Benjamin Whitman.

Nelson's biographical dictionary and historical reference book of Erie County, Pennsylvania : containing a condensed history of Pennsylvania, of Erie County, and of the several cities, boroughs and townships in the county also portraits and biographies of the governor's since 1790, and of numerous r online

. (page 7 of 192)
Online LibraryBenjamin WhitmanNelson's biographical dictionary and historical reference book of Erie County, Pennsylvania : containing a condensed history of Pennsylvania, of Erie County, and of the several cities, boroughs and townships in the county also portraits and biographies of the governor's since 1790, and of numerous r → online text (page 7 of 192)
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James Cooper 1849-1855

Richard Brodhead 1851-1857

William Bigler 1855-1861

Simon Cameron 1857-1861

David Wilmot 1861-1863

Edgar Cowan 1861-1867

Charles R. Buckalew 1863-1869

Simon Cameron 1867-1877

John Scott 1869-1875

William A. Wallace 1875-1881

J. Donald Cameron 1877

John I. Mitchell 1881-1887

Matthew Stanley Ouay 1887

United States Representatives in Con-
gress. — Of the members in the House of Rep-
resentatives of Congress from Pennsylvania,

the gentlemen named below have been among
the most distinguished :

Henry Baldwin, Horace Binney, James
Buchanan, Charles R. Buckalew, Joseph
Casey, John Cessna, Hiester Clymer, John
Covode, Andrew G. Curtin, John Dalzell,
John L. Dawson, Henry D. Foster, Albert
Gallatin, Galusha A. Grow, Samuel D. Ing-
ham, Charles J. Ingersoll, Joseph R. Inger-
soll, T- Glancy Jones, George A. Tenks,
William D. KelleV, John C. Kunkel,'D. J-
Morrell, Edward J. Morris, F. A. Muhlen-
burg, William Mutchlei', James Pollock, Alex-
ander Ramsey, Samuel J. Randall, Glenni
W. Scofield, John Scott," William L. Scott,
Joseph C. Sibley, Thaddeus Stevens, Andrew
Stewart, Charles W. Stone, William Strong,
James Thompson, Richard Vaux, William
Wilkins, David Wilmot, George W. Wood-
ward, Hendrick B. Wright.

Vice-President.— The only Vice-Presi-
dent the State has furnished to the Union was
George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, elected with
President Polk, in 1844. The unsuccessful
candidates from the State for Vice-President
have been as follows: Albert Gallatin, on the
Anti-Jack.son ticket with William H. Craw-
ford, in 1824 ; and William Wilkins, Demo-
crat, John Sergeant, Anti-Jackson, and Amos
Ellmaker, Anti-Masonic, all in 1832. The
parents of John C. Calhoun, the eminent
statesman, elected Vice-President on the ticket
with Jackson, in 1828, moved from Lancaster
county to South Carolina but a short time be-
fore his birth.

Votes for Governor. — [See Political Rec-
ord in General History of Erie County.] —
The following has been the vote for the prin-
cipal Gubernatorial candidates since the adop-
tion of the Constitution of 1790 :

1790. — Thomas Mifflin, Democratic-Re-
publican, 27,725; Arthur St. Clair, Federal-
ist, 2,802.

1793._Thomas Mifflin, Dem-Rep., 18,590;
F. A. Muhlenberg, Fed., 10,706.

1796.— Thomas Mifflin, Dem-Rep., 30,020 ;
F. A. Muhlenberg, Fed., 1,011.

1799. — Thomas McKean, Dem-Rep., 38,-
036; James Ross, Fed., 32,641.

1802. — Thomas McKean, Dem-Rep., 47,-
879; James Ross, Fed., 17,037.

1808.— Simon Snyder, Dem-Rep., 67,975 ;
Tames Ross, Fed., .89,575 ; John Spayd, Inde-
pendent, 4,006.



1811.— Simon Snyder, Dem-Rep., 52,319;
William Tighlman, Ind., 3,609.

