Benjamin Young Conklin.

A complete graded course in English grammar and composition online

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ticipial in form only] ; as,

1. Smoking is an injurious habit.

2. Reading is taught in school, yet good reading is rare.

3. Fishing is an important industry of the State of Maine.

648. A participle often performs a twofold office ; as,

1. The venerable orator, rising slowly, addressed the audience.

2. Reading steadily injures the eyes.
8. Chopping wood is good exercise.

4. We enjoy riding in the park.

5. By laboring industriously we achieve success.


u — In 1, rising partakes of the nature of a verb and ot an
adjective. As a verb, it is modified by the adverb slowly, and as an ad-
jective it modifies the noun orator. In 3, chopping partakes of the nature
of a verb, and of a noun. In its verbal sense, it is completed by the object
complement uoood, and as a noun it is (with the rest of the phrase) the sub-
ject of the verb is. In 5, laboring is a participial noun. As a participle
it is modified by the adverb industriously, and as a noun it is the object
of the preposition by. (Laboring is not, however, in the objective case.)
In parsing, say, "Laboring is a present participle used as a noun, and is
the object of the preposition by." ("By laboring industriously " is a
prepositional phrase.)

649. Definition. — A participle is a form of the verb that
merely assumes an act or state, and partakes of the nature of
a verb and of an adjective, or a noun.

Direction. — Define a participle. Select from all the sentences in this
lesson the participles, or the participial phrases; tell the use of each;
mention each of the three general ways in which they are used ; also the
four uses they have as nouns ; and analyze each sentence.


650. Definition. — A simple participle is a single word de-
rived from a verb.

Eemark. — The present and the past participles are the simple

651. The simple participles being, been, and having (used
as auxiliaries), are combined with those derived from other
verbs to form the compound participles :

Simple Participles.


Driving. Driven.

Compound Participles.
( Being driving, ( Being driven,

I Having been driving. < Having driven,

[Seldom used.] ( Having been driven,

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/652. Definition. — A compound participle is a combina-
tion of a simple participle with either of the auxiliary participles
being, having, or having been.

Direction. — Select the participles in the following sentences, tell whether
they are present or past, simple or compound ; mention the phrases, then
analyze and parse:

1. Having been censured for idleness, he resolved to do better.

2. Passing the Rubicon, Caesar marched on to Rome.

3. Having received assistance from my friends, I carried out my plans.

4. A city, set on a hill, can not be hid.

5. Having been expecting him for several days, his arrival did not

surprise us.

6. By endeavoring to please all, we fail to please any.

7. The thief, caught in the act of stealing, confessed his crime be-

fore the judge.

8. Approaching the coast, they saw it covered with a multitude of


9. I found my old friend sitting in bis easy chair.

10. He soon began to be weary of having nothing to do.

11. Having finished his speech, he descended from the platform.

653. Comma Rule. — A participial phrase used as an adjec-
tive should be set off by the comma, unless used in a restrict-
ive sense ; * as,

1. The deer, suddenly lifting its head, detected our presence.

2. The deer standing nearest the lake is looking toward us.
Explanation, — In sentence 1, the participial phrase is used in a paren-
thetical sense to refer to deer, but it is not used to distinguish a particular
deer from any others. In 2, the phrase is used to explain deer by distin-
guishing it from others ; a phrase used in this way is said to be restrictive.

Direction. — Justify the punctuation of the preceding sentences, and
also those in the three preceding lessons.

Questions.— 1. What is a simple participle f 2. Which two participles
are simple f 3. What is a compound participle! 4. What are the differ-
ent uses of participles and participial phrases f 5. What is the rule for
setting off participial phrases? \

* Sometimes a participle is set off by the comma ; as, " The flower, fading, lost
its charm. 11

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654. A participle, or a participial phrase (unless used as a
noun), should always refer to some noun or pronoun expressed
in the sentence.

