but none the less beneficial. They soon saw
that the only way to make up for the defi-
ciency in location, distances, grades and other-
wise was to engage in manufactures, for
which the proximity of the city to the coal
fields, and the more recent extensions of its
railroad facilities give it peculiar opportuni-
ties. The result is, that within a compara-
tively brief period, Erie has become one of
the leading manufacturing cities in the Union,
with a reputation that is not confined to the
American continent. As will be seen by the
list below, the manufactures of the city are of
unusual variety, so that it is next to impos-
sible for a depression or panic to occur that will
seriously affect every interest. It was a matter
of common remark, during the late financial
revulsion, that Erie was less embarrassed or
injured than any city of its size in the land.
Most of the manufactures in the city
started from small beginnings, and have been
extended as the increase of trade demanded
and warranted. The owners and managers
are, therefore, as a rule, fully versed in their
business, know how to carry it on with the
least expense, and are free from the disadvan-
tages of men who start with large capital and
resources, which they have not the experi-
ence or ability to properly handle. "That
labor is remuneratively rewarded is proven by
the fact that strikes of any magnitude are un-
known. Labor and capital work mutually
together. The seeds of communism or an-
archy do not take root in Erie."
NELSON'S BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY
The table below, compiled from the reports of the Board of Trade, shows the progress of
the manufacturing interests from 1880 to 1894, inclusive :
Iron and Brass Manufactories
Boots, Shoes and Leather
Breweries and Malt Houses
Sash, Blinds and Planing Mills
Organs and Pianos
The decrease in men and products in 1894 shows the effect of the hard times which struck the country in 1893, and of the reduc-
tion in values that followed. An improvement in nearly every branch of Erie's manufactures has taken place this year (1895J, and the
prospects are that, within a year or two, a large increase will be shown in every branch of the manufacturing business.
LIST OF MANUFACTORIES.
Below is a list of the principal manufac-
tories in Erie, with a brief historical sketch of
each establishment, the space to which the
writer is limited not permitting of an account
in detail :
ABATTOIRS AND PACKING ESTABLISHMENTS.
Bush Provision Company, pork packers, etc..
State and Twenty-first streets. Aaron F.
Bush, proprietor. Business started in 1872
by Wm. Loesch. Conducted by various
parties until the fall of 1879, when it was
taken by John C. McCrea. Property and
business purchased by above named com-
pany in the spring of 1890. Capacity
1,000 hogs a week. Pack for general
market. Besides hogs, slaughter about 100
head of cattle a week for Erie and the
general market. Have also a retail store
at 1105 State street.
Erie Stock Yards, old Fair grounds. Owned
by John J. Rindernecht, who succeeded
Wm. F. & John J. Rindernecht. Build-
ings burned fvlay 2, 1895, and replaced on a
modern scale in September of the same
year. Slaughter beef for the city trade
and surrounding country. Capacity 100
head of cattle per week.
Schaffner Brothers (Morris and Jacob),
Eleventh and Wayne streets. Plant es-
tablished in 1891. Slaughter for Erie
trade and surrounding country. Capacity
150 head of cattle a week.
Sands Bakery of the United States Baking
Company, Fourth and French streets. W.
J. Sands, jr., manager. Bakery estab-
lished in 1842. Long operated by W. J.
Sands and W. J. Sands & Sons. Premises
largely extended in 1894. Sold by the
Messrs. Sands to the United States Ba-
king Company, June 1, 1895.
Ball, C. E. (West End Brewery), Lake road,
west of city. Established in 1893.
Conrad, C. M. (National Brewery), Fifth
and Sixth streets, near Parade. Founded
by Jacob Fuess about 1848. Inherited by
Mr. Conrad on the death of Mr. Fuess.
New buildings on Fifth street, erected in
Downer & Howard (ale brewery), Parade
and Seventeenth streets. E. J. Howard,
proprietor. Business established by Mr.
Deitz many years ago. Conducted for a
time by Chas. Koehler and Alfred King.
Bought by Downer & Howard in 1872.
Koehler, F. & Co. (Fred'k Koehler and A. L.
Curtze), Holland and Twenty-fifth streets.
Founded by Jacob Deitz, who was suc-
ceeded in 1860 by Charles Koehler, father
of Fred'k and Jackson. Operated by the
brothers after their father's death. The
firm of F. &J. Koehler dissolved in 1882.