1814.— Simon Snyder, Dem-Rep., 51,099;
Isaac Wayne, Fed., 29,566; G. Lattimer,
Ind., 910.

1817.— William Findlay, Dem-Rep., 66,-
331 ; Joseph Hiester, Fed.," 59,272.

1820.— Joseph Hiester, Fed., 67,905;
William Findlay, Dem-Rep., 66,300.

1823.— J. A. Schulze, Dem-Rep., 89,928;
Andrew Gregg, Fed., 64,205.

1826.— J. Andrew Schulze, Dem-Rep.,
72,710; John Sergeant, Fed., 1,175; scatter-
ing, 1,174.

1829.— George Wolf, Democrat, 78,219;
Joseph Ritner, Anti-Masonic, 51,776.

1832.— George Wolf, Dem., 91,335 ; Joseph
Ritner, Anti-Mas., 88,165.

1885.— Joseph Ritner, Anti-Mas., 94,023;
George Wolf, Dem., 65,804; Henry A. Muhl-
enberg, Dem., 40,586.

1838.— David R. Porter, Dem., 127,827 ;
Joseph Ritner, Anti-Mas., 122,321.

1841.— David R. Porter, Dem. , 136,504 ;
John Banks, Whig, 113,473; F. J. Lemoyne,
Abolition, 763.

1844.— Francis R. Shunk, Dem., 160,322;
Joseph Markle, Whig, 156,040.

1847.— Francis R. Shunk, Dem., 146,081;
James Irvin, Whig,' 128,148; Emanuel C.
Reigart, Native American, 11,247; F. J. Le-
moyne, Abolition, 1,861.

1848.— William F. Johnston, Whig, 168,-
522; Morris Longstreth, Dem., 168,225.

1851.— William Bigler, Dem., 186,489;
William F. Johnston, Whig, 178,034 ; Kimber
Cleaver, Native American, 1,850.

1854. — James Pollock, Whig and Know
Nothing, 203,822; William Bigler, Dem.,
166,991 ; B. Rush Bradford, Native American,

1857.— William F. Packer, Dem., 188,846;
David Wilmot, Fusion, 149,139; Isaac Hazle-
hurst, American, 28,168.

1860. — Andrew G. Curtin, Republican,
262,346; Henry D. Foster, Dem., 230.239.

1863.— Andrew G. Curtin, Rep., 269,506;
George W. Woodward, Dem., 254,171.

1866.— John W. Geary, Rep., 307,274;
Hiester Clymer, Dem., 290,097.

1869.— John W. Geary, Rep., 290,552;
Asa Packer, Dem., 285,956.

1872.— John F. Hartranft, Rep., 353.387;

Charles R. Buckalew, Dem., 317,760; S. B.
Chase, Prohibition, 1,197.

1875.— John F. Hartranft, Rep., 304,175;
Cyrus L. Pershing, Dem., 292,145; R. Audlev
Brown, Pro., 13,244.

1878.— Henry M. Hoyt, Rep., 319,490;
Andrew H. Dill, Dem., 297,137 ; Samuel R.
Mason, Greenback, 81,758 ; Franklin H. Lane,
Pro., 3,753.

1882.— Robert E. Pattison, Dem., 355,791 ;
James A. Beaver, Rep., 315,589; John Stew-
art, Independent Republican, 43,748 ; Thomas
A. Armstrong, Greenback-Labor, 23,996;
Alfred C. Pettit, Pro., 5,196.

1886.— James A. Beaver, Rep., 412,285;
Chauncey F. Black, Dem., 369,684; Charles
S. Wolfe, Pro. and Ind. Rep., 32,458; Robert
J. Houston, Greenback-Labor, 4,835.

1890.— Robert E. Pattison, Dem., 464,209 ;
George B. Delamater, Rep., 447,655 ; John D.
Gill, Pro., 16,108; Theo. P. Rynder,' Green-
back-Labor, 224.

1894.— Daniel H. Hastings, Rep.. 574,801 ;
William M. Singerly, Dem., 333,404; Charles
L. Hawley, Pro., 23,433; J. T. Ailman,
Populist, 19,464; Thomas H. Grundy, Social-
ist-Labor, 1,733.