Faulty Use.
1. Riding to the edge of the
cliff, a merry yachting party was

3. While standing on deck, the
most beautiful landscapes passed in
succession before our eyes.


2. Riding to the edge of the
cliff, we saw a merry yachting

4. While standing on deck, we
beheld a succession of the most

hflftntifnl UTidsrmpftg-

u — In sentence 1, no noun or pronoun is used to which the
participle with its phrase can refer ; therefore, the sentence must be recon-
structed, as in sentence 2, where the participial phrase refers to we. In 3,
there is no word except the possessive our to which the participial phrase
can refer ; but we can not properly say that our were riding to the edge
of the cliff. The sentence must be reconstructed, as in 4.

655. A participle or a participial phrase should be so placed
that there can be no doubt as to the noun or pronoun intended
to be modified.

Faulty Arrangement.
1. A gentleman will let his
house going abroad for the sum-
mer to a small family containing
all the improyejpttrtsr

1. A gentleman, going abroad
for the summer, will let his house,
containing all the improvements,
to a small family. ^-^

By means of participles, we are enabled to express
more smoothly and forcibly in a single sentence what would
otherwise require two or more sentences.

Separate Sentences.

1. His body was found two days
after. It was stretched upon the
ground. His faithful horse was
still standing by his side.

2. The hunter returned to his
tent. He had killed the deer. He
was satisfied.


1. His body was found two days
after, stretched upon the ground,
with his faithful horse still stand-
ing by his side.

2. Having killed the deer, the
hunter returned to his tent satis-

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Directions—Improve the following sentences :

1. She walked with the lamp across the room still burning.

2. I saw twenty meteors sitting on my porch the other evening.

3. Climbing to the top of the hill, the Atlantic Ocean was seen.

4 Standing on the summit of the mountain, a scene of unparalleled
beauty met our view.

Direction. — Condense each of the following sets of statements into a
single sentence, by using participial phrases :

1. I had transacted my business. I wished to be at home the next

day. I left the city by the midnight express.

2. The husbandman was stripped of his harvest He was driven from

his fields. He abandoned himself to idleness.
8. The warriors gathered the bodies of the slain. They strapped them
across their pack-horses. They returned to the village.

4. The general was confronted by a superior force of the enemy. He

was without ammunition. He was compelled to surrender.


657. A participle in its use as a noun may be modified by a
possessive noun or pronoun ; as,

1. Much depends on hia* obeying the rules [his obedience].

2. Hia having decided against you is no proof of malice on his part.

3. Hia being a faithful student f increases his chances for promotion.

4. Hia being called a wit did not make him one.

y Explanation. — In 1, obeying partakes of the nature of a verb and of a
noun. In its use as a verb it takes the object rulea ; in its use as a noun
it is modified by the possessive pronoun his.

658. Caution. — Do not mistake an adjective or a noun ending in ing,
for a present participle ; as,

* This use of the possessive is practiced by the best writers ; and indeed it is some-
times preferable to the objective form of the pronoun, as it often prevents ambiguity,
i. e., the use of doubtful language. In " I am sure of him being a shrewd politician,"
the participle may refer to / or to him. But if I say, " I am sure of hia being a shrewd
politician, 11 it is plain that being does not refer to 7. A better expression, however,
would be, " I am sure that he is a shrewd politician."

t Here the noun student, being used as the attribute complement in a subject
phrase, does not refer to any preceding noun or pronoun ; it is, therefore, used in-
definitely, but is considered to be in the nominative case.

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1. He is an enterprising man.

2. He is willing to go. [Not from the verb to will.]

8. In the country, the evening paper is received on the next morning.

Promiscuous Sentences for Analysis and Parsing.

1. "He is but a landscape-painter,

And a village maiden she.*'

2. " Ah, well I for us all some sweet hope lies

Deeply buried from human eyes."
8. "Rock of Ages, cleft for me,
Let me hide myself in thee."

4. "Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,

And waste its sweetness on the desert air."

5. By teaching others, we improve ourselves.

6. His being a foreigner prevented his election.

7. Having been riding all day over a rough road, I gladly accepted

my friend's hospitality.

8. Let the conceited simpleton learn the hard lessons of experience.

9. We traveled thence to Oxford, stopping on the way at Woodstock

to visit Blenheim Palace.

10. At daybreak, the combined fleets were distinctly seen from the
Victory's deck, formed in close line of battle ahead, about twelve miles
to leeward, and standing to the north.