A. L. Curtze became a member of the
AND HISTORICAL REFERENCE BOOK OF ERIE COUNTY.
firm about the time of the dissolution.
Business and facilities much extended since.
Koehler, Jackson (Eagle Brewery), State
street, between Twenty-first and Twenty-
third. Founded by Fry & Schaaf in 1846,
who were succeeded by Henry Kalvelage
in 1854. Purchased by Jackson Koehler
in 1883. Largely added to since.
Vogt, Frank, State and city limits. Estab-
lished about 1880-81.
Black Manufacturing Company, Nineteenth
and Liberty streets. W. T. Black, Presi-
dent; L. B. Gay lor, Vice-President ; Geo.
I. Black, Treasurer. Establiihed in 1894.
New buildings erected in 1894-5.
Erie Cycle Works, No. 15 West Seventh
street. F. M. Slocum and W. W. Hunt.
Established in 1892.
BLANK BOOKS, PRINTING, PAPER BOXES.
Ashby & Vincent, 423 State street. John E.
Ashby and Harry Vincent. Established in
1867. Do a general book binding and
Dispatch Printing and Engraving Company,
Seventh street, just east of State. W. J.
Robinson, Daniel McCarty, W. C. Kra-
mer, A. F. Moses. Book binding, print-
ing and engraving. Business established
in Waterford in 1851. Office moved to
Erie in 1856. Above firm organized in the
fall of 1894. (See newspapers in General
Erie Lithographing and Printing Company.
F. J. Walker, Jesse Roberts. No. 14 to 18
West Fourth street. Established in 1883
by Walker & Gallagher. Present firm
formed January 1, 1891. Lithographing
department added in 1892.
Herald Printing and Publishing Company,
Tenth and State streets, railroad and gen-
eral printing, stationery, paper boxes, &c.
William P. Atkinson, General Manager;
William Wallace, Treasurer. Office es-
tablished in 1878. Purchased by William
L. Scott the same year, who converted
it into a joint stock concern. Publish
the Evening Herald, Weekly Herald,
Sunday Alessenger and Lake Shore Vis-
itor. (See newspapers in General His-
Dudenhofer, Frank, MillCreek township, near
Kearsarge. Established in 1872.
Dunn, H. C, Lake road, east of East avenue.
Started in 1892. New yard opened in
September, 1895, on East Twelfth street.
Hogan, Hobart, Twenty-eighth and Holland
streets. Established in 1895.
McCarty, James (Standard works), foot of
Parade 'street. Started about 1888 by
Paradine & McCarty, the latter becoming
sole proprietor in 1893.
Paradine, Thomas J., Waterford plank road,
vitrified shale brick. Established in 1893.
Selden Brick Company, foot of East avenue.
E. P. and Samuel F. Selden. In opera-
tion since 1868. J. C. Selden & Co. took
charge about 1871, since which time the
works have been continuously operated by
members of the Selden family.
Columbia Brass Works, Sixteenth and Ger-
man streets. T. M. and B. B. Nagle,
Joseph Jungbluth, W. E. Kennedy, E. C.
Robinson. Works erected in 1892.
Hays Manufacturing Company, Eleventh
street, between State and Peach. Started
by G. and F. Jarecki in 1865. The Messrs .
Hays admitted to the firm in 1870. Pres-
ent name adopted in 1887.
Jarecki Manufacturing Company, Ninth,
Tenth and Holland streets ; also Twelfth
and Chestnut. Charles Jarecki, Chair-
man; Albert H. Jarecki, Secretary; Oscar
Jarecki, Treasurer ; Alex. J. Jarecki, Su-
perintendent. Founded by Henry Jarecki
in 1852 at 824 State street. Incorporated
in 1872. Buildings at Ninth and Holland
streets erected in 1865; greatly extended
from time to time, especially in 1872 and
1888. Buildings at Twelfth and Chestnut
streets erected in 1886.
Keystone Brass Company (brass and iron
work), 1017 to 1019 Peach street, C. F.
Bostwick, Manager, and Louis Mertens,
Superintendent. Started on Eleventh
street March 1, 1887, by C. F. Bostwick,
E. S. Noyes, jr., and John McConnell.
Present firm organized in April, 1892.