Vegetable Productions. — The vegetable
productions are those that pertain to the tem-
perate zone. Everything that can be grown
in the temperate regions is produced in Penn-
sylvania, with, perhaps, as much ease and
abundance as in any part of the world.

Valuations. — The valuations of real and
personal property for 1890, with other statis-
tics relating to the- wealth and taxation of the
State, as given in the United States census re-
port for that year, are herewith submitted :

Real estate, with improvements $3,781,117,285

Live stock and fanning- implements.. 140,699,613

Mines and quarries 361,888,490

Machinery of mills and product on

hand 486,944,603

Railroads and equipments 455,446,676

Telegraphs, telephones, shipping and

canals _87,347,794

Miscellaneous 777,541,606

Gold and silver coin and bullion 99,700,483

Total $6,190,746,550


1880. 1890.

True value .of real and

personal property. . .$4,942,000,000 $6,190,746,550






Assessed value






Ad valorem taxation.




Per capita

6 72

7 10

Rate per hundred oi

assessed valuation.

1 71

1 40

Rate per hundred o

true valuation



Wayne, Anthony. — An extended account
of the life, death and important public sersices
of Gen. Anthony Wayne, Pennsylvania's
most eminent soldier in the Revolutionary
war, will be found in the General Historv of
Erie County.

Wealth. — Pennsylvania is second in
wealth of the .States of the Union, being
exceeded only by New York.

War of 1812. — During the last war with
Great Britain, usually known as the " War of
1812," but which reallj- lasted from June 19,
1812, to the spring of 1815, tiie people of
Pennsj-lvania were enthusiastic for the Amer-
ican cause. When the war opened the Gov-
ernor asked for 14,(K)0 volunteers, and three
times as many were offered within a few weeks.
The British at no time gained a footing on
Pennsylvania soil, but the troops of the State
were kept constantly on the alert to repel
rumored or threatened attacks upon Erie and
Philadelphia. Detachments of Pennsylvania
volunteers rendered good service in the battles
along the Niagara, and others responded with
alacrity to the call of the country when Wash-
ington was burned and the enemy marched
upon Baltimore. The victorious fleet of Perry
was partly built and entirely created and
equipped in the harbor of Erie, and largely I
manned by volunteers from the Pennsylvania
militia stationed at the post. During the war
the little navy of the United States rendered I
distinguished service, on the ocean as well as |
the lakes, and among the most famous of its
heroes were four Pennsylvanians — Stephen
Decatur, James Biddle, Charles Stewart and
Jesse D. Elliott. Each of these received
well-merited testimonials from his native
State. [For a full account of Perry's victory
and the events of the war along the north- i
western border, see the General History- of
Erie County.]

War with Mexico. — In the war with
Mexico, 18-1G-7, the State oft'ered nine regi-
ments — four times her quota. Two regiments

and two additional companies were accepted
and sent to the seat of war. These were
among the most efficient in the service, and,
on several occasions, won the special commen-
dation of the commanding general. The State
has erected a handsome monument to the mem-
ory of. her fallen soldiers in the Mexican war
on the capitol grounds at Harrisburg.

War for the Union. — Under the direction
of her patriotic Governor, Andrew G. Curtin,
Pennsj-lvania was one of the most ardent and
energetic of the loyal States in defense of the
Union during the memorable struggle which
lasted from 1861 to '65. President Lincoln's
first call for 75,000 volunteers to maintain the
national authority was made on the 15th of
April, 1861. On the 18th of that month over
500 Pennsylvania soldiers reached Washing-
ton, being the first .State troops to arrive at
the National Capital in response to the Presi-
dent's proclamation. On the way through
Baltimore they were grossly insulted, but suc-
ceeded in getting to Washington without a
fight. By the end of April twentj^-five regi-
ments had been sent forward — nearly twice
the number asked for from the State — and
steps had been taken for the organization of a
large reserve force. From that time to the
close of the war Pennsylvania met every call,
heartily and promptly, and there was scarcely
an important battle in which her brave men
did not take a conspicuous part. The total
number of men furnished by the State during
the contest was 387,284, of whom 60,000 were
killed in battle, 35,000 mortally wounded,
and many thousands died of disease in camps,
hospitals and elsewhere.