1. The wind blew and the sea roared.

2. "We will start at sunrise.

3. We will start when the sun rises.

Explanation, — Sentence 1 is compound, consisting of two co-ordinate
sentences ; i. e., two members of equal rank, the second being joined to
the first as something additional. In the simple sentence 2, the phrase
at sunrise is adverbial, and modifies the verb will start. At sunrise =
when the sun rises ; therefore, in 3, the whole sentence when the sun rises
is adverbial in use, denoting when, and modifying the verb will start.
The adverb when connects the sun rises to the verb will start, and also
modifies the verb rises, thus performing a twofold office, that of con*

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nective and also of adverbial modifier. When is therefore called a con-
junctive adverb.

The sentence " We will start " is the principal part of the sentence,
but when the sun rises, being adverbial in use, is a dependent element.
These two elements, one of which is principal, and the other dependent,
are called clauses instead of members, as in a compound sentence.

Sentence 3, being composed of a principal and a dependent (modify-
ing) clause is called a complex sentence.

659. Definition. — A complex sentence is one composed
of a principal clause, and one or more dependent clauses.

660. Definition. — A coiytmctive adverb is one that modi-
fies the verb in the clause of which it forms a part, and joins
such clause to some word in the principal clause.

661. Conjunctive Adverbs. — Bow, why, where, when, while, whence,
whither, wherefore, as, before, after, till, until, however, wherever, when-
ever, since, therefore, because, as soon as, as far as, etc.

Direction. — Determine which of the following sentences are simple,
which complex, which compound, and give reasons. Also tell which word
in the principal clause is modified by the adverbial clause :

1. He drove the horse before he bought him. 2. I answered him
when he spoke to me. 3. I will listen to you, but I will not dispute with
you. 4. The book remains where I left it. 5. Our army went into winter
quarters, the enemy retreated beyond the river, and the country was again
quiet. 6. I love him because he is kind to me. 7. When I was a boy, I
used always to choose the wrong side of the debate. 8. As I drew near
the camp, I heard a loud shout. 9. The man, thoroughly frightened, fled
from the house. 10. He has written some things hard to be understood.
11. While the band played, the soldiers rested. 12. Washington retreated
from Long Island because his army was outnumbered.

Note.— Sentence 7 is inverted. The dependent clause, standing first,
requires a comma" after it.

Comma Rule. — When a subordinate clause introduces a sen-
tence, it should be set off by the comma.

Question!. — 1. What is a compound sentence f 2. What does co-ordi-
nate meant 3. What are members! 4. What is a complex sentence! 5.
What are clauses! 6. What is a conjunctive adverb! 7. Mention the
conjunctive adverbs! 8. What kind of element is an adverbial clause!

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662. In analyzing a complex sentence, state —

1. The class. 3. The dependent clause.

2. The principal clause. 4. The connective.

5. The analysis of the separate clauses.

Model for Oral Analysis.

1. The farmer smoked his pipe of clay while he sat in his easy chair.

663. This is a complex declarative sentence. The principal clause is,
" The farmer smoked his pipe of clay," and the dependent clause, " while
he sat in his easy chair," the connective being the conjunctive adverb
while. The simple subject of the principal clause is farmer, modified by
the. The predicate-verb is smoked, modified by the dependent clause while
he eat, etc. The object complement pipe is modified by the possessive
pronoun his and the adjective phrase of clay. The subject he in the
dependent clause is unmodified. The predicate-verb eat is modified by
the adverb while and the adverbial phrase in his easy chair.

Model for Written Analysis.

2. The farmer smoked his pipe of clay while he sat in his easy chair.


Principal clause

Dependent clause


Simple sub. in prin. clause
Predicate-verb in prin. cl.

Object complement

Simple sub. in dep. clause

Complex declarative.

The farmer smoked his pipe of clay.

While he sat in his easy chair.

While, a conjunctive adverb.

Farmer, modified by tfte.

Smoked, mod. by the dep. cl. while he sat, etc.

Pipe, mod. by his and the adj. phrase of clay.

He, unmodified.

Predicate-verb in dep. cl. ; Sat, mod. by while and the phrase in his

easy chair.