Moved to quarters now occupied Decem-
ber 7, 1892.
Pennsylvania Brass Works, Twelfth street,
NELSON'S BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOlSABY
between Myrtle and Chestnut. H. L.
Chaplain, J. C. Clifton Sewell. Estab-
lished in 1885.
Erie Button Works, Sixteenth and State
streets. N. A. Watson, proprietor since
August, 1892. Established in December,
1891, by Simmonds& Co.
Keystone Button Works, Twenty-fifth and
Ash streets. W. S. Clark, E. Clark.
Started in 1893. Present location secured
in the winter of 1894.
CARRIAGE AND WAGON-MAKERS.
Fries Brothers, Tenth and Holland streets.
Frank, George B. and John J. Fries.
Works started in spring of 1891 ; moved to
Tenth and Holland streets in 1893.
Keystone Carriage Works, Eighth and Hol-
land streets. P. L. and Frank Leemhuis.
Established in 1876 by Harrison & Leem-
huis. Leemhuis Bros, became sole proprie-
tors in 1880.
Totman & Jacobson, Twelfth and French
streets. Henrj' M. Totman, C. M.Jacob-
son. Established in April, I893.
Crouch Bros. & Co. (Merchant Mills), 1519
Holland street. O. B.and Phineas Crouch.
Originally a feed mill, built in 1858.
Burned first in 1868, and again in 1891 and
rebuilt; the last time in 1893. Have
operated a flouring mill since December,
J. B. Crouch & Co. (Erie Roller Mill),
Eighth street between German and Hol-
land. J. B. and H. L. Crouch. Owned
by some member or members of the Crouch
family since 1859. Present firm dates
Densmore Wm. & Co. (City Mills), Six-
teenth and State streets. William, Park
and Fred'k A. Densmore. Formerlj' the
Erie City Mills, started many years ago.
Rebuilt by the Densmores.
Gingrich & Ohmer (Hopedale Mills), State
and Twenty-seventh streets. W. H. Ging-
rich, J. J. Ohmer. Mill built originally in
Oliver & Bacon (Canal Mills), Myrtle, be-
sween Fifth and Sixth streets. John Oli-
ver, S. E. Bacon. Original mill built in
1848, to use the water of the Erie and
Beaver canal. Owned by present firm
since 1865. Remodeled in 1883.
Strieker & Gingrich, Nineteenth and Liberty
streets. H. H. Strieker, L. E. Gingrich.
Established in 1894.
FURNITURE AND FINE WOOD WORK.
E. J. Riblet, Twelfth and Peach streets. Rib-
let Bros, succeeded their father in 1879.
The latter had long been engaged in the
furniture business. The firm occupied the
present building March 1, 1887. Firm
dissolved, A. K. retiring, October 23,
Johannessen Manufacturing Co., Eleventh
and French streets. Andrew, Conrad and
Loucas Johannessen. A. Johannessen
started with the Art Novelty Works in
1884. Present firm established in Septem-
Ball Engine Co., Twelfth and French streets.
James McBrier, President ; D. N. McBrier,
Vice-President ; H. L. McBrier, Secretary
and Treasurer. Established in 1881. In-
corporated as above in 1883.
Bay State Iron Works (engines and boilers),
Third and Peach streets. F. C. Burton,
Chairman ; Theo. F. Noble, Secretary and
Treasurer. Started by Orange Noble and
L. H. Hall in 1865.
Brown Folding Machine Co., 16 West
Eleventh street. Wellington Downing,
Manager. Started in 1883. Mr. Downing
became interested in the business in 1885.
R. T. Brown's connection with the con-
cern was dissolved January 1, 1894.
Coates John, (Hydraulic Iron Works), 1227
State street. Started about 1853.
Davis-Farrar Co. (engines, boilers and pump-
ing machinery). Front, near State street.
C. W. and W. T. Farrar, L. D. Davis.
Started as the Humboldt Iron Works in
1866. Bought by L. D. Davis in 1886.
Present firm organized in August, 1891.
Dietly, P. W. (Erie Machine Shop) engines,
boilers, steam rollers, etc.. Thirteenth and
Peach streets. Established in 1885. Pres-
ent building erected in 1894.