In the month of June, 1863, the main
Southern army, led by General Lee, invaded
the State, by way of the Cumberland Valley,
in the hope of transferring the scene of war
in the East from Virginian to Northern soil.
A portion of the force reached York and
penetrated to within a few miles of Harris-
burg ; but learning thai the Army of the Po-
tomac was marching northward, Lee rapidly
concentrated his men in the direction of Get-
tysburg. The two armies came together at
the latter place, and a series of battles ensued
on the 1st, 2d and 8d of July, which were not
only among the most desperate of the war,
but" among the bloodiest in history. The


Southerners were repulsed at every point, and
Lee was glad to withdraw his shattered force
through a gap in the mountains to a place of
safety south of the Potomac. It is estimated
that the Southerners engaged at Gettysburg
were 70,000 in number, with 250 guns ; the
Union troops numbered some 80,000, with
300 guns. The Union loss, as given by Gen-
eral Bingham, in his address at Gettysburg in
1889, was : 3,063 killed, 14,492 wounded and
5,455 missing— a total of 22,990 ; that of the
Southerners was never fully returned, but is
thought — in killed, wounded and prisoners —
to have been about 27,500. Many prominent
officers were killed, or died of their wounds,
including Generals Reynolds, Vincent, Weed,
Zuck and Farnsworth of the Union army,
and Generals Pender, Barksdale, Armstead,
Garnett and Semmes of the Southern. Gen-
eral Meade, commander of the Union forces,
several of his leading officers, pre-eminently
Generals Hancock, Reynolds, Geary, Vincent,
Gregg and McCandless, and 26,628 of his
army, were Pennsylvanians.


A sudden dash into the State, for the os-
tensible purpose of retaliating upon the North
for the injuries done to property in the Shen-
andoah Valley b}' the Union troops, was made
on July 29, 1864, by a considerable body of
Southerners under the lead of General Mc-
Causland. They reached the outskirts of
Chambersburg early in the morning of the
30th of July, and entered the place soon after
daylight, there being no Union force in that
section of sufficient size to oppose their prog-
ress. An immediate demand was made upon
the citizens for .1(100,000 in gold, or $500,000
in greenbacks, to be paid within a half an
hour, under the threat of burning the town.
This, of course, the people were unable to do,
and, while negotiations were going on, the
town was set on fire in a hundred places, and
the main portion destroyed. Millions of dol-
lars' worth of property were eaten up by the
flames within a few hours, and 3,000 persons
robbed of their homes, money and valuables.

This was one of the most atrocious acts of the
war, and has rendered the name of General
McCausland forever odious. Having accom-
plished their object, the enemy hurried back
to the Southern lines, plundering the Union
farmers of horses, provisions, etc., on the way.


The State has remembered the deeds of its
gallant men who fought in defense of the
Union, with characteristic generosity. One
of its first acts was to provide a series of
orphan schools, in which the children of de-
ceased soldiers were educated, clothed and
cared for at the public charge until they
reached an age where they could provide for
themselves. It has also fitted up a home at
Erie for sick and disabled soldiers and sailors,
which is doubtless the best institution of the
kind in any State of the Union. [See Gen-
eral History of Erie County and City of

Pennsylvania's battle flags.

The torn and bloodstained battle flags of
the several Pennsylvania regiments in the last
war are sacredl)' preserved in a handsome
room in the Capitol building at Harrisburg.

