceased), David (deceased), John
(deceased), S. T., Alexander (deceased), M. G.,
Rebecca (deceased), Elizabeth (deceased) and Mary
C. (deceased). Matthew Pollock died at the age of 72
years, and his widow at the age of 71 years. Mr. M.
G. Pollock was married in 1850 to Margaret, daughter
of Oliver Dunn, of McKean township, an old resident.
He died in 1877, at the age of 72 years. His widow,
Elizabeth Dumars Dunn,"is still living in Erie, at the
age of 94 years. Their issue was thirteen children, of
whom are living: Mary, of Arkansas; Margaretta, wife
of M. G. Pollock; Matilda J. Dunn, with her mother in
Erie; Allen, Frank and Findley, all of whom partici-
pated in the late war. The children of M. G. Pollock
are: Ninette, wife of R. W. Wright, West Greene;
Alice H., wife of Simeon I. Hamot"; Summit township;
Maggie L., wife of Albert Weidler, Erie; Mary E.,
wife of Charles W. Nick, druggist, Erie; John, de-
ceased; James Oliver, deceased; Frank S., Erie;

Charles G., New Britain, Conn., and Harry W. Pol-
lock, Erie. Mr. Pollock for twenty years was a resi-
dent of Summit township, where he was assessor in
1877, and a prominent and influential citizen in the
community. He is a member of the L'nited Presby-
terian Church.

George Biebel, merchant, Kearsarge postoffice.
Mill Creek township, was born and reared in Mill
Creek township. He was born January 1, 1846, son of
Daniel and Charlotte (Gintz) Biebel, natives of Ger-
many. Daniel Biebel was born in the year 1817, and
now resides in Kearsarge, and is hale and hearty. He
began in this country first in the employ of Hurkins
& Co., bricklayers, Erie; this was in August, 1836.
Mrs. Biebel, mother of George, is a sister of the late
Capt. Gintz. Mr. Biebel married, in 1869, Miss Mary
Schuwerk, daughter of Joseph Schuwerk, of McKean.
The following children have been born to this union:
August J., Edward D., William J. and Amelia K. Mr.
Biebel began the mercantile business in his present
location in 1872, where he has enjoyed the liberal
patronage which he seeks to deserve by carrying all
the merchandise embraced in a general store; gro-
ceries, provisions, flour, feed; fertilizers, boots and
shoes, glassware, farming tools, hats, caps and notions;
also mowers and binders, manufactured by the John-
son Harvesting Company, of Batavia, N. Y. Mr.
Biebel has enjoyed that degree of prosperity that fol-
lows persistent industry and satisfactory dealing. He
was appointed postmaster under President Grant's
administration, December 21, 1873, and still holds the
office, bearing the distinction of holding a postoffice
appointment the longest of any postmaster in Erie
county. Mr. Biebel and lamily are members of the
Catholic Church. He is a Democrat in party affilia-

Joseph Seelitiger, dairyman, Kearsarge post-
office. Mill Creek township, Erie county. Pa., was born
in Erie county, November 4, 1853. He is a son of
Jacob and Kate (Wagner) Seelinger. The former
died in Texas, in the year of 1871, at the age of 45
years. He was a brother-in-law of Capt. Frank Wag-
ner, a survivor of the late war. Joseph was reared in
Erie county, and at an early age went to New Jersey,
remaining a few years, and later, after a four years'
residence in Texas, he returned to Erie county, where
he has since resided. Following are the children of
Jacob and Kate Seelinger: Joseph, Eveline, Kate,
wife of Edward Barron, of McKean; Frank, of Erie;
Anna, wife of William Zimmerman, of Erie; F. D.
and John, of Erie. Joseph Seelinger was married
May 3, 1882, to Philniena, daughter of Peter Kutz, of
Mill Creek township. Mrs. Louisa (Meyer) Kutz,
mother of Mrs. Seelinger, was a native of Germany.
The children of Mr. and Mrs. Seelinger are: William,
Joseph and George. Mr. Seelinger manages a milk
route in the city of Erie, is a member of the C. M,
B. A., and of St. Joseph's Church. He is a Democrat
in politics, and a highly esteemed citizen.

Hewry Shertier, farmer, Mill Creek township,
postoffice Kearsarge, Erie county. Pa., came to this
county and settled in West Mill Creek township in
1848," and is a son of William Sherner, a native of
Germany, who lived and died in his native county.
Henry is the eldest of a family of eight children, as



follows: Veight (deceased), Frederika (deceased),
William, resident of Ohio; Lewis, living in Illinois;
Lena (deceased), Conrader, Henry and Lottie, living in
McKean township. Mr. Sherner's children are: Henry,
Matilda, wife of George Stell; William, living in West
Mill Creek; and Charles Sherner. Mr. Sherner has
struggled successfully with life's battles, and gained a
competency. He is a member of the German Lutheran
Church, Erie. Mr. Sherner participated in the Ger-
man war in 1847.

Ira Hamilton, farmer, Mill Creek township, post-
office Kearsarge, was born in 1860, in LeBoeuf town-
ship, where he spent his early days. He is a son of
John and Lorinda (Pooley) Hamilton, natives of Penn-
sylvania. They reared a family of six children: Sam-
uel, LeRoy, William, Albert, Ira and Charles L. Ira
married Amy Augusta, daughter of Chauncey J.
Moore, of Elk county, Pennsylvania, in 1881, and to
this union have been born four children: Pearl,
Jeanette, Helena and Hazel. Ira E. Hamilton started
in life in LeBcEuf township, where he lived for eight
years, removed to Waterford township in 1883, and to
Sterrett farm in Mill Creek township in 1894. John
Hamilton, father of Ira, enlisted in the late war where
he died. Mr. Hamilton has been an energetic and
progressive pioneer.

Andrew Bruder, farmer. Mill Creek township,
postoffice Kearsarge, Erie county. Pa., was born in the
city of Erie, in 1853, son of Andrew Bruder, who set-
tled in Mill Creek township in 1869. He was a native
of Renselaer county. New York. Andrew is the sec-
ond in a family of six children, as follows: L. L., An-
drew, Joseph.Frank, Mary (deceased), Anna (deceased).
Andrew Bruder married his first wife Katie, daughter
of Anthony McGuire, a native of Erie, who died in
1894. In 1895 he married Jennie, daughter of John
Sedelmeyer, of Erie. Mr. Bruder, for eight years prior
to 1894, carried on an extensive dairy business in the
city of Erie. He is now located on a fine farm of fifty
acres, near the southern border of West Mill Creek
township, and is a most genial and energetic citizen.

Online LibraryBenjamin WhitmanNelson's biographical dictionary and historical reference book of Erie County, Pennsylvania : containing a condensed history of Pennsylvania, of Erie County, and of the several cities, boroughs and townships in the county also portraits and biographies of the governor's since 1790, and of numerous r → online text (page 164 of 192)