1 2

The farmer smoked his pipe of clay while he sat in his easy chair.


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Model for Oral Analysis.

1. Our weakened forces feared to more forward while the enemy,
encamped beyond the river, were closely watching us.

This is a complex declarative sentence. The principal clause is, " Our
weakened forces feared to move forward," and the dependent clause,
" while the enemy, encamped beyond the river, were closely watching us,"
the connective being the conjunctive adverb while. The simple subject
in the principal clause is forces, modified by the possessive pronoun our,
and by the participial adjective weakened. The predicate-verb is feared,
which is completed by the infinitive object phrase to move forward, in
which the principal part is the verb to move, modified by the adverb for-
ward and by the dependent adverbial clause while the enemy, etc. The
subject enemy, in the dependent clause, is modified by the and by the
participial phrase encamped beyond the river. The predicate-verb were
watching is modified by the adverb closely, and completed by the object
complement us. In the participial phrase, encamped is the principal word,
modified by the adverbial phrase beyond the river.

Sentences for Analysis.

1. Pools rush in where angels fear to tread. 2. When the morning
dawned, all doubts and fears were dispelled. 3. "We arrived at the landing
after the steamer had left. 4 She is far from the land where her young
hero sleeps. 5. When the western sky is red in the evening, we may ex-
pect pleasant weather. 6. When Nature removes great men, the people
explore the horizon to find a successor. 7. While the world lasts, fashion
will continue to lead it by the nose. 8. Speak well of the absent when-
ever you have the opportunity. 9. America can not be reconciled till the
troops of Britain are withdrawn. 10. The ostrich is unable to fly because
it has not wings in proportion to the size of its body. 11. When snow
accumulates on the ground in winter, it is useful in keeping the earth at a
moderate degree of cold. 12. When Columbus had finished speaking, the
sovereigns sunk upon their knees.

Direction.— After analyzing these sentences, parse each conjunctive
adverb according to the following model :

664. Parsing Model. — In sentence 1, where is a conjunctive adverb.
As a conjunction it connects the dependent clause " where angels fear to
tread " with the principal clause " Fools rush in." As an adverb it modi-
fies the verb fear.

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Abbreviation of Complex Sentences.

665. A complex sentence is often changed to a simple one
by abridging the adverbial clause into a participial phrase ; as,

1. When Columbus had accomplished his object, he returned to Spain.

2. Columbus, having accomplished his object, returned to Spain.

Direction. — Change the following complex sentences to simple ones :

1. When we reached the hotel, we dismounted.

2. When we reached the top of the hill, we saw the beautiful Hudson.

3. When the war was ended, the army was disbanded.

4. As we walked along, we came suddenly upon a nest of quails.

5. I did not attend the meeting because I was ill.

6. When night came on we gave up the chase.

7. Since he was a worthless man he could not be respected by his



1. Large enterprises require men, and the men must be


2. Large enterprises require men who are wealthy.

3. I have sold the house which stands on yonder hill.

4. My father planted the tree that shades the lawn.

Explanation. — In the compound sentence 1, men is repeated unneces-
sarily. In 2, who takes the place of the three words in italics, thus
making the sentence shorter, and the language smoother. Who being
used more especially instead of the noun men is a pronoun, and is the sub-
ject of the verb are. Who, then, forms a part of the clause who are
wealthy, and it also joins its clause to the antecedent men in the principal
clause. In 3, which is the subject of the clause which stands on yonder
hill, and. also joins the clause to the antecedent house. In 4, that is the
subject of the clause that shades the lawn, and also joins the clause to
the antecedent tree.

666. We see, then, that who, which, and that are used in these sen-
tences as connectives, and also as pronouns', they are, therefore, some-
times called conjunctive pronouns. They are, however, usually called
relative pronouns. *

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Adjective Clauses.

667. As has already been learned, a modifying element
may be a word, a phrase, or a clause :

1. Large enterprises require wealthy men.

2. Large enterprises require men of wealth.

3. Large enterprises require men who are wealthy.

Explanation. — In 1, wealthy is an adjective modifying men. In 2, the
phrase of wealth also performs an adjective office. In 3, the clause who
are wealthy performs the same office as of wealth in 2, or wealthy in 1 ;
therefore who are wealthy is an adjective clause modifying the antecedent
men in the principal clause. Sentence 3 is a complex sentence, being
composed of a principal and a dependent clause.