World's Fair. — The part taken by Penn-
sylvania in the World's Columbian Exposi-
tion at Chicago, in 1893, was greatly to her
credit. .She was one of the first common-
wealths to respond to the request of the Ex-
position authorities for aid, voting the liberal
sum of $300,000, and by various acts, official
and otherwise, doing much to encourage their
efforts. Her State building was one of the
finest on the grounds, and was generally con-
ceded to be the best adapted for its purpose.
Among the many articles from the State was
the Liberty Bell, which attracted remarkable
attention, and was unquestionably the most
precious relic at the Exposition. Pennsyl-
vania Day, September 7, 1893, was a proud
event for the State, over 200,000 people hav-
ing attended, as shown by the official reports
of the Fair authorities.


[Adopted December 18, 1873; Went Into Operation January 1st, 1874, Except as
Otherwise Provided Therein.]


We, the people of the Commonwealth of Penn-
sylvania, grateful to Almighty God for the bless-
ings of civil and religious libertj', and humblj' in-
voking His guidance, do ordain and establish this


declaration of rights.

That the general, great and essential prin-
ciples of liberty and free government may be re-
cognized and unalterably established, we declare

Section 1. All men are born equally free
and independent, and have certain inherent and
indefeasible rights, among which are those of en-
joying and defending life and libertj', of acquir-
ing, possessing, and protecting property and re-
putation, and of pursuing their own happiness.

Sec. 2. All power is inherent in the people,
and all free governments are founded on their au-
thority and instituted for their peace, safety and
happiness. For the advancement of these ends,
they have at all times an inalienable and inde-
feasible right to alter, reform, or abolLsh their
government in such manner as they may think

Sec. 3. All men have a natural and indefea.s-
ible right to worship Almighty God according to
the dictates of their own consciences; no man can
of right be compelled to attend, erect, or support
any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry
against his consent; no human authority can, in
any case whatever, control or interfere with the
rights of conscience, and no preference shall ever
be given by law to any religious establishments
or modes of worship.

Sec. 4. No person who acknowledges the be-
ing of a God, and a future state of rewards and
punishments, shall, on account of his religious
sentiments, be disqualified to hold any office or
place of trust or profit under the commonweath.

Sec. S. Elections shall be free and equal; and
no power, civil or military, shall at any time
interfere to prevent the free exercise of the
right of suffrage.

Sec. 6. Trial by jury shall be, as heretofore,
and the right thereof remain inviolate.

Sec. 7. Theprintingpressshallbefreetoevery
person who may undertake to examine the pro-
ceedings of the legislature, or any branch of gov-
ernment, and no law shall ever be made torestrain

the right thereof. The free communication of
thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable
rights of man, and every citizen may freely speak,
write and print on any subject, being responsible
for the abuse of that liberty. No conviction shall
be had in any prosecution for the publication of
papers relating to the official conduct of officers or
men in public capacity, or to any other matter
proper for public investigation or information,
where the fact that such publication was not ma-
liciously or negligently made shall be established
to the satisfaction of the jury; and in all indict-
ments for libel, the jury shall have the right to
determine the law and the facts, under the direc-
tion of the court, as in other cases.

Sec. 8. The people shall be secure in their
persons, houses, papers and possessions from un-
reasonable searches and seizures, and no warrant
to search anyplace or to seize any person or things
shall issue without describing them as nearly as
may be, nor without probable cause, supported by
oath or affirmation, subscribed to by the affiant. '

Sec. 9. In all criminal prosecutions the accus-
ed hath a right to be heard by himself and his
counsel, to demand the nature and cause of the
accusation against him, to meet the witnesses
face to face, to have compulsory process for ob-
taining witnesses in his favor, and, in prosecutions
by indictment or information, a speedy public
trial by an impartial jury of the vicinage: he can-
not be compelled to give evidence against himself,
nor can he be deprived of his life, liberty or prop-
erty', unless by the judgment of his peers or the
law of the land.

Sec. 10. No person shall, for any indictable
offense, be proceeded against criminally by in-
formation, except in cases arising in the land or
naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual serv-
ice, in time of war or public danger, or by leave
of the court, for oppression or misdemeanor in
office. No person shall, for the same offense, be
twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall
private property be taken or applied to public use,
without authority of law and without just com-
pensation being first made or secured.