Erie City Iron Fence Works, 1318 Turnpike
street. Wm. Bass, Henry Althof. Estab-
lished by Gorr & Althof in 1855. Original
AND HISTORICAL REFERENCE BOOK OF ERIE COUNTY.
firm dissolved in 1865. Wm. Bass entered
into partnership with John Gorr in 1870.
In 1874 Henry Althof, son of the original
member of tlie firm, became a partner, and
in 1880 he bought out John Gorr's interest.
Erie City Iron Works (engines and boilers) ,
East avenue and Lake Shore R. R. John
H. Bliss, President ; Geo. D. Selden, Vice-
President ; E. P. Selden, Treasurer; Geo.
T. Bliss, Secretary; H. R. Barnhurst, Gen-
eral Superintendent. Established in 183B.
After numerous changes, purchased by
George Selden and John H. Bliss in 1864.
These gentlemen organized the present
company. Original works at State and
Twelfth streets. Present site purchased in
1880. Buildings erected same year.
Erie City Machinery Co. (paper folding ma-
chinery and mowers) , Fourteenth and State
streets. T. Meyerhofer, R. T. Brown,
Chas. D. Van Etten. Started April 1, 1894.
Erie Engine Works (engines and boilers).
Thirteenth and Walnut streets. Wm.
Hardwick, President and Manager; F. L.
Cleveland, Secretary and Treasurer. Suc-
cessors to Cleveland & Co., established in
1868. Present shops built in 1886.
Erie Manufacturing and Supply Co., 1207
Peach street. J. W. Hardwick, President ;
C. J. Jackson, Vice-President; P. A.
Himrod, Secretary and Treasurer. Estab-
lished in 1890.
Erie Forge Co., Fifteenth and Cascade streets.
Geo. W. Starr, President; J. P. Harring-
ton, Vice-President; Chas R. Dinkey,
Treasurer; H. C. McLaughlin, Secretary;
T. F. Judge, salesman. Organized in
1872. Works burned in 1874. Rebuilt
on a larger scale. Large additions made
Erie Malleable Iron Co. (malleable and grey
iron castings), Thirteenth and Cherry
streets. J. P. Metcalf, Chairman ; B. J.
Walker, Secretary ; G. R. Metcalf, Treas-
urer. Organized in 1880 by John Clemens,
Prescott Metcalf and others.
Erie Torsion Spring Co., 845 West Ninth
streets. A. T. Marsh, manager. Estab-
lished in 1868.
Erie Foundry Co., site of old Fair grounds.
Incorporated October 29, 1895. Corpo-
rators, Chas. M. Reed, Jno. R. McDonald,
F. C. Clark, Geo. A. Gaither, H. C. Kel-
sey. Buildings erected in 1895.
Globe Iron Foundry Co., Fifteenth and Myr-
tle streets. F. F. Curtze, F. Carrick.
Present firm established in March, 1888.
Griswold Manufacturing Co. (light castings,
stove furniture, aluminum ware, etc.).
Tenth street, between Chestnut and Wal-
nut. Established by J, C. and .Samuel Sel-
den and M. Griswold, sr., in 1868. Works
severely damaged by fire August 3, 1895.
Repaired and remodeled same year.
Hollands Manufacturing Co. (natural gas
burners, vises, machinists' and plumbers'
tools). Twelfth street, between Myrtle
and Chestnut. Caleb Hollands, President ;
H. L. McWhorter, Secretary ; E. S. Rock-
afeller. Manager; R. B. Hough, Superin-
tendent. Established in 1890.
Hurley Manufacturing Co. (special machin-
ery and tools), Twefth street, between
Chestnut and Myrtle. Started in 1893.
Moved to present location in 1895.
Kelley, John L. (machine shop), 1115 State
street. Established May 4, 1885.
Lake City Machine Shop, 1219 Peach street.
Started in March, 1892.
Liley Machine Works (engine builders), 1328
State street. James and Joseph H. Liley.
Established in 1861 ; changed to Liley &
Son in 1893.
Link Machinery Company (heating and ven-
tilating apparatus, sawmill machinery, en-
gines, boilers, etc.), 1311 State street. E.
M., W. D., H. N. and F. S. Link. Char-
tered December 3, 1890.
Lloyd & Sterrett (machine shop), 824 West
Twelfth street. A. Lloyd, O. G. Sterrett.
Business started in 1885.