Questions. — 1. Which is the relative pronoun in 2 of the first set of
sentences f 2. What is its antecedent f 3. What is the office of the clause
who are wealthy % 4 What kind of sentence is 3f 5. Why! 6. What
kind of sentence is 4f 7. Why! 8. What part of speech is that in 41
9. What is its antecedent! 10. What two offices does it perform! 11.
What kind of element is who are wealthy, in sentence 3 [667] !


668. Definition. — A relative pronoun is a pronoun used to
relate to an antecedent word and to connect with it a depend-
ent clause.

Note. — The clause, of which the relative forms a part, is called a
relative clause ; it performs an adjective office, modifying the antecedent
of the relative pronoun.

669. Position of the Relative Clause. — The relative pro-
noun, with its clause, should stand as near as possible to its

This rule of arrangement often places the relative clause between the
subject and predicate of the principal clause ; as, " He that steals my purse
steals trash." Sometimes a word or a phrase modifying the antecedent,
properly separates it from the relative clause ; as, " In a moment my pur-
suers appeared on the bank above me, which here rose to the height of
twenty feet?

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Direction. — Improve the following sentences by a re-arrangement of
elauses, and by other necessary changes :

1. The figs were in small wooden boxes, which we ate.

2. He should first count the cost, who intends to build a house.

8. Some streams are entirely dry in summer, that are roaring torrents

in winter.
4 A young man recently cut his foot while bathing with a clam-shell.

5. A great river was discovered by De Soto, which the Indians named


6. I have bought a house, located in a pleasant village, which has a

bay-window in front.

7. The couple left for the East on the night train, where they will


8. The farmer went to his neighbor and told him that his* cattle

were in his fields.
Questions. — 1. What is a relative pronoun! 2. What is a relative
clause! 3. What is the proper position of a relative in a sentence! 4.
Where is a relative clause generally placed when it modifies the subject of
a verb! 5. What word does each relative clause modify in the sentences
just corrected ! 6. In which sentence is thai not a relative !


670. The simple relative pronouns are who, which,
that, as, and what.

671. The compound relatives are whoever, whosoever, whichever \
whichsoever, whatever, and whatsoever. [Also, whoso by abbreviation.]

672. Who, which. — Who is used to represent persons only.
Which is used to represent things, and animals inferior to
man; as,

1. Longfellow is the poet who wrote " Evangeline."

2. He who labors faithfully will be rewarded.

8. The horse which threw his rider galloped away.
4. I had a dream, which was not all a dream.
Remark. — The antecedent of who is sometimes understood; as, [He]
"who steals my purse steals trash."

* Any pronoun should be so used that no doubt can arise as to which word is its


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673. Who and which have case forms; the other simple
relatives have none.


Norn. Who, Norn. Which.

P088, Whose, Poss. Whose.

Obj. Whom, Obj. Which.

674. That may be used in place of who or which to repre-
sent persons, animals, or things.

675. That is preferred to who or which :

(1) After two antecedents, one requiring who and the other which ; as,
The lady and her dog that just passed us, walk out together every day.

(2) After a collective noun denoting unity; as, The army thai was
defeated suffered great privations.

(3) After the superlative degree; as, These are the best apples that
grow on this farm.

(4) After who, as an interrogative, to avoid repetition ; as, Who that
knows him will doubt his honesty f

(5) When it introduces a restrictive clause [680] ; as, People that live
in glass houses should not throw stones.

(6) Generally, after all, any, each, every, no, same, or very ; as, This
is the same lesson that we had yesterday.

Remark. — That is a relative only when who, whom, or which can be
substituted for it. When that is not a relative, it is a conjunction, an
adjective, or an adjective pronoun.

676. As is a relative pronoun when it follows suc\ same,
or many; as, He selected such apples as pleased him [the
apples that pleased him].

677. What.* — What is used to represent things only, and

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Online LibraryBenjamin Young ConklinA complete graded course in English grammar and composition → online text (page 18 of 24)