Sec. 11. All courts shall be open, and every
man for an injury done him in his lands, goods,
person or reputation, shall have remedy by due
course of law, and right and justice administered
without sale, denial or delay. Suits may be
brought against the commonwealth in such man-
ner, in such courts and in such cases as the legis-
lature may by law direct.

Sec. 12. No power of suspending laws shall



be exercised unless by the leg-islature, or by its

Sec. 13. Excessive bail shall not be required,
nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel punishments

Sec. 14. All prisoners shall be bailable by
sufficient sureties, unless for capital offenses,
when the proof is evident or presumption great;
and the privilege of the vprit of habean rorpuii shall
not be suspended, unless when in case of rebellion
or invasion the public safety may require it.

Sec. 15. No commission of oyer or terminer
or jail delivery shall be issued.

vSec. 16. The person of a debtor, where there
is not strong presumption of fraud, shall not be
continued in prison after delivering up his estate
for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as
shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 17. No e.r fiiftd law, nor any law im-
pairing the obligation of contracts, or making
irrevocable any grant of special privileges or
immunities shall be passed.

Sec. 18. No person shall be attainted of trea-
son or felony by the legislature.

Sec. 19. ' No attainder shall work corruption
of blood, nor, except during the life of the offend-
er, forfeiture of estate to the commonwealth.
The estate of such persons as shall destroy their
own lives shall descend or vest as in cases of nat-
ural death, and if any person shall be killed by
casualty there shall be no forfeiture by reason

Sec. 20. The citizens have a right in a peace-
able manner to assemble together for their com-
mon good, and to apply to those invested with the
powers of government for redress of grievances
or other proper purposes, by petition, address or

Sec. 21. The right of the citizens to bear
arms in defense of themselves and the state shall
not be questioned.

Sec. 22. No standing army shall, in time of
peace, be kept up without the consent of the legis-
lature, and the military shall in all cases and at
all times be in strict subordination to the civil

Sec. 23. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be
quartered in any house without the consent of the
owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be
prescribed by law.

Sec. 24. The legislature shall not grant any
title of nobility or hereditary distinction, nor
create any office, the appointment to which shall
be for a longer term than during good behavior.

Sec. 25. Emigration from the state shall not
be prohibited.

Sec. 26. To guard against transgressions of
the high powers which we have delegated, we de-
clare that everything in this article is excepted
out of the general powers of government and shall
forever remain inviolate.



Sec. 1. The legislative power of thi
wealth shall be vested in a general assembly,

which shall consist of a Senate and a House of

Sec. 2. Members of the general assembly
shall be chosen at the general election every
second year. Their term of service shall begin on
the first day of December next after their election.
Whenever a vacancy' shall occur in either House, the
presiding officer thereof shall issue a writ of elec-
tion to fill such vacancy for the remainder of the

Sec. 3. Senators shall be elected for the term
of four years, and representatives for the term of
two years.

Sec. 4. The general assembly shall meet at
twelve o'clock, noon, on the first Tuesday of Jan-
uary, every second year, and at other times when
convened bj' the Governor, but shall hold no ad-
journed annual session after the year one thou-
sand eight hundred and seventy-eight. In case of
a vacancy in the office of United States Senator
from this commonwealth, in a recess between ses-
sions, the Governor shall convene the two Houses,
by proclamation on notice not exceeding sixty
days, to fill the same.

Sec. 5. Senators shall be at least twenty-five
years of age, and representatives twenty-one
years of age. They shall have been citizens and
inhabitants of the state four years, and inhabi-
tants of their respective districts one year next
before their election (unless absent on the public
business of the United States, or of this state),
and shall reside in their respective districts dur-
ing their terms of service.

Sec. 6. No senator or representative shall,
during the time for which he shall have been

Online LibraryBenjamin WhitmanNelson's biographical dictionary and historical reference book of Erie County, Pennsylvania : containing a condensed history of Pennsylvania, of Erie County, and of the several cities, boroughs and townships in the county also portraits and biographies of the governor's since 1790, and of numerous r → online text (page 7 of 192)