Metric Metal Company (natural gas stoves,
gas meters, &c.,). Tenth street and Payne
avenue. C. N. Payne, President ; F. H.
Payne, Secretary and Treasurer; J. B.
Wallace, Superintendent. Works erected
T. M. Nagle (steam engines and boilers) , Six-
teenth and Holland streets. Commenced
business in September, 1879. Brick
foundry on Sixteenth street built in 1883.
Other buildings added as the business in-
Pennsylvania Boiler Works, East Twelfth
street, between East and Penn avenues.
T. M. Nagle, President ; B. B. Nagle, Sec-
retary and Treasurer. Plant erected in
NMLSON'S BIOGBAPEIGAL DICTION ART
Skinner Engine Company (engines, boilers,
etc.), Twelfth and Cliestnut streets. L. G.
Skinner, Piesident; Frank Connell, Secre-
tary and Treasurer. Started by L. G.
Skinner in 1873. Buildings erected in
1880-81. Present firm organized in 1885.
South Erie Iron Works (stoves and general
iron work), 1917 Peach street; branch
foundry Twenty-si.xth and Maple streets.
R. Liebel, President; J. G. Liebel, Secre-
tary; A. K. Acheson, Treasurer. Estab-
lished by Adam Acheson and William
Henry on Peach street, in 1858. Incor-
porated under present name in 1868. Build-
ings on Peach strtet erected 1871 to 1891 ;
buildings at Twenty-sixth and Maple
streets erected 1885 to 1887. Principal
stockholders, R. Liebel, J. G. Liebel, A.
K. Acheson, D. S. Clark, T. S. Alber-
stadt, H. Kalvelage, D. T. Jones, Mrs.
Wm. Henry, Ph. Deifenbach, James Leask.
Stearns Manufacturing Company (sawmill
machinery, boilers, engines, etc.), Four-
teenth and Wayne streets. T. M. Will-
iamson, General Manager. Founded on
Tenth street, between Holland and Ger-
man by E. H. Stearns in 1855. Present
buildings erected in 1888.
Union Iron Works (steel boilers, etc.). Lake
Shore R. R., between Fifteenth, Cascade
and Raspberry streets. Wni. Hardwick,
President ; Frank Connell, Treasurer; Wes-
ley G. Hardwick, Secretary and Manager;
F. F. Curtze, Wm. Hardwick, L. G. Skin-
ner, Directors. Established in March,
1890; new buildings erected in 1893.
Walker Foundry Company, Cherry street and
Lake Shore R. R. B. A. Walker, -Secre-
tary and Treasurer; Charles H. Urick,
Superintendent. Established in 1893. Ad-
ditional building put up in the fall of
Noyes & Ryan (foundry), Sixteenth and State
streets. Started in 1894.
LIME AND CEMENT WORKS.
Erie Lime and Cement Co. (lime, cement and
building stone), foot of French street. H.
W. Spooner, Samuel Rea. Established by
H. W. Spooner and S. E. Neiler in 1862.
Present name adopted in 1864. Business
moved to present location in 1867.
LUMBER AND BUILDING MATERIAL.
Althof Bros., Eleventh and French streets.
Jacob, George and Samuel Althof. Es-
tablished by W. H. Demming on Peach
street in 1870. Mr. D. erected the pres-
ent mill in 1874. Althof Bros, took charge
Bauschard Manufacturing Co., Eighth and
Ninth streets, between Wayne and Perry.
F. Bauschard, President ; F. E. Baus-
chard, Secretary and Treasurer. Founded
by Bauschard, Gloth & Co. in 1866. Mill
built by the Bauschards at Tenth and Hol-
land streets in 1868. Burned down in
September, 1891. Mill erected on present
site the same year.
Carroll, George & Bro. Co., foot of French
street. George, Edwin R., George H.
and Thomas H. Carroll and T. W. Creys.
Business established in 1866.
Constable Brothers, Fifth and Sassafras
streets. E. W. and C. A. Constable.
Business established by Constable (John)
& Jones in 1849. Mills burned November
17, 1888, and promptly replaced.
Felheim, Lyman, Sixteenth and State streets.
Business founded by D. Schlosser in 1873 ;
succeeded b}' Schlosser & Felheim in 1882.
Mills burned in 1885, and immediately re-
built. Firm dissolved in 1887, when Mr.
F. became sole owner.
Gunnison Brothers, 233 East Twenty-second
street. M. L. andO. C. Gunnison. Busi-
ness established in 1872 as a pump works,
by A. B. Gunnison ; planing mill added in
1885. Atthe'death of A. B. Gunnison
passed into the hands of his sons, who
formed the present partnership in 1885.
Johnson, Curtis, Nineteenth and Parade
streets. Mill erected by Siegel & Althof
in 1890 ; leased by Mr. Johnson in April,
1892; partially destroved by fire Septem-
ber 17, 1895.
Schlosser, David, Sassafras and Lake Shore
R. R. Began business at Fourteenth and
French streets in 1873. Started present
mills in 1891.
Shenk, Henry & Co., Twelfth and Sassafras
streets. Business started by Henry Shenk
about 1863. Present mills" built in 1887.
Firm consists of Henry Shenk and sons.
Shroeck, Adolph, 902 East Eleventh street.
Business established and mill built in 1890.
AND HISTORICAL BEPEBENCE BOOK OF EBIE COUNTY.
Weschler's Malt House, Parade and Six-
teenth streets; D. D. Weschler, Manager.
Founded by Jacob Weschler, who built
the malt house on West Ninth street in
1859. First building at Parade and Six-
teenth streets erected in 1883. Largely
added to since.
Erie Nickel Works, Thirteenth and Parade
streets. F. E. Mertens, proprietor. Es-
tablished by A. McArthurin 1880. Bought
by Mertens & Stephenson in 1885.
Keystone Nickel Plating Works, Twelfth,
between Myrtle and Chestnut streets. Wm.
Linberger, Clark C. Middleton. Estab-
lished in March, 1895.
Atlantic Refining Co., Sixteenth and French
streets. D. T. Jones, Manager. Estab-
lished by D. T. Tones in 1860, on present
site, as the Union Oil Co. Passed into
the hands of the Standard Oil Co. in the
summer of 1877, by whom the works are
Eclipse Lubricating Oil Works, Tenth and
Wayne streets. D. T. Jones, Manager;
T. C. Lewis, Superintendent. Founded
by Wright & Hatch in 1863 ; later, 'J hos.
Brown became proprietor. Sold in 1875
to the Standard Oil Co., who now operate
Glen wood Paint Co., Eliot street and Water-
ford plank road. J. Hellmann, J. Metz,
N. Blass, B. E. Stephens, F. Vogt. Or-
ganized in 1893.
PAPER MILL AND CHEMICAL WORKS.
H. F. Watson Co., Sixteenth, Holland
and French streets. H. F. Watson,
President ; R. W. Potter, Secretary ; J. H.
Armstrong, Treasurer. Established by H.
F. Watson in 1874. Present location pur-
chased in 1882. Largely extended since
the original works were erected.
Burdett Piano Co., Twelfth and Walnut
streets. Incorporated September 13, 1895 ;
capital, $30,000. Incorporators, John R.
Brown, Geo. A. Webb, John F. Brown,
James W. Crooks, Jacob Christie. Use
the buildings of the defunct Burdett Or-
gan Co. (See factories discontinued).
Colby Piano Co., Twenty-fifth and Ash
streets. W. J. McCarter, Secretary; J.
E. Patterson, Treasurer; C. C. Colby,
Superintendent. Incorporated August 15,
Shaw Piano Co., Twelfth and Raspberry
streets. M. Griswold, sr.. President; M.
Griswold, jr., Vice-President; H. J. Ray-
more, Secretary; M. E. Griswold, Treas-
urer. Established in March, 1890.
Olds Pump Co., 115 West Twelfth street.
L. W. Olds, George Olds. Started by L. W.
Olds, in 1845, in Mill Creek township;
moved to Erie in 1853. Incorporated in
Reifel, Wm. & Sons, Twelfth street, between
Chestnut and Jvlyrtle. Established in 1878.
Moved to present location m 1888. Since
enlarged and remodeled.
Keystone Rubber Works, Twelfth and East
avenue. Chas. Whitehead, President; N.J.
Whitehead, Treasurer; Chas. Campbell,
Secretary. Founded in the spring of 1882.
Original factory burned in the fall of 1887.
Present works erected in the